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M.A.. LL.D. (Hon.) Aberd., M.D.Lond.. F.R.C.P. 

Consulting Physician to Charing Cross Hospital and to 
the Hospital for Consumption, Brompton. Formerly 
Examiner in Medicine in the University of Cambridge, 
and on an Examining Board in England, and Examiner 
in Materia Medica in the University of London and in 
the Victoria University 

Assisted by 


M.B., Ch.B.Aberd. 

Lecturer in Pharmacology, Aberdeen University. 

Formerly First Assistant in Pharmacology, Rostock 



Fifty-Fourth Thousand 


London, New York, Toronto and Melbourne 

First Edition May 1884. 

Beprinted May 1885. Revised April 1886. Reprinted October 1SS6, September 

1887, May 1888, Airril 1889, Febrmry 18V>0. Revised January 1891." 

Reprinted September 1891, Jime 1892. Revised October 1893. 

Reprinted September 1894, ^Msr?<s« 1895, May 189fi, 3Aai/ 1897. 

Revised and Enlarged Edition March 1899. 

Reprinted March 1900, ^Kfirwsf 1901. Revised 3farcA 1903. 

Revised and Enlarged Edition September 1905. 

Revised Edition August 1907 i- Reprinted January 1910. 

Revised Edition June 1912. 



In the preparation of the present edition of this 
work the author has had the assistance of 
Dr. Dilling. Whilst the characters of it which 
secured the success of previous editions are in no 
respect altered, many changes have been effected 
throughout the text which were necessitated by the 
rapid advance of Pharmacological Chemistry in 
particular, as well as of Physiology, Pathology and 
Therapeutics. Such of the many new drugs intro- 
duced during the last few years as have stood the 
test of employment in practice — for example. Radium, 
the organic compounds of several of the metals, 
and certain synthetic preparations — are now incor- 
porated. The chemical constitution and the pharma- 
cological actions of the vegetable Materia Medica, 
particularly those of drugs of great therapeutical 
value like Opium, Digitalis, Cocaine and Ergot, have 
been carefully revised. The many advances lately 
made in Physiology, especially in our knowledge of 
digestion and the circulation, have called for con- 
siderable changes in the section on General Thera- 
peutics. Finally, there will be found in the Appendix 

vi Preface to Ninth Edition. 

an account of a variety of substances and measures 
that are still unofficial — that is, are awaiting recogni- 
tion, or the reverse, in the next edition of tlie British 
Pharmacopoeia. Of these, Organotherapy is briefly 
but sufficiently noticed. Ionic Medication and its 
diffigrent applications are introduced for the first 
time. But the greater part of the Appendix is 
devoted to the important subject of Vaccine- therapy. 
A number of vaccines are succinctly described in 
respect of the methods of their preparation, their 
dosage, their actions, and the principles and practice 
of their employment therapeutically. It is believed 
that this section furnishes the student of Materia 
Medica with a sufficient introduction to a method of 
treatment which at present appears to be highly 
promising of success. 

J. M. B. 

May, 1912. 


In the preparation of the seventh edition the work 
has been subjected to thorough revision, and brought 
up to the level of our latest knowledge. An entirely 
new Part has been added, which contains an account 
of the materia medica and therapeutics of the drugs 
in the Indian and Colonial Addendum to the British 
Pharmacopoeia. Another change of some importance"^ 
which the author believes will be regarded as an 
improvement, is the introduction of greater detail 
respecting the chemical and pharmaceutical relations 
of the individual drugs. In consequence of these 
additions and alterations, the work has been enlarged 
by forty-eight pages. 

The Author has to thank many friends for valuable 
advice and assistance. To Dr. John Harold he is 
under the greatest obligations. Mr. Carter Braine 
has kindly revised the section on Anaesthetics in the 
light of recent advances in this important subject. 
The author again desires to express his gratitude to 
the many ciitics who have either publicly or privately 
communicated to him their opinions of former editions 

viii Preface to Seventh Edition. 

of this work, and who have been pleased to regard 
with favour the attempt which has been made in it to 
render Pharmacology and Therapeutics not only in- 
telligible and rational, but at the same time a more 
agreeable subject of study to the pupils and practi- 
tioners of medicine. 

Awjnst, 1905. 


This book is chiefly therapeutical in its scope, and 
is intended to be a rational guide to the student 
and practitioner of medicine in the treatment of 
disease. At the same time the Materia Medica 
has not been sacrificed. On the contrary, it will 
be found to be set forth in detail by the adoption 
of a natural and concise arrangement, which pre- 
sents the subject in such a form that it can be 
quickly appreciated and easily remembered. The 
Author attaches importance to the plan which he 
has adopted in the description of the Special Thera- 
peutics, and which consists in systematically tracing 
the physiological actions and uses of the different 
drugs in their passage through the body, from their 
first contact with it locally until they are eliminated 
in the secretions. In the part of the Manual 
devoted to General Therapeutics he has further de- 
parted from the ordinary arrangement, by discussing 
the actions and uses of remedies, not under the 
headings of artificial groups, but of the physiological 
systems of the body (digestion, respiration, etc.), so 
as to conduct the student from facts with which he 

X Preface to First Edition. 

is familiar to the great principles of treatment. In 
using the book the first year's student is recom- 
mended to confine his attention to the Materia 
Medica proper ; and under the actions and uses of 
the drugs, to read only the words printed in thick 

The Author gratefully acknowledges the valuable 
assistance which he has received in the preparation 
of the work from his friends Dr. Quain, Dr. Lauder 
Brunton, and Dr. Frederick Roberts; from his 
brother, Dr. William Bruce of Dingwall; from Mr. 
Woodhouse Braine, who kindly sketched the section 
on the use of anaesthetics , and from his friend and 
former class-assistant, Mr. A. C. N. Goldney, who 
has relieved him of much labour by superintending 
the pharmaceutical portions, drawing up lists, and 
compiling the index. 

The many standard treatises on Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics in this and other countries have 
been freely consulted, especially Nothnagel and Ross- 
bach's " Arzneimittellehre," Husemann's ** Arznei- 
mittellehre," the works of Wood and Bartholow, and 
the useful volumes of Squire and Martindale. 




Table of Equivalent Doses in the Imperial and 

Metbic Systems 31 


Group 1. Alkalis and Alkaline Earths ... 33 

2. Metals G5 

3. Non-Metallic Elements .... 123 

4. Acids 142 

5. Water and Hydrogen Peroxide . . 155 

6. Carbon Compounds ... . 157 


Group 1. The Vegetable Kingdom .... 213 

„ 2. The Animal Kingdom 427 



Chapter I. Introduction : The Foundations op 

Rational Treatment .... 465 

,, II. Digestion— The Mouth .... 471 

,, III. Digestion {continued)— Tue Stomach . 478 

„ IV. Emetics and Vomiting .... 489 

„ V. Digestion (cwziinued)— The Duodenum . 495 

„ VI. The Intestine 500 

,. VIL The Livkb 613 



Chapter VIII. The Blood 

., IX. Metabolism — The Actions of 

Medicines .... 
„ X. The Circulatory System . 

„ XI. The Kespiratory System . 

,, XII. The Nervods System 

XIII. The Kidneys .... 
,, XIV. The Body-Heat and its Regcla 

tion : The Skin 

,, XV. Therapeutical Processes connected 

WITH the Surface of the Body 

Substances which act upon the Pupil . . . . 

Substances which act upon the Generative Organs . 

Classified Tables op the Pharmaceutical Prepara 
tions of the British Pharmacopqiia 



Iontophoresis or Ionic Medication 
Radium and Radium Bromide . 













Materia Medica and Therapeutics relate to the 
use of drugs and other natural means in the treat- 
ment of disease. The place which these subjects 
occupy in the Medical Sciences lies, therefore, 
between Chemistry, Botany, Anatomy and Physio- 
logy on the one hand, and Medicine and Surgery on 
the other hand ; while they stand side by side with 
Pathology, the other stepping-stone from the more 
purely scientific to the more strictly practical portions 
of professional education. The student will now be 
able to turn to account his acquaintance with 
Chemistry and Biology, and to appreciate the fact 
that these sciences are the true foundations of all 
professional knowledge ; and when he has reached 
the end of the volume he may anticipate with some 
confidence a personal introduction to the treatment 
of disease. 

Let us consider what subjects are comprised under 
the title " Materia Medica and Therapeutics." 

Materia medica is a term applied to the materials 
or substances used in medicine, their names, sources, 
physical characters and chemical properties, the pre- 
parations made from them, and the doses in which 
they may be given. 

Therapeutics relates to the treatment of disease. 

2 Therapeutics. 

the word signifying healing, from defjairevui, I attend^ 
heal or treat. It includes, therefore, all that relates 
to the science and art of healing, by the use not 
merely of the materia medica, but of remedial 
measures of every kind, including diet, climate, 
baths, clothing, nursing, and the numerous other 
means which may be combined to restore health, 
not the least important being surgical treatment. 
This definition is too comprehensive for our present 
purpose, which is concerned with medicinal thera- 
peutics, i.e. the uses of the materia medica. When 
this subject is discussed under the head of each 
article of the materia medica, as it comes before us 
in natural order, it is known by the name of the 
special therapeutics of that article. Materia medica 
and special therapeutics will constitute the first, second 
and third Parts of the work. 

When the numerous and complex facts of special 
therapeutics are collected, examined and grouped, 
certain broad conclusions may be drawn from them, 
unfortunately still far from exact, but sufiicient to 
furnish the ground-work for a science of general thera- 
peutics. This portion of our subject will be considered 
in the concluding Part of the work. 

Certain other terms, variously related to the pre- 
ceding, must be defined here. 

Pharmacodynamics {<i>(\pjiaKoVi a drug, that is, 
either a medicine or a poison, and Ivva^iq, 2^ower) is 
a convenient name for that part of our subject which 
relates to the actions of dinigs upon the healthy indi- 
vidual, or, in other words, the physiological actions 
of drugs. In the first division of this work the 
term " actions " simply will be used to express the 
same meaning. 

Pharmacology (^ap/Lxa/cov, a drug, and \uyor, 
a discoicrse) is a term employed in various senses. 
With the older writers in Great Britain it is the science 

The Fharmacopceia. 3 

that relates to the chemical and physiological pro- 
perties of drugs, their selection and preparation, the 
extraction of their active principles, and the com- 
bination of these with others. The word Pharmaco- 
logy was next used as a convenient term for the 
whole subject of materia medica and therapeutics. 
It is now generally employed, instead of " Pharmaco- 
dynamics," to designate the actions of medicines. 

Pharmacy {(papfxaKevTiKi]) is the name applied to 
the art which corresponds with the science of pharma- 
cology, the art of making the preparations ordered by 
the pharmacologist, and of dispensing the combinations 
prescribed by the therapeutist. In such a work as 
the present, the details of pharmacy must be mainly 
omitted. They have to be learned practically in the 
dispensary or pharmaceutical laboratory, not by rote 
from a book. 


The number of drugs used from time immemorial 
is enormous, and comparatively few are now believed 
to be really useful. In order to separate the valuable 
drugs from such as are supposed to be worthless, 
books have been published from time to time by 
the governments or medical authorities of difierent 
countries, which furnish an authoritative description 
of the drugs generally recognised and used by the 
profession, and of the preparations made from them, 
which have thus become official or officinal. These 
books are known as pharmacopoeias {<papfxaKoyj a 
drug, and Troiiu), I make). In Great Britain, Ireland, 
the Colonies, and India there is the British Pharmaco- 
poeia, which provides a fairly accurate list of the drugs 
and preparations in use at the time of its publication. 
But as pharmacology is a rapidly advancing science, 
especially from the direction of chemistry and phar 
macodynamics, and as opinion is very unsettled on the 
subject of therapeutics, the pharmacopoeias of difierent 

4 Plan of this Book. 

countries differ greatly ; and the pharmacopoeia of any 
given country neither is accepted at the time of its 
publication as perfect in itself and to be followed as 
an article of faith, nor remains a correct representa- 
tion of professional opinion for any great length of 
time. It is, however, a necessary provision for insur- 
ing the purity of medicines supplied to the public 
and a valuable medium of communication between 
the physician and the pharmaceutical chemist. It 
furnishes them with formulae for a great variety 
of preparations of definite composition, and with an 
immense amount of information respecting drugs 
which is necessary in selecting these, in combining 
them and in devising fresh preparations. 


In the Pharmacopoeia the materia medica and its 
} reparations are arranged alphabetically for conveni- 
ence of reference ; a systematic treatise presents them 
in the following natural order : — 

Pabt I.— The Inorganic Materia Medica. 

Grovp 1. Alkalis and Alkaline Earths. 
„ 2. Metals. 

„ 3. Non-metallic Elements. 
„ 4. Acids. 

„ 5. Water and Hydrogen Peroxide. 
„ G. Carbon Compounds, 

Part II.— The Organic Materia Medica. 

Group 1. The VegeUible Kingdom. 
„ 2. The Animal Kingdom. 

Part III.— Indian and Colonial Drugs. 

Each article will be discussed under several distinct 
and definite headings, which are as follow : The 
Tuxvies of the drug in Latin and in English, its chemical 
formula^ if any, and the definition of its nature ; its 

Pharmaceutical Processes, s 

source ; its characters ; its composition ; its doses ; the 
preparations made from it ; and its actions and uses. 

General reference must here be made to each of 
these headings. 


These are sufficiently indicated by the above plan 
in the case of the inorganic materia medica. It 
includes many of the chemical elements, and a great 
variety of compounds of the same. 

Vegetable drugs are derived from entire plants, 
including fungi and lichens, stems (woods), green tops 
and twigs, roots and rhizomes, barks, leaves, buds, 
flowers, parts of flowers and flowering tops, fruits and 
seeds ; and various vegetable products, including fixed 
and volatile oils, resins, oleo-resins, balsams, gums, 
gum-resins, inspissated juices and secretions. The 
animal materia medica includes entire animals, por- 
tions of animals, and products yielded either during 
life or after death. 

The phapmaeeutieal processes for obtaining 
drugs from their crude sources will generally bo 
given, and must be learned by the student, who 
should repeat practically for himself as many as 
possible of the easier methods. Most of these are 
already familiar to him in chemistry, such as solution^ 
filtration^ evaporation^ crystallisation, precipitation^ 
decantation, calcination, sublimation, distillation, 
destructive distillation, digestion and washing. A 
few specially pharmaceutical processes require to be 

Pulverisation, the powdering of drugs, is done on 
a large scale in powerful drug-mills. On a small scale 
it may be done by simple trituration (triturare, to 
pound), in the dry state ; by levigation (levigare, to 
make smooth or tine) or rubbing down with the aid 
of a little fluid, the resulting paste being afterwards 

6 Pharmaceutical Processes. 

dried ; or by mediate pulverisation, in which some 
very hard substance or medium is mixed with the 
drug, so as to break up its substance thoroughly. 
Powdered drugs necessarily require sifting, 

Elutriation (elutriare, from eluere, to wash out) 
consists in diffusing an insoluble powder in water, 
allowing only the heavier part to settle, and decanting 
the fluid ; allowing this again to settle for a longer 
time, so as to deposit a second or finer size of powder, 
and again decanting ; and repeating the operation 
indefinitely until an extreme degree of fineness has 
been reached. 

Lixiviation (lix, a lye) is a process of washing an 
ash or crude mixture of solids, for the purpose of dis- 
solving out the constituents in the form of a lye, or 
water impregnated with salts. 

Granulation is the production of an intimate 
mechanical combination of several salts and other 
crystalline bodies in the form of granules, by sub- 
jecting a mixture of the dry constituents in a dish 
or a pan to a heat of between 200° and 220° F. and 
employing careful manipulation, including assidu- 
ous stirring. The granules thus formed are then 
assorted by sifting, and dried at a temperature not 
exceeding 130° F. 

Maceration, Percolation, and certain other phar- 
maceutical processes of particular importance will 
be described in connection with Preparations (p. 18). 


Tliis part of the description of drugs must be 
studied practically. The characters of a drug are 
(1) physical and (2) chemical. (1) In learning the 
physical characters, the student uses the Manual as 
his guide, and carefully examines specimens of drugs, 
noting, with raspect to each article, its general appear- 
ance, whether liquid, solid, crystalline, etc. ; its colour. 

Characters of Drugs. 7 

its weighty its smdl^ and its taste (if non-poisonous). 
(2) When convenient, his examination of the drug 
should follow the pharmacopoeial account further, and 
include the determination of its chemical characters, 
%.e. its pharmaceutical chemistry, including its reaction; 
its solubility in water, alcohol, ether, oils, etc. ; and 
the ej^ects of heat on it — volatility, fusibility, etc. The 
student is expected to know the ordinary tests for the 
salts, including in each instance {a) the tests for the 
m£tal^ (6) the tests for the acid, and (c) any special 
test there may be for the compound. In the case of 
inorganic salts, such as Copper Sulphate, these tests 
are purely matters of elementary chemistry, with 
which the student of materia medica is already fami- 
liar ; and in this work they will therefore be given 
only in a condensed form at the end of the account 
of each metallic element and of each acid respectively. 
The important reactions characteristic of the organic 
compounds, such as Morphine and Strychnine, will be 
stated fully under each. Other chemical properties 
bearing on the pharmaceutical applications of a drug 
may have to be studied, especially its incompatibility 
with other drugs, which prevents their combination 
in prescriptions. 

Impurities. — Along with the characters, the 
student has, in many instances, to note impurities, 
and the methods of distinguishing substances so 
like each other as to be very readily confounded. 
Impurities may be the result of the imperfect 
selection, preservation, or preparation of drugs, in- 
cluding chemical decomposition of every kind ; or of 
fraudulent adulteration. Similarity is, of course, a 
matter of accident, but may give rise to serious error. 

The tests of purity applied to iiiorga^iic drugs are 
mainly such as are familiar to the student of che- 
mistry ; and to avoid constant repetition the most 
common of them will be represented here once for all : 

Impurities of Drugs. 

from the 
sources of 
the drug, or 
formed in 
the process 
of manu- 
facture and 

^ Water 

Organic matter 
Sulphuric acid 




Carbonic acid 


Nitric acid 



2. Impurities /iir„4.„i„ 
^ ^ ^; ^^/i Metals, 

from the-^ 


used \ 

3. Insufficient \ 

pecially lead, 
iron, and 


adultera- i 

''Various colour- 
ed earths 
Cheap salts 


Detected hy : 
Bibulous paper ; dampness ; 

loss of weight by heat 
Blackening on heating 
White precipitate with 

White precipitate witli 

AgNOa, insol. in HNOn. 
Yellow precipitate with 

AgNOg, soluble in HNO3 

and in NH4HO. 
Precipitate with lime-water ; 

effervescence with acids 
Zinc and HCl, which yield 

H2SO4 and FeS04, which 

give a brown ring between 

the two fluids 
White precipitate with 

ammonium oxalate 
Yellow precipitate with HoS. 

Precipitates with (NH4)2S, 
or HjS ; and special tests 

Volumetric tests 

Non-volatility ; insolubility 

in HNO3. 
Various tests 
Blue colour with iodine 
Evaporation ; quantitative 

EfTcrvescence with acids 

In the case of organic drugs, impurities are chiefly 
to be detected by careful physical examination and 
special quantitative tests. 


The composition of the inorganic drugs is expressed 
by their names and formulie. On the other hand, the 
organic drugs are frequently highly complex, the chief 

Composition of Drugs. 9 

proximate principles being the following : Fixed oilo, 
volatile oils, resins, oleo-resins, gums, gum-resins, 
balsams, pectin, alkaloids, acids, neutral substances, 
glucosides, starch, sugar, cellulose, albuminous sub- 
stances, ferments, colouring matters, salts, and extrac- 
tives. Some of these demand general consideration 

A Fixed Oil, Oleum, is extracted by expression 
(if possible, without the aid of heat) from the 
seeds or fruits of plants, or from animal tissues. Fixed 
oils are compounds of fatty acids (oleic ISl^Q^^^zz^^^ 
palmitic HjC^jjHg^Oo, and stearic HjCjgHgjOo, as well 
as others less common) with the radical glyceryl C3H5. 
With caustic alkalis or metallic oxides they form 
SOStpS ; the metal combining with the acids, and dis- 
placing the glyceryl, which is hydrated and becomes 
glycerin C3H,(OH)3. 

3NaOH + C3H53C18H33O2 = SNaCigHssOa -r C3H5(OH)3. 
Sodium Glyceryl Oleate Sodium Oleate Glyceryl Hy- 

Hydrate. (Vegetable Oil). (Hard Soap). drate (Glycerin). 

Volatile Oils ; Resins ; Oleo-resins ; Balsams. — A 
volatile oil. Oleum, is obtained mainly by distillation 
from entire plants, flowers, fruits or seeds. Most 
volatile oils are colourless when pure, and highly 
aromatic. They are of very diff'erent composition. 
The simplest consist of a liquid hydrocarbon or 
elceoptene, generally isomeric or identical with 
terpene, the hydrocarbon of oil of turpentine CjoHjg ; 
and of an oxydised hydrocarbon, usually a solid 
crystalline body, or stearopiene, like camphor Cj^HjgO. 
Mixed with these in many instances are various 
resins, fatty and other acids, and other vegetable 
constituents. A few volatile oils contain sulphur and 
nitrogen. Volatile oils are only sufficiently soluble 
in water to communicate their odour and taste to it; 

lo Composition of Drugs. 

they are soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform. 
Further oxydation converts part of a volatile oil into 
a resin^ Resina, a solid, brittle non-volatile body, in- 
soluble in water, soluble in alcohol, and forming a soap 
with an alkali ; and thus gives rise to an oleo-reain, 
which can be broken up into its two constituents by 
distillation. Resins or oleo-resins yielding benzoic or 
cinnamic acids are called true balsams. 

A Gum, Gummi, is an exudation from the stems 
of plants. Gums consist of two rather complex carbo- 
hydrates, arahin CigHogOj^, or arable acid HgOijHjg 
OiQ,H20 (or a similar molecule containing other 
multiple of CgHjQOj), and bassorin or tragacanthin 
C12H20O1Q, which play the part of acid radicals, and 
exist in gums as salts of calcium, magnesium and 
potassium. Arabin is soluble in water : bassorin is 
not soluble, but swells into a gelatinoid mass ; the 
whole product being called a mucilage,. Pectin, vege- 
table jelly, C^^^f)c,^,\i^cP, occurs in a few medicinal 
plants, and, like the mucilage yielded by several others, 
is allied to gum. Gum-resins are natural or artificial 
exudations from plants, containing various propoHions 
of gums and resins, or more frequently of gums, resins 
and volatile oils. When finely powdered, and rubbed 
with water, gum -resins yield an emulsion, in which the 
fine particles of the undissolved resin are held in suspen- 
sion by the mucilage or aqueous solution of the gum. 

Alkaloids are active nitrogenous principles formed 
within organic bodies, and may be regarded as com- 
})Ound ammonias. They resemble alkalis in turning 
red litmus-paper blue, and form salts with acids. As 
a rule, they are crystalline solids, rarely liquids ; 
sparingly soluble in water, but readily in alcohol, the 
solution being bitter. 

Organic acids of great variety exist in plants, com- 
bined with the inorganic bases — such as potassium 
and calcium, with alkaloids, or possibly free. 

Prepara TIONS, 1 1 

Neutral suhstances are a very large and mixed 
group, including : the carbohydrates, such as starch, 
sugars, gums, etc. ; albuminous bodies, which occa- 
sionally act as ferments ; a few bitter principles j and 
many of the glacosides. 

Glucod'Hes are chiefly neutral bodies, capable of 
being decomposed by acids, alkalis or ferments, in the 
presence of water, into glucose and a second sub- 
stance which is different in each instance. Saponins 
are nitrogen-free glucosides, solutions of which froth 
on shaking and emulsify fats and resins. 


The Pharmacopoeia suggests the limits within 
which the different substances and their preparations 
may be given to an adult with safety and advantage. 
These must be carefully learned. The principles of 
dosage will be discussed presently (page 25). 


The list of preparations made from the drug, with 
the principal ingredients, strength, and doses of each, 
will conclude the account of its pharmacy. This 
subject demands careful consideration. 

INIost drugs possess such characters that it is 
absolutely necessary to prepare them for administra- 
tion. Thus, if we take, as examples, Sulphur, one of 
the elements ; Colocynthidis Pulpa, the dried pulp of 
a fruit ; Jalapa, a tuber ; and Cantharis, a dried 
beetle; it is manifest that few of these could be 
brought into useful contact with the body in their 
native form. Preparations must be made from them, 
and for several reasons we must have a variety of pre- 
parations. Firstly, as we have just seen, drugs exist 
in various forms. Secondly, a substance may contain 
several active principles, soluble in different media,. 

I a Prep A ra tions. 

which it may or may not be desirable to extract 
togetlier or separately. Thirdly, we constantly wish to 
obtain combinations of drugs, so as to increase, 
diminish, or otherwise modify the action of each, or to 
obtain combined action. Fourthly, we must provide 
for variety of administration or application, externally 
or internally, to act on a limited part or to enter the 
blood by any of the methods of exhibition to be pre- 
sently described ; and we must also meet the tastes 
and fancies of patients with respect to pills, powders, 
etc., as well as the necessities of circumstances. 

The following are the different kinds of prepara- 
tions in the British Pharmacopceia. A complete list 
of each kind will be found in the classified tables at 
pages 617-620. 

Aeetum, A Vinegar, is a solution of the active 
principles of a drug obtained by macerating it (see 
p. 17) in acetic acid (not vinegar), or by mixing one 
of its preparations with acetic acid and alcohol. 

Aqua, A Water, is a very weak simple solution of 
a volatile substance in distilled water, obtained (1) by 
distillation of some part of a plant, or (2) of a volatile 
oil, with water ; (3) by solution without distillation ; 
(4) by trituration with twice its weight of Calcium 
Phosphate and 500 times its volume of Distilled Water 
and filtering. The fourth method is sanctioned for 
use in India and other tropical countries, but it is also 
employed m routine pharmacy in Britain. 

Charta, A Paj^er, consists of cartridge paper 
coated with a compound of an active substance and 
Solution of India-rubber, much like a plaster. 

Collodiura, A Collodion, is a solution of Pyroxylin 
in an ethereal compound, intended to form a coating 
on the skin when painted on and allowed to evajM^rate 

Confectio, A Confection, conserve or electuary, in 
a BOft, piUity -looking preparation, in which drugs, 

Prep A ra tions. .i 3 

generally dry, are incorporated with syrup, sugar or 

Deeoetum, A Decoction^ is a solution made by 
boiling vegetable drugs in water from five to ten 
minutes, straining and adding water. 

Emplastrum, A Plaster^ is a preparation that 
adheres when applied to the body, so as to produce 
either a local or a general effect. Plasters are com- 
pounds of an active substance, such as Mercury or 
Gantharides, with a basis or medium, which consists 
variously of lead soap, soap, oil and resin, and is 
intended to be spread on linen, leather or other 

Extractum, An Extract, is a very important kind 
of preparation, and comprises a number of different 
classes, as follows : — 

1. The simple Extract, Extractum, is prepared in 
various ways : — 

(a) By steeping or boiling a drug with water, 
straining, and evaporating the product to a soft con- 
sistence or to dryness. 

(6) By macerating or percolating (see p. 18) a drug 
with alcohol, and evaporating the product either (a) 
to a soft consistence, or (/3) to dryness, or (y) till a 
firm extract is obtained by adding Milk Sugar. 

(c) By proceeding as in (h) (y), after percolation 
with ether to remove oil from the drug. 

{(1) By heating the expressed juice of a drug to 
212° to coagulate the albumen, straining, and evapor- 

(e) By evaporating a liquid extract to a syrupy 
consistence, adding an accurately determined quantity 
of Milk Sugar, and evaporating further to a given 

2. The Alcoholic Extract, Extractum Alcoholi- 
cum. — This name is given to one of the simple 
extracts prepared by the process given in 1 (e). 

14 Prepara tions, 

3. The Dry Extract, Extraetum Siceum, is 
prepared like a simple extract, with the further 
step of thoroughly drying and powdering the product, 
mixing it with one-fourth of its weight of Calcium 
Phosphate, and further drying and powdering. 

4. The Compound Extract, Extraetum Composi- 
tunij is prepared like a simple extract of the principal 
ingredient, with the addition of other drugs before or 
during the process of evaporation. 

5. The Green Extract, Extraetum Viride. — The 
juice pressed from the bruised plant is heated to 
130° F. to coagulate the green colouring matter, which 
is sti*ained off, passed through a sieve and reserved. 
The liquid is then heated to 200° to coagulate 
the albumen, which is separated by filtration and 
rejected. The filtrate is next evaporated at 140° 
to a syrupy consistence, the green colouring matter 
returned, and the whole evaporated down to a soft 

G. The Liquid Extract, Extraetum Liquidum, 
speaking generally is i)repared by: (1) mixing a drug, or 
a solid extract of it, with alcohol, or water, or both, 
and setting aside for some hours in a closed vessel ; 

(2) next percolating with alcohol or with water; then 

(3) evaporating to a soft consistence ; and finally (4) 
adding alcohol. Considerable variety is followed in the 
details of this pharmaceutical process in some instances. 
Thus the menstruum with which the drug is first mixed 
may be boiling water ; or water, hydrochloric acid and 
glycerin ; or ether. Percolation may be complicated 
by the addition of Calcium Hydroxide to the drug, or 
it may be replaced by simple straining or pressure. 
The product may have to be filtered, or first heated 
to 212° and then strained. In one instance the last 
step consists in the addition of glycerin instead of 
alcohol. Most important of all, several Liquid 
Extracts are standardised by ; (a) testing their 


alkaloidal strength before the last step ; and (6) 
diluting with alcohol or water to a given volume. 

Glyeerinum, A Glycerin^ is a solution of a drug 
in glycerin, with or without the aid of heat. 

Infusum, An Infusion. There are three classes of 
infusion : — 

1. The simple Infusion, Infusum, is prepared like 
ordinary tea by steeping a vegetable substance with 
water at the boiling-point, for a quarter to one hour 
in a covered vessel, and straining. Two infusions 
are made with cold water. 

2. The Acid Infusion, Infusum Aeidum, is made 
like the last preparation with the addition of an acid 
to the water. 

3. The Compound Infusion, Infusum Composi- 
tum, is made like the Infusum, except that several 
drugs are infused together. 

Injeetlo Hypodermiea, A Hypodermic Injection, 
is a strong solution of an active drug for administra- 
tion with a syringe under the skin. 

Lamellse, Discs, are discs of gelatin with some 
glycerin, containing a fractional quantity of a salt of 
an alkaloid. They are intended to be placed within 
the eyelids. 

Linimentum, A Liniment or Embrocation, is a 
preparation suitable for application by rubbing, 
anointing, or painting. All liniments contain either 
camphor, oil, glycerin, or soap. 

Liquor, A Solution. Liquores or solutions proper 
consist of substances other than volatile oils dissolved 
in water; but the methods of preparing many are 
complicated, solution being assisted by alcohol, acids, 
ether, and calcium or other salts. 

Liquor Coneentratus, A Concentrated Solution, is 
made by moistening a vegetable drug with alcohol 
and setting aside for some time ; then percolating 
repeatedly, and filtering if necessary. In some 

1 6 Px EPA R A TIONS. 

instances water instead of alcohol is employed to 
dissolve out the active principles — by infusion, de- 
coction, maceration and pressure, or percolation ; the 
product is heated to 180° F. and cooled ; alcohol added, 
and the product filtered. 

Lotio, A Lotion or Wash, is a solution or mixture 
for external application by washing or on lint. 

Mel, A Honey J is a fluid preparation containing a 
large proportion of honey. 

Mistura, A Mixture^ is prepared by rubbing up 
various substances in water. The constituents are 
usually mixed only, not dissolved, the insoluble 
substances generally being suspended in the water 
by means of gum, almond powder, or syrup. Some 
are Compound. 

Mucilag'O, A Mucilage^ is a solution of a gum. 

Oleum, An Oil (as a pharmaceutical preparation, 
not Oleum as a drug), is a solution of a dinig in a 
fixed oil. 

Oxymel, An Oxymel, is a preparation containing 
honey and acetic acid and water, or these and an 
active principle. 

Pilula, A Pill. — Pills are small spherical or 
spheroidal bodies, variously composed of extracts, 
powders, or other active substances, which are first 
thoroughly mixed together, and made into a uniform 
consistent mass with some suitable excipient, such as 
syrup of glucose, mucilage, glycerin, soap, confection 
of roses or powdered liquorice, and then rolled out 
and divided up into equal portions. Pills are almost 
all complex. The substances best adapted for giving 
as pills are such as from some cause cannot be con- 
veniently taken in fluid form, or those intended to 
act slowly. 

Pulvis, A Powder, is a compound of dry insoluble 
drugs reduced to powder and intimately mixed and 

Prep A ra tions. '\ 7 

SpirituS) A Spirit. — Spirits belong to three 
classes ; (1) Rectified Spirit (Alcohol 90 %), and 
Brandy. (2) Simple Solutions in Rectified Spirit of 
volatile substances, including essential oils, in the 
latter case of the strength of 1 in 10. (3) Complex 
Distillates, each prepared in a special manner. 

Suceus, A Juice, is the expressed juice of a fresh 
plant, mixed with one- third of its volume of alcohol 
90 ^ to preserve it ; allowed to stand seven d?.,ys, 
and then filtered. Suceus Limonis, Lemon Juice, is 
not a preparation but a fresh natural product 
without alcohol. 

Suppositoria, Suppositories, are conical solid 
bodies for introduction into the rectum, where 
they are intended to melt. They are composed of 
one or more active ingredients and oil of theobroma 
or gelatin. 

Syrupus, A Syrup, is a fluid preparation contain- 
ing a large amount of sugar. Some syrups are very 

Tabollse, Tablets, are small flat bits of chocolate, 
each five grains in weight, containing a minute quan- 
tity of an active substance. 

Tinetura, A Tincture, is a solution of active sub- 
stances in alcohol, either alone or combined with 
other solvents. Tinctures may be grouped according 
to (1) the solvent, (2) the process, or (3) the ingre 
dients employed. These are various : 

1. Solvents. — (a) Alcohol 45-90 % is chiefly used. 

(6) Tinetura Ammoniata, the ammoniated tinc- 
ture, is made with Solution of Ammonia in addition 
to alcohol. 

(c) Tinetura ^therea, the ethereal tincture, is 
prepared with Spirit of Ether instead of alcohol. 

2. Processes. — Tinctures may be prepared by : — 

(a) Simple solution or mixture. 

(b) Maceration: Place the solid material in the 

1 8 Prepara tions, 

whole of the menstruum in a closed vessel for seven 
days, frequently agitating; strain; press the marc; 
imix the two liquids ; and filter if necessary. 

(c) Percolation : Macerate the drug or drugs for 
"24 hours in part of the menstruum ; pack in a per- 
colator, and add fresh portions of menstruum until 
tabout three-fourths of the desired quantity is passed 
ithrough ; remove the marc from the percolator, press, 
jand filter the product ; mix the filtrate and the per- 
colate, and add fresh menstruum to make the pre- 
scribed volume of tincture. 

(c?) Some tinctures are standardised {see pp. 14-15). 

3. Ingredients. — A Tincture may be eithei 
simple, Tinetura ; or compound, Tinetura Composita, 
that is, may contain more than one active substance. 

Troehiscus, A Lozenge, is a dry tablet of one or 
more active ingredients (uniformly divided or pre- 
viously dissolved) mixed with one or other of four 
different ha&es, namely : (1) Fruit Basis, (2) Rose Basis, 
(3) Simple Basis, and (4) Tolu Basis. These consist 
of sugar, gum, mucilage, and (1) black cuiTant paste, 
and water; (2) Rose water; (3) Water; and (4) 
Balsam of Tolu, respectively. 

Unguentum, An Ointment, is a mixture of active 
substances with lard, hydrous wool fat, benzoated 
lard, suet, spermaceti, wax, oil, or hard or soft 
paraflBn, variously combined. The ingredients are 
either thoroughly mixed or melted together. 

Vinum, A Wine, is either : (1) a solution of a 
drug, whether in sheny or in orange wine ; or (2) a 
wine made by fermentation of a saccharine solution 
to which a drug has been added. 

The follov,ring preparations are also in common 
use, but are not ordered in the British Pharma- 
copoeia : — 

Bou^, a Bougie, a solid cylinder of gelatin or cacaO' 

Weights and Measures. 19 

butter with which a drug is incorporated ; for introduction 
into the nose or urethra. Cachet, a Cachet, a lenticular 
capsule of wafer paper, containing a nauseous or insoluble 
drug. Capsula, a Capsule, a receptacle commonly made of 
gelatin, containing a nauseous or insoluble drug, whether 
solid or liquid. Catcuplasma, a Poultice, a familiar prepara- 
tion for external application. Collyrium, an Eye-wash. 
Elixir, an alcoholic aromatic syrup. JSmnlsion (see page 10). 
Enema, an Injection or Clystera, a liquid for injection per 
rcctnvi. Essentia, a concentrated alcoholic solution of a 
volatile oil. Gargarisma, a Gargle. Guttce, liquids for 
instillation into the eye. Havstus, a Draught. Ins^ifflatio, 
a powder to be blown into the throat. Nebula, an atomised 
spray. Linctus, a Linctus, a thin confection slowly swallowed 
in small doses to affect the throat. Pastillus, a Pastil, a 
soft lozenge containing glycerin and gelatin as its basis. 
Pessns, a Pessary, a large variety of suppository administered 
per vaginam. Pigmentum, a solution to be painted on a 
part. Vapor, an Inhalation ; administered as a vapour or 
gas disengaged on union of the ingredients. 


The weights of the British Pharmacopoeia are (1) 
*ihose of the Imperial system ; (2) those of the Metric 

1. Imperial system. 

Measures of Mass. 
These are the grain, granum ; the ounce (avoircl.), 
uncia ; and the pound, libra; with their conven- 
tional symbols, gr., ^, and lb. respectively, 

1 grain = granum, gr. j. 

1 ounce = ^incia, *j = 437 '5 grains. 

1 pound = libra, lb. j = 16 ounces = 7,000 grains. 

It is very common, however, and optional in pre- 
scribing, to employ two weights between the grain and 
the ounce, called respectively the scruple, scrupulum^ 
9, to represent 20 grains, and the drachm, drachma^ 
5, to represent 60 grains. 

20 Metric System, 

Meo.sures of Capacity. 

The measures of capacity of the British Pharma- 
copoeia and their symbols are the minim, minimum^ 
min., or l]\ ; the fluid drachm, drachma Jluida, fl.dr., 
/5, or simply 5 ; the fluid ounce, uncia Jluida, fl.oz., 
/^, or simply 5 ; the ])int, octarius, O ; and the gallon, 
congius, C. 

1 minim = min. j, n\_j. 

60 minims = 1 fluid drachm, fl.dr.j.,/3J, 53 

8 fluid drachms = 1 fluid ounce, fl.oz. j.,/5j, 5j. 
20 fluid ounces = 1 pint, Oj. 
8 pints = 1 gallon, Cj. 

Relation of Volume to Mass. 
1 minim is the volume at 62°F. of 0-9114 grain of water 
1 fluid drachm „ „ 54:-G875 grains „ 

I fluid ounce „ „ 1 oz., or 437*5 grs. of water 

I pint „ „ 1-25 lb., or 87500 „ 

[gallon „ „ lOlbs., or 70000-0 „ 

2. Metric system. 

Measures of Mass. 

1 milligramme = the thousamlth part of 1 gramme = 0-001 grm. 

1 centigramme = the hundredth „ „ = 0-01 „ 

1 decigramme = the tenth ,, ,, = Q-l „ 
1 gramme = weight of 1 millilitre of distilled 

water at 4° C. = 10 „ 

1 dekagramme = ten grammes = 10-0 „ 

1 hectogramme = one hundred grammes = 1000 „ 

1 kilogramme = one thousand „ =1000-0 „ 


of Ck(pacity. 

1 microl 


the volume at 4'' C. of 0*001 grm. of water. 

1 ccntimil 


„ 0*01 

1 decimil 



1 millilitre 

or mil 

1 = 


1 centilitre 


10 „ 

1 decilitre 



1 litre 


„ 1000 ,, (1 kilog 

Relation of the Impeijial Standards to the Metric 


Standards of Mass. 

1 pound = 453*r)92o grammes nearly. 
1 ounce = 28-3195 „ 
1 grain = 0G48 

Domestic Measures, 21 

and conversely : 

1 milligramme = 0-015 grain nearly 

1 centigramme = 0"154 „ „ 

1 decigramme = 1"543 „ „ 

1 gramme = 15-4323564 grains 

1 kilogramme = 2 lbs. 3 oz., 119-85 gr. = 15432-35G4 grains 

St(mdard8 of Capacity. 

1 gallon = 4-545963 litres 

1 pint =0-5682454 „ = 568-336 c. centim . nearly 

1 fluid ounce = 00284123 „ = 28-417 

1 fluid drachm = 0-003552 „ = 3-552 

1 minim = 0-000059 „ = 0-059 

and conversely : 

1 cubic centimetre = 16-9 minims nearly 

1 litre = 1-7598 pint = 1 pint 15 fl.oz. 1 fl.dr. 34 min. 

In all Pharmacopoeial Preparations described in 
this Manual^ where the relative (not actual) amounts 
of the ingredients are stated, the Metric system is 
followed ; otherwise, solids are measured by mass, 
liquids by capacity, according to the Imperial system. 

Domestic measures. — A teaspoonful is a con- 
venient but not quite accurate measure of 1 fluid 
drachm ; a dessert-spoonful, of 2 fluid drachms ; a 
table- spoonful, of half a fluid ounce ; a wineglassful, of 
1 J to 2 fluid ounces ; a teacupful, of 5 fluid ounces ; 
a breakfastcupful, of 8 fluid ounces ; a tumblerful, of 
10 to 12 fluid ounces. Wherever accuracy is desired, 
a graduated measure glass must be used. Some drops 
being twice as large as others, it is dangerous to order 
'* drops " of powerful remedies, especially for children. 


The preceding subjects complete the kinds of 
information furnished by the Pharmacopoeia. The 
student must next make himself acquainted with the 
actions and uses of each drug, that is, its pharmaco- 

2 2 Actions of Drugs. 

logical and therapeutical relations. In the follow- 
ing pages this portion of the subject will be dis- 
cussed under four heads, according to the order in 
which the drug affects the different parts of the body, 
namely : — 

1. Immediate local actions. — When a medi- 
cine is applied to an exposed surface, it may produce 
some effect or " act upon " it. This may occur either 
externally^ i.e. on the skin or exposed mucous surfaces, 
sucii as the conjunctiva, anterior nares, vagina, etc. ; 
or internally — on the alimentary canal, especially the 
stomach and intestines, including the rectum, e.g. 
emetics and purgatives. Some drugs have no further 

2. Actions in or on the Blood The great 

majority of active remedies are absorbed into the 
blood, and enter into the composition of its plasma, 
much less frequently of the red or white corpuscles ; 
that is, have an effect in it, but little or no action 
on it. The student must carefully note that few 
medicines produce their characteristic effect by acting 
on the blood. 

3. Specific actions. — Leaving the circulation, 
drug:^ enter the tissues and organs, alter the physical, 
chemical or physiological state of one or more of 
them, and are then said to have a, specific action upon 
these, e.g. Alcohol on the brain. Usually this is the 
characteristic and most important action of the drug. 

4. Remote local actions. — Medicinal substances, 
having passed through the tissues, are finally cast out 
of the body by the excreting organs, cither in the 
same form as they were admitted, or as the products 
of decomposition in the system. The kidneys are 
the great channel of escai>e for drugs ; the lungs 
("breath"), skin, mouth, liver, bowels, mammary 
glands, and all mucous surfaces and wounds eliminate 
them to a less extent. Whilst thus passing through 

Choice of Remedy. 23 

the excreting organs, a drug may not only alter their 
secretions but also exert on their tissues further or 
remote local actions, not infrequently resembling its 
immediate local action. 


When the practitioner desires to employ drugs for 
the purposes of treatment, he turns to his knowledge 
of the actions and uses of the materia medica, selects 
his remedies, and proceeds to order one or more ol 
them, according to a recognised form or formula, 
which is called a prescription. This is a very difficult 
proceeding when first attempted, being nothing less 
than a serious and probably sudden practical test of 
one's acquaintance with an enormous subject. The 
beginner should know, therefore, what points are 
specially to be kept before him in these circum- 
stances. Briefly, they may be said to be the 
following : 

1. Selection of the remedy. — This is, of course, 
the first and fundamental proceeding of alh It is 
intended to be the rational result of as accurate a 
knowledge as can be gained of the disease which has 
to be remedied or relieved, and of the means at our 
command of doing so. How this choice is to be 
made will be discussed under General Therapeutics in 
the fourth Part of the work. 

Idiosyncrasy. — Before finally deciding, however, 
on certain drugs, idiosyncrasy must not be forgotten ; 
that is, the peculiar susceptibility of some individuals 
to the actions of particular medicines, such as opium, 
mercury, quinine, the iodides and ipecacuanha. In 
almost every instance such idiosyncrasy means in- 
creased susceptibility : unpleasant or even dangerous 
results follow an ordinary or even a minute dose. Tt 
is well, therefore, before ordering such drugs, t<j 


inquire whether the patient has taken them pre- 
viously, and if not, to use them cautiously at first. 

2. Selection of the preparation. — The drug 
having been determined, the particular preparation of 
it will be selected in accordance with the consider- 
ations discussed under that heading. We have seen 
that the Pharmacopoeia afi'ords abundant choice, 
according to the channel by which it is to be adminis- 
tered. This naturally leads us to consider the 


The activity of a drug may vary greatly with the 
channel by which it is introduced, i.e. with the readi- 
ness or rapidity of its absorption into the circulation. 

(a) By the 6A:m, or mucous membrane continuous 
with the skin, whether simply applied or rubbed in 
(liniments, ointments) ; painted on (pigments, etc.) ; 
worn on the skin (as a plaster or ointment) ; applied 
in a state of fine division by fumigation, with or with- 
out sweating ; used as a gargle, injection, or wash ; or' 
insufflated on to a part. The effect desired is usually 
local only, but it may be general, many drugs being 
absorbed by the skin or exposed mucous membrane. 

(6) By the mouth, to act locally on the alimentary 
canal, and to be absorbed from it, especially from the 

(c) By the rectum (or vagina in the female), in the 
form of enema or injection (fluid), or of suppository 
(solid). Drugs may have to be given by the rectum 
instead of by the mouth, on account of some physical 
obstacle, repugnance on the part of the patient, or 
irritability of the stomach ; or to sjmre the stomach 
in conditions of exhaustion. Again, the action desired 
may be a local one on the rectum and pelvic organs, e.g. 
to relieve pain, destroy worms or soften retained faeces. 

{d) By injection under the skin (subcutaneous or 

The Dose. 25 

hypodermic injection)', or into the tissues (m^ersii^iaZ in- 
jection SiXiAiv filtration) : excellentmethods of admitting 
remedies into the system with certainty and despatch. 

(e) By application to wounds or diseased surfaces, 
as lotions, dusting powders, gargles, injections, 
bougies, colly ria ; or by the endermic method, i.e. by 
being sprinkled on a blistered surface. 

(/) By inhalation, the substances being volatile, 
and intended either to enter the blood through the 
pulmonary capillaries, e.g. chloroform, or to act directly 
on the parts to which they gain access in the form of 
smoke from medicated cigarettes, of insufflated powders, 
or of medicated watery vapours, sprays, or nebulae. 

(g) By intravenous injection, now frequently 
employed under aseptic precautions. 

3. The Dose. — Having selected the remedy and the 
mode by which it is to be administered, we next 
determine the dose in which the preparation is to be 
ordered. The Pharmacopoeia indicates the limits of 
ordinary doses, the minimum being the smallest useful 
dose with which it may be wise to begin, and the 
maximum being the largest usually given without 
special reason and caution. Experience alone can 
teach the practitioner how far he may safely and wisely 
depart from these limits, to which he is in no way tied 
by law. A table of equivalent doses in the two systems 
will be found on pages 31 and 32. Several modifying 
circumstances which are to be taken into account with 
respect to doses must here be carefully noted : 

(a) Many drugs have different actions in different 
doses, which must be arranged accordingly ; e.g. tartar 
emetic, alcohol, opium and rhubarb. 

(6) The dose varies with the age of the patient, 
children getting but a fraction of the dose for an adult. 
A convenient method of calculating doses for children 
of twelve or under, is to divide the age in years by the 
age in years -f 1 2, and to use the result as the proper 

26 The Dose. 

fraction of an adult dose. Thus, for a child of fouryears 
the dose will be ^ ^^ = — = - of an adult dose ; for a 

child of twelve, ^ =-^ = -. Above twelve, and 

under twenty-one, the dose lies between \ and a full 
dose. It should be mentioned here that some drugs 
are peculiarly well borne by children, being taken by 
them in relatively large doses with safety and advan- 
tage. The principal of these are Arsenic, Mercury, 
Chloral Hydrate and Belladonna. On the otlier 
hand children are particularly susceptible to the 
influence of Opium. 

Lauder Brunton has formulated a rule for ascertain- 
ing the fraction of an adult dose which should be 
given to a child according to the metric system. 
This consists in multiplying the adult dose by the 
age of the child at its next birthday divided by 25 
(taken as the " adult age "), or multiplied by —^ which 
is equivalent but more convenient for reckoning. 
Thus an adult dose of 5 grains (= -33 gramme) would 
be for a child of seven years — -33 x ^ = o-i050 gramme, 

or more conveniently -33 x^-qq = oio56 gramme. 

(c) In particular diseases the ordinary dose may 
have to be modified. In disease of the kidneys, where 
excretion is diminished, drugs discharged by this 
channel, such as strychnine or digitalis, are retained 
in the system for a longer time, i.e. exist in it in 
larger quantity at any given time after administration, 
and symi)toms of poisoning very readily supervene. 
Quite a different matter is the effect of a disease in 
neutralising the effect of a drug given to combat it. 
Thus, larger doses of quinine are tolerated in malaria 
because the action of the quinine is spent as a poison 
to the parasite. Menstruation, pregnancy and lacta- 
tion also require to be considered in prescribing. 

Drug Habit. 27 

4. Frequency. — Medicines are ordered to be taken 
one or more times, according to the end desired. Thus, 
purgatives are generally taken in a single dose ; an 
emetic is to be taken once, and repeated only in case 
vomiting is not induced ; tonics are generally ordered 
three times a day for a varying period. The interval 
between doses should, as a rule, be such that the 
second dose may be taken before the effect produced 
by the first has passed off. 

5. Duration. — The period for which a drug may be 
given depends on a variety of circumstances which need 
not be discussed here. We must refer, however, to 
accumulation^ toleration^ custom and hahit. When a 
drug enters the system at short intervals, more rapidly 
than it is excreted, a time will come when it has 
accumulated so much in the tissues as to produce its 
effects in a marked degree. Powerful drugs, e.g. 
strychnine and digitalis, may thus begin to act as 
poisons after having been given in the same doses with 
benefit for weeks. On the other hand, certain drugs, 
e.g. opium, lose their effect if given for long periods j 
the tissues acquire greater power both of oxydising the 
morphine and of tolerating it. The dose must then 
be steadily increased, toleration having been estab- 
lished by custom. If a patient become dependent 
on a drug, crave for it, and indulge in it to an 
unfortunate or even vicious extent, he is said to have 
developed a hahit for that drug, such as the opium and 
alcohol habits or the habitual use of enemata. 

6. Time. — The times of the day or night at which 
the doses must be taken are of the first importance j 
and speaking generally, it may be said that every ad- 
vantage must be taken in this respect of the natural 
tendency which it is desired to assist or stimulate by 
tlie drug. Thus, drugs which induce sleep are 
naturally gi\ en at bedtime ; alkaline stomachics before 
meals ; saline purgatives early in the morning. The 

a 8 Combination of Drugs. 

time required by the drug to act must also be calcu 
lated, especially in the case of the different purgatives. 

7. Combinations: Chemical and Physiological 
Incompatibles. — In most instances more than one 
drug has to be given at the same time, and the prac- 
titioner finds that he must combine them in a single 
preparation, whether, for instance, pill, powder, or 
liniment. Successful combination is at once the most 
important and most difficult part of the art of prescrib- 
ing. Whilst it affords the prescriber an opportunity of 
applying the whole of his knowledge of drugs and 
their actions, it cannot be accomplished without a 
thorough acquaintance with the physical, chemical, 
and physiological properties of the ingredients of the 
proposed compound. The mere appearance, taste, and 
flavour of a mixture are important points to be con- 
sidered in ordering it. The chemical reactions which 
may occur between the constituents must be constantly 
kept in view. The prescriber may either intend the 
constituents to remain chemically unchanged, or 
arrange for the decomposition of one or more of them 
and the production of a new substance. Drugs which 
decompose each other are said to be chemically in- 
compatible in the widest sense ; but the use of the 
term is commonly restricted to instances in which the 
result is an unexpected, inelegant, useless or danger- 
ous compound. Tlius, if it be desii'ed to give a patient 
potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, we say 
that the undiluted acid is incompatible with the salt, 
because chlorine is produced by their combination j 
but if it be intended to order the patient a fresh solu- 
tion of chlorine in water, and the decomposition be 
deliberately planned, the combination would not be 
considered incompatible. 

The prime consideration, however, will be the 
physiological effect of the combination. This is very 
different in different casea Each of the constituents 

The Prescription. 29 

may be intended to produce an effect different from the 
others ; or to have the same effect ; or one or more 
ingredients may be introduced to modify the action of 
the principal, that is, to correct some unpleasant, 
dangerous, or otherwise undesirable influence which it 
happens to possess in addition to the influence which 
we wish to secure. Such correctives are necessarily 
physiological antagonists, i.e. seem to counteract each 
other, and appear, therefore, to be 'physiological in- 
zompatihles ; but it is for this very reason that they 
are to be combined, because whilst they neutralise 
the action of each other in certain directions, they 
are left mutually free to affect other parts of the 
system. Thus, calomel combined with opium prevents 
it from causing constipation, whilst it does not in- 
terfere with its action on the brain ; and the opium, 
in turn, prevents the calomel from purging the 
patient, whilst it allows the mercurial to act on the 

8. The Prescription — We are now in a position to 
analyse a prescription. A prescription consists of five 
parts : The superscription, consisting of a single sign, 
R, an abbreviation for recipe, " take " ; the inscrip- 
tion, or body of the prescription, containing the names 
and quantities of the drugs ordered ; the subscription, 
or directions to the dispenser ; the signature, or direc- 
tions to the patient, following Signa ; and, lastly, the 
patient's name, the date, and the prescriber's name or 
initials. In what may be called a classical prescrip- 
tion, it was customary to arrange the constituents of 
the inscription under four heads, viz. the basis, or 
active drug proper ; the adjuvant, or substance in- 
tended to assist, and especially to hasten, the action 
of the basis ; the corrective, to limit or otherwise 
modify the same ; and the vehicle or excipierU, to bring 
the whole into a convenient, pleasant form for admin- 

3© The Prescription. 

To take an example : 

Superscription R 

/Ferri et Ammonii Citratis, gr.v (bans). 
Liquoris Ammoniae Fortis, min.jss. {ad- 
Inscription « juvanf). 

Spiritfis Myristicae, min.vj. (corrective). 
^ Infusi 53 [vehicle or excipient). 
Subscription Misce. Mitte doses tales viij. Signa : — 

Signatv/re Two tablespoonfuls twice a day, after 


Patient's name Practitioner's name 

Date or initials 

It will be seen that the first three parts of the 
prescription are in Latin ; the signature or directions 
to the patient in English. The names of the drugs or 
preparations are in the genitive case, the quantities 
standing in the accusative case, governed by recipe- 
Recipe j SpiritHs MyristiccBf minima sex. 
Take, of Spirit of Nutmeg, six minims. 
A few abbreviations and sif/7is are allowed, viz. : R 
for recipe ; m., misce ; S.^ signa ; da, ana (ava), of each ; 
ft., fiat, make; q.s., quantum sufficit, a sufliciency ; 
ad, up to, to amount to (the fall phrase being quantum 
Bujfflcit usque ad) ; c., cum, with ; no., numero, in number ; 
p.r.n., pro re natS, as required, occasionally ; rep., repe- 
tatur, let it be repeated ; ss.,/s., semi, or semis, a half. 
The names of drugs must always be written in full 
wherever there can be the smallest possibility of error. 
It is not only inelegant but dangerous to use such 
abbreviations as Acid. Ihjdroc. Dil., and Hyd. Chlor. 

The various weights and measures are expressed 
by characters and figures, very rarely by words, placed 
distinctly at the end of the line occupied by the name 
of each ingredient; but if two or more consecutive 
ingredients are ordered in equal quantity, it is usual, 
instead of repeating this each time, to write it only 
once after the last of them, preceded by the sign dd 
of eacL 

Equivalent Doses. 



I.— Doses according to Weigh 


Grain, gr. 

Gramme, grm. 


to rb 

•00032 to -00065 


„ ^ 

•00065 , 



F „ ^ 

•00065 , 



» A 

•0011 , 



.. A ... 

•0016 , 



•0008 , 



" ^ 



•0027 , 


':; 1 z 

•oo;}2 , 



•0032 . 



j >. i 

•00325 , 



•0041 , 



; ;; 1 z 

•0065 , 



•0005 , 



»♦ 1 

•0065 , 


,, t 

•008 , 


>» 1 



»> 3 




•016 , 



•016 , 



•032 , 





S M 3 



L „ 2 



L „ 3 



L „ 4 






J „ 3 

•130 , 


J » 4 

•130 , 


5 „ 5 



5 „ 8 



5 ,, 10 



J „ 8 

•195 , 


$ „ 10 

•195 , 


I „ 8 



) „ lO 



) „ 15 



> „ 20 


, 130 

> „ 30 

•325 , 

, 1-95 


) „ 30 


, 1-30 


) „ 30 


, 1-95 


) „ 40 


, 2^60 


) „ 60 


, 3-90 


) „ 30 


, 1-95 


) „ 40 


, 269 


) „ CO 


, 3-90 


) ., 60 


, 3^90 


Equivalent Doses. 

I.— Doses according to Weiout.— conttnued. 
Grain, gr. Gramme, grnc 

60 .. 120 3-90 





























Fluid dracli 



, 240 
, 240 

oz., 5. 

" \ ■::. 

II.— Doses 

min., tn,. 
















m, fl.drra 

Fluid ounce, fl.oz. 
to 1 










14 '2 

„ 15-6 
,. 15-6 

„ 28^4 

centimetre, CG, 

to -059 

„ -592 

,, 1-2 

„ r78 

M 1-2 

„ 1-78 

,. 2-37 

„ 3-55 

„ MS 

„ 3-55 

„ 1-78 

„ 3-55 

„ 3^55 

„ 7-1 

„ 10-65 

„ 355 

,, 5-33 

„ 533 

„ 7-10 

., 14-2 

„ 21-3 

„ 28-4 

„ 14-2 

„ 21-3 

„ 28-4 
„ 56-8 
.. 56-8 






Op the alkalis and alkaline earths, Potassium, Sodium, 
Ammonium, Lithium, Calcium, Magnesium and 
Cerium are official. Barium and Strontium are also 
occasionally used in medicine. 

POTASSIUM. Potassium. K. 39 10. 

The salts and preparations of Potassium are 
derived from five great sources, viz. (1) Wood 
ashes ; (2) Cream of Tartar ; (3) the native Nitrate ; 
(4) the crude Sulphate ; and (5) the Bichromate. 
They will be most conveniently discussed in the 
same order : 

1. Potassii CRi'bonas* — Potassium Carbonate. 
K2CO3. Salt of Tartar. 

Source. — Obtained from ashes of wood, or by the inter- 
action of crude Potassium Sulphate and crude Calcium Car- 
bonate and Carbon. 

Characters. — A white, crystalline, very deliquescent 
powder, of caustic and alkaline taste. Solubility. — 4 in 
3 of water ; insoluble in alcohol 90 %. 20 gr. neutralise 
17 gr. of Citric Acid, or 18 gr. of Tartaric Acid. Impurities. 
— Other metals ; sulphates, thiosulphates and chlorides. 

Dose.— 5 to 20 gr. 

; PotassH Carhonas is used in preparing : Decoctum Aloes 


34 Potassium. 

Compositum, Mistura Ferri Composita, Liquor Arsenicalis, 
and Unguentum Potassii lodidi. 

From, Potassii Carhonas are made : 

a. Potassii Bicarbonas.— Potassium Bicarbonate. 

/Soj^rcc— Made by saturating a strong aqueous solu- 
tion of the Carbonate with carbonic anhydride. 

Characters. — Colourless monoclinic prisms, not 
deliquescent; of a saline, feebly alkaline taste; not 
corrosive. Solnhilitu. — 1 in 8*2 of water ; insoluble in 
alcohol 90 %. 20 gr. neutralise 14 gr. of Citric Acid, 
or 15 gr. o'f Tartaric Acid. Ivqmritws, as of the 

Dose, 5 to BO gr. 

h. Potassa Caustica. — Potassium Hydroxide. 
Caustic Potash. Potassium Hydrate. KOH, with not 
more than 10 '^1^ of combined water and impurities. 

Source. — Prepared by the interaction of Potassium 
Carbonate and Calcium Hydroxide. 

Characters. — White pencils or cakes, hard but 
very deliquescent, powerfully alkaline and corrosive. 
Solubility. — 2 in 1 of water ; 1 in 2 of alcohol 90 % 
Impurities. — Copper, lead, arsenium. 

From Potassa CauMica are made : 

a. Potassii Permanganas. — Potassium Per- 
manganate. K2-^^"208- See Manyanesium, page 91. 

/3. Potassii lodidiim. — Potassium Iodide. KI. 
See lodum, page 126. 

7. Potassii Bromidum. — Potassium Bromide. 
KBr. See Bromum, page 132. 

8. Liquor Potassse. — Solution of Potash. 
27 gr. of KOH in 1 fl.oz. of water. 

Characters. — A colourless, odourless, strongly 
alkaline fluid ; feeling soapy when rubbed between 
the fingers. Sp. gr. 1*058. Impurities. — Car- 
bonates, giving effervescence with acids ; sul- 
phates, and chlorides ; other metals. I?ose, 10 
to 30 min,, freely diluted. 

c. Potassii Citras.— Potassium Citrate. CjH^OH 

(C00K)3, HgO. 

Potassium. 35 

Source — Made by interaction of Citric Acid and 
Potassium Carbonate. 3K2CO3 + 2(C3H4-OH{COOH),0 = 
2(C3H4-OH-(COOK)h) + 3H2O + :^C02. 

Characters.— Ps. white powder, of saline, feebly 
acid taste, deliquescent, very soluble in water (10 in G). 

Bose.—\^ to 40 gr. 

d. Potassii Acetas. — Potassium Acetate. CHs, 

Source. — Made by saturating Acetic Acid with 
Potassium Carbonate, evajiorating and fusing. KgCOg-f- 
2(CH3-COOH) = 2(CH3COOK) + H2O+ COj. 

Gluuracters. — White foliaceous satiny masses, or 
granular particles ; very deliquescent; alkaline. The 
peculiar appearance of this salt is due to crystallisation 
after fusion. Solubility.— 2 in 1 of water; 1 in 2 of 
alcohol 90 %. Impurities. — The carbonate, detected 
by being insoluble in spirit ; excess of acid, giving acid 
reaction ; other metals. 

Dose.— 10 to 60 gr. 

e. Potassii Chloras. — Potassium Chlorate. KCIO3. 

Source. — Made by passing Chlorine gas into 
water containing Lime or Magnesia in suspension ; 
treating the clarified liquid with Potassium Chloride ; 
and crystallising. 

Characters. — Colourless monoclinic crystals with a 
cool, saline taste. Explodes when rubbed with sulphur 
or sulphides. Solubility. — 1 in 16 of cold, 1 in 2 of 
boiling water ; almost insoluble in glycerin. 

iJose. — 5 to 15 gr. 


Trochiscus Potassii Chloratis. — 3 gr. 
with Rose Basis. 
/. Potassa Sulphurata. — Sulphurated Potash. See 
Sulphur, page 137. 

2, Potassii Tartras Acidiis.— Acid Potassium 
Tartrate. (CHOH^gCOOH-COOK. Purified Cream of Tartar. 

Source. — Prepared from argol deposited in wine-casks 
during the fermentation of grape juice ; and from the lees of 

Characters. — A white gritty powder, or fragments of crys- 
talline cakes; of a pleasant acid taste; not deliquescent. 

36 Potassium. 

SoluMUty.—l in 200 of cold water; not in alcohol, /m- 
purities. — Other metals ; sulphates and chlorides. 

Dose.— 20 to 60 gr. as a diuretic and refrigerant ; 2 to 
8 dr. as a purgative. 

Acid Potassium Tartrate is an ingredient 0/ : 

Confectio Sulphuris ; Pulvis Jalapae Composi- 
tus, and Trochiscus Sulphuris. It is also used in 
preparing Acidum Tartaricum, Ferrum Tartaraturr., 
Antimon'ium Tartaratum, and Soda Tartarata. 

FroTn this salt is made : 

Potassii Tartras. — Potassium Tartrate. [(CHOH\, 
(COOK),].,, H,0. 

Source. — "Made by neutralising Acid Potassium Tar- 
trate with Potassium Carbonate. 

Characters. — Small, colourless, 4- or 6-sided prisms. 
Solubility. — 10 inG of.water ; solution neutral. Insol- 
uble in alcohol. Impurities. — Acid Tartrate, detected 
by pre.sence of acidity ; metals. Dose, 30 to 60 gr. as 
a diuretic and antacid ; 120 to 240 gr. as a purgative. 

3. Potassii Nitras.— Potassium Nitrate. KNO3. 
Nitre. Saltpetre. 

Sotirce. — Obtained native, chiefly in the surface soil of 
India, and purified by crystallisation from solution in v^ater ; 
or by interaction of NaNOg and KCl. 

Characters. — Striated, 6-sided colourless prisms, of a cool 
saline taste. Solubility. — 1 in 4 of cold, 10 in 4 of boiling 
water. Impurities. — Sulphates, Ciiiuiides ; and other metals. 
Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 

From Potassii Nitras are made : 

a. Argenti Nitras Induratus. See ArgetUum, 
page 71. 

b. Argenti Nitras Mitigatus. See Argentum, 
page 71. 

4. Potassii Sulphas. — Potassium Sulphate. 

Source. — Native, or prepared by purifying the crude salt ; 
or by the interaction of Sulphuric Acid and the Chloride or 
certain other salts of Potassium. 

CJiaracters. — Colourless, hard, rhombic prisms, terminated 
by six-sided pyramids. Solubility. — 1 in 10 of cold, 1 in 4 
of boiling water; insoluble in alcohol, 90 %. Impuri- 

PoTASsnyM. 37 

ties. — Nitrates, chlorides ; and other metals. Dose, 10 to 
40 gr. 

Potassli Sulphas is contained in : Pulvis Ipecacuanhae 
Compositus, 8 in 10 ; Pilula Colocynthidis Composita, 1 in 24 ; 
Pilula Colocynthidis et Hyoscyami, 1 in 32 ; and Pilula Ipeca- 
cuanhse cum Scilla, 1 in 2. 

5. Potassii Bichromas. — Potassium Bichromate. 

Source. — Made by (1) roasting Chrome Ironstone 
(FeO.CrgOa) with lime in presence of air ; (2) treating the 
product with a potassium salt, by which Yellow Chromate 
of Potassium is obtained, KgCrO^; (3) subsequently with 
an acid, e.g. Sulphuric Acid, this yields Red or Potassium 

Characters. — Large, orange-red, transparent triclinic crys- 
tals ; soluble in 10 parts of cold water ; anhydrous. Fuses 
below redness ; at a higher temperature is decomposed, 
yielding green Chromium Oxide and Yellow Potassium 
Chromate, which may be separated by dissolving the latter 
in water. Lose, ^^ to \ gr. (in pill form). 

Potassii Bichromas is used to make : 

Acidum Chromicum. See page 152. 


Aqueous solutions (1) acidulated with HCl give a yellow 
granular precipitate with PtCl4; (2) give a white granular 
precipitate with NaHC4H40(. ; (3) impart a light violet or 
lavender tinge to flame ; and (4) do not volatilise when 



Externally. — Potassa Caustica is a powerful irritant and 
painful caustic, absorbing water from the aflfected part, and 
converting it into a moist, grey slough ; its caustic action is 
difficult to limit. Liquor Potassa? may be used to soften 
epithelium, scabs, and ingrowing toe-nails. The Liquor and 
the Carbonates are also antacid : they neutralise caustic acids 
on the skin ; hot dilute solutions relieve the pains of rheu- 
matism and gout, when used as fomentations or local baths ; 
and weak compounds of Potassium with Olive Oil, consti- 
tuting Soft Soaps, have antacid and cleansing properties. 

38 Potassium. 

Intertially. — The Liquor and Potassium salts with an alka- 
line reaction are employed as antidotes to caustic acids ; but 
the use of the Carbonates for this purpose ought to be avoided, 
if possible, on account of the great development of carbonic 
acid which ensues. In the mouth, the alkali dissolves the 
mucus and causes a reflex secretion of saliva. Given before 
meals, alkalis act as mild irritant stimulants to the gastric 
walls, improve their circulation, and diminish pain. The old 
theor}^ that alkalis given before meals increase the secretion 
of gastric juice has not been confirmed by experiment. The 
Bicarbonate may be used as a sedative and stomachic in 
dyspepsia, especially when there is much pain and tendency 
to sickness, but the Sodium salt is preferable. For their 
remote antacid effects, Potassium salts are employed in gouty, 
rheumatic and calculous subjects. When given towards the 
end of gastric digestion, these alkalis are antacid, neutralising 
excessive or unnatural acidity of the contents, and dissolve 
raucus in acid dyspepsia. Large doses of the Bicarbonate 
irritate the stomach, and may cause sickness. 

Some valuable saline purgatives belong to the Potassium 
group, notably the Acid Tartrate, Tartrate and Sulphate. The 
rationale of the action of saline purgatives is discussed in 
Part IV. (page 503.) In dropsy from any cause, especially 
ascites from hepatic disease, the Acid Tartrate, in Pulvis 
Jalapai Compositus, in an electuary with honey, or in a 
lemonade (Imperial Drink) is used to remove water by the 
bowels, its evacuant effect as a hydragogue being assisted 
by its action as a diuretic. The vegetable salts of Potassium 
are partly converted into bicarbonate in the bowel. 


Potassium is freely absorbed into the blood in the form 
of salts, and there acts (1) on the plasma, and (2) on the red 
corpuscles, increasing the natural alkalinity of the former, and 
improving the quality and increasing the number of the latter 
when judiciously combined with Iron. 

(1) As an alkaliniser of the plasma Potassium is exceed- 
ingly transitory in its action, being very rapidly excreted ; 
and the use of Potassium salts in gout is not supported by any 
reaction that can be discovered to occur between it and urates 
in the blood. The Bicarbonate, Citrate, Tartrates and Acetate 
were once employed in acute rheumatism. 

(2) To restore the red corpuscles in anaemia by the increase 
of this element. Potassium is given as ahaematinic, in Mistura 
Ferri Composita and in Ferrum Tartaratum. 

4n indirect action of Potassium on the blood must here 

Potassium. 39 

be carefully noted. We shall see hereafter that Citric, 
Tartaric, and Acetic Acids, given internally, are partially 
oxydised in the blood. The completeness of the combustion, 
and of the important influences which the change exerts on 
the blood and kidneys, depends upon the combination of the 
vegetable acid with an alkali. Citric acid e.g. is excreted 
partly unchanged in the urine, but Potassium Citrate en- 
tirely, or almost entirely, as the carbonate. (^See page 149.) 


Potassium depresses the muscular, nervous, and cardiac 
tissues ; and the point of interest in this connection is, that 
when given for other purposes it must be used with caution. 
The danger of " potash poisoning" is, however, exaggerated, 
for ordinary food contains abundance of Potassium salts, 
and the drug passes so quickly through the system that it 
does not produce a deleterious effect on the tissues unless 
given for a long time, or in disease of the excreting organs, 
especially the kidneys. Excessive single doses are generally 
vomited at once. 


Potassium is excreted very rapidly. It escapes almost 
entirely by the kidneys, to a much less extent by the skin, 
respiratory passages, stomach, liver, biliary passages and 
bowels : in other words, in the fluids of all the secreting sur- 
faces. In doing so it modifies the activity of the cells, and 
increases the alkalinity of some of the secretions, as follows : 

1. Kidneys. — The diuretic effect of several Potassium 
salts, referable to their influence upon the renal epithelium 
is the most important of all ; and the Acetate, Acid Tartrate, 
Citrate and Tartrate, Carbonate, Bicarbonate and Sulphate 
are used for this purpose in the order named, ^he vegetable 
salts pass out as carbonates. These saline diuretics are 
given chiefly in renal dropsy, where it is desirable to increase 
the functional activity of the renal epithelium, and thus 
the secretion both of water and urea, whilst the vessels 
remain imdisturbed. They are also suitable diuretics in 
feverish conditions. In cardiac dropsy they are less beneficial, 
as they diminish rather than increase the force of the circula- 
tion ; but in an occasional full dose they are useful adjuvants, 
even in this cotidition, to other classes of diuretics, such as 
Digitalis and Scoparium, to wash out the tubules. Potassium 
Nitrate is a powerful diuretic, belonging partly to a different 
class, the local vascular stimulants. It is employed more 

40 Potassium. 

suitably as a diuretic in feverish conditions, and to remove 
inflammatory effusions from the pleura and pericardium ; 
it should be given cautiously in renal disease. 

The Bicarbonate and vegetable salts of Potassium are 
rapid and powerful alkalinisers of the iirine; and are ex- 
tensively used to produce this effect or reduce acidity in 
uric acid gravel and acute and chronic gout, the latter being 
preferred because less irritant. In uric acid calculus these 
salts are also employed to prevent increase or return of the 
concretions. The waters of such spas as Baden-Baden, 
Wiesbaden, Vichy, Carlsbad and Aix-la-Chapelle, which 
contain definite though small quantities of Potassium salts, 
are in much repute for the treatment of acute and chronic 
gout and gravel. 

2. Skin. — The diaphoretic effect of Potassium salts is not 
marked, the Citrate and Nitrate alone being used for this 
purpose, and these only in mild feverish attacks. 

3. Respiratory Passages. — The bronchial secretions are 
increased and rendered less tenacious by Potassium Salts, 
which are thus saline expectorants, small doses of the Iodide 
being specially useful in dry catarrh of the tubes. If the 
dose of Potash be very large, the secretions are diminished 
and the mucosa is rendered anEemic. 

4. Alimentary Canal. — Gastric catarrh, especially in gouty 
subjects, is benefited by the remote as well as the immediate 
local effect of the milder salts of Potassium ; but the mineral 
waters that act partly in this way, such as those of Vals, 
Vichy and Carlsbad, owe their efficacy more to Sodium. 
The same remarks apply to catarrh of the biliary passages 
and tendency to gall stones. 

Certain Potassium salts, mentioned below, act as saline 
purgatives by increasing the fluid contents of the intestine. 


On reviewing what has been said respecting Potassium, 
we find that the chief actions and uses of its different salts 
may thus be briefly represented : — Potassa Caustica : caustic. 
Liqvor Potasg(p : stomachic and antacid. Potassii Jiicarbonas, 
Carhonas, and Citras : antacid, stomachic, alkalinisers of 
the blood and urine, mild diuretics, very mild diaphoretics, 
saline expectorants. Citras : antiscorbutic. Potassii Tartras, 
Tartras Acidm, and Areta^ : the .same ; but more powerful 
diuretics ; also saline purgatives. Potassii ISulphas : chiefly 
purgative. Potassii Nitras : excreted unchanged in the urine ; 

Sodium. 41 

diaphoretic, diuretic, and probably a mild febrifuge ; used 
in fuming powders for asthma. The remaining salts of 
Potassium contain, in combination with the alkali, an element 
or acid possessing such distinctly specific actions that the 
total effect is but in a minor degree referable to the former. 
Potasdi Chloras : excreted unchanged in all the secretions, 
including the saliva ; much used in inflamed, ulcerated and 
aphthous states of the mouth and throat; in large doses 
converts oxj- into met-heemoglobin, and is thus a dangerous 
poison. The Bromide, Iodide^ Permanganate and Suljjhur- 
ated Potash will be respectively discussed under the head of 
their other constituents. 

SODIUM. Sodium. Na. 23-00. 

There are four great sources of the official salts 
of Sodium and their preparations, viz. (1) Metallic 
Sodium, (2) the Chloride, (3) native Borax, and (i) 
the native Nitrate. They may therefore be arranged 
as follows : 

1. Sodiiiiii« — The metal Sodium as met with in com- 

Characters. — Soft, rapidly oxydising, showing a bright 
metallic surface when freshly cut. Decomposes water, and 
must be kept under naphtha. 

From Sodium is prepared: 

Liquor Sodii Ethylatis. See page 179. 

2. Sodii Cliloridiim. — Sodium Chloride. NaCa. 

Common Salt, purified. 

Source. — Native. 

Characters. — Small white crystalline grains, or transparent 
cubic crystals, free from moisture, with purely saline taste. 
Solubility, 1 in 2| of water. 

Sodii Chloridum is used in making : 

Acidum Hy drochloricum , Hy drargyri Perchloridum, 
and Hydrargyri Subchloridum. 

I^om Sodii Chloridum are derived : 
i. Sodii Carbonas.— Sodium Carbonate. NaaCOj, lOHjO. 
c * 

ilit Sodium. 

Source. — Made from Sodium Chloride, by interaction 
with Ammonium Bicarbonate, and subsequent ignition. Or 
by (1) conversion into Sulphate, and (2 and 3) the action of 
heat on a mixture of the Sulphate with Carbon and Calcium 
Carbonate. (1) 2NaCl + H2SO4 = NajSO* + 2HC1. (2) Na„ 
SO4 + C4 = NaaS + 4C0. (3) NagS -f CaCOg = Na^COg + CaS. 

Characters. — Transparent, colourless, laminar rhombic 
crystals, efflorescent ; with a harsh taste, and strongly alkaline 
reaction. Solubility. — 1 in 1*6 of oold water ; insoluble in 
alcohol. 20 gr. neutralise 98 gr. Citric Acid, or 105 gr. 
Tartaric Acid. Impurities. — Sulphates and chlorides ; other 

Dose. — 5 to 30 gr. 

Sodii CarhoTias is used in preparing : 
Extractum Ergotaa and Sodii Arsenas. 

From Sodii Carhonas are made : 

a. Sodii Carbon as Exsiccatus. — Exsiccated Sodium 
Carbonate, NajCOs. A dry white powder, made from 
Sodium Carbonate by heating it until it loses about 
63 per cent, of its weight. 

Bose.—S to 10 gr. 

Sodii Carhonas Exsiccatus is used in making : 
Pilula Ferri. (See page 82.) 

b. Sodii Bicarbonas. — Sodium Bicarbonate. NaHCO,. 
Source. — Prepared by saturating the Carbonate 

with Carbonic anhydride. Na^COg + H2O + CO3 = 
2NaHC03; or by interaction of Sodium Chloride and 
Ammonium Bicarbonate. 

Characters. — A white powder, or small opaque 
monoclinic crystals, of a saline taste. Solubility. — 
1 in 12 of water. 20 gr. neutralise 16-7 gr. of Citric 
Acid, or 178 gr. of Tartaric Acid. Impurities.— 
Carbonate and its impurities. 

Dose.— 5 to 30 gr. 

Tbochiscus Sodii Bicarbonatis.— 3 gr.» 
with Rose Basis. 

From Sodii Bicarbonas are made : 

a. Sodii Citro-tartraa Effervescens.— White 

Sodium. 43 

deliquescent granules. Made by heating the Bi- 
carbonate with Citric and Tartaric Acids and 
Sugar ; stirring until the powder assumes a granular 
form, sifting, and drying. Dose, 60 to 120 gr. 

j8. Lithii Citras EflFervescens. — See page 54. 

c. Soda Tartarata.— (CHOH)2COONaCOOK,4HjO. 

Sodium Potassium Tartrate. Tartarated Soda. Ro- 
chelle Salu 

Source. — Prepared by neutralising Acid Potassium 
Tartrate with Sodium Carbonate. Na2C03+2(CHOH)2 

Cliaracters. — Colourless, transparent, trimetric 
prisms, tasting like common salt ; neutral. Solubility. 
— 1 in 1-5 of water. Dose, 120 to 240 grs. as a pur- 
gative ; 30 to 60 gr, as a diuretic. 

From Soda Tartarata is viade : 

Pulvis Sodae Tartarata EfFervescens. — " Seid- 
litz Powder." 120 gr., dried ; Sodium Bicarbonate, 
dried, 40 gr. ; in bhie paper. Tartaric Acid, dried, 
38 gr. ; in wJnte paper. Dose, the two powders, in 
nearly j pint of water, effervescing. 

d. Sodii Phosphas. — Sodium Phosphate. Na^ 
HPO4, 12H2O. 

Source. — Obtained by (2) adding a solution of 
Sodium Carbonate to a solution of Acid Calcium Phos- 
phate prepared from (1) a mixture of Bone-ash and 
Sulphuric Acid. (1) Ca32P04 + 2H2SO4 = CaH42P04 
+ 2CaS04. (2) CaH42P04 + NaaCOs = Na^HPO* + H2O 
+ CO3 + CaHP04. 

Characters. — Colourless, transparent, rhombic 
prisms, efflorescent, alkaline, tasting like common salt. 
Solubility, 1 in 6 of cold water. Dose, 30 to 120 gr. 
repeated ; ^ to ^ oz. at once. 

Fro7n Sodii Phosj)7ias is made : 

Sodii Phosphas Effervescens. — A white granu- 
lated powder, made like Sodii Citro-tartras Effer- 
vescens, Sodium Phosphate being substituted for 
Sugar. Dose, 60 to 120 gr. repeated ; J to ^ oz. at 

Sodii Phosphas is used to make Ferri Phosphas. 

e. Sodii Hypophosphis. — See Phosphorus, page 107. 

44 Sodium. 

f. Sodii Arsenas. — See Arserdum, page 110. 

g. Sodii Benzoas. —See Benzoinum, page 333. 

h. Sodii Sulphis. — See Acidum Sulphurosum, page 

i. Sodii Salicylas. — See page 388. 
j. Sodse Chlorinat» Liquor. — See Cklorum, page 


ii. Sodii Sulphas. — Sodium Sulphate. NajS04, 10H,O. 
Glauber's Salt, 

Source. — Obtained by the interaction of Sodium Chloride 
and other Sodium salts with Sulphuric Acid. 

Characters. — Colourless, transparent, monoclinic prisms, 
efflorescent, with a bitter saline taste. Solubility. — 1 in 2-8 
of water; insoluble in alcohol 90 %. Dose. — 30 to. 120 gr. 
repeated ; ^ to ^ oz. at once. 

From Sodii Sulphas is made : 

Sodii Sulphas Effervescens. — A white granu- 
lated powder, made like Sodii Citro-tartras Effer- 
vescens, with dried Sodium Sulphate instead of 
Sugar. Dose. — 60 to 120 gr. repeated ; j to ^ o7. 
at once. 

3. Borax. — Borax. Sodium Biborate. See Acidum 
Boricum, page 150. 

4. Sodii Nitris.— Made from the native Nitrate. See 
Acidum Nitrosum, page 153. 

5. Sodii Bi'oiiiidiini.— See Bromum, page 132 

6. Sodii lodidiini.— See lodum, page 127. 

T. Sodii Siiipliocarbolas.— See^£!i^i^m Carholicum, 
page 196. 


Salts of Sodium (1) are characterised by their neutral 
solutions in water giving a precipitate with Potassium Met- 
antimoniate. (2) They impart an intense yellow colour to 
flame. (3) They are not volatile. 


Externally. — The Solution of Sodium Ethylate is used 
as a caustic to destroy small accessible tumours, such as naevi. 

Sodium. 45 

Solutions of the Carbonates may be employed to neutralise 
caustic acids ; in eczema and itching disorders of tihe skin ; 
and in extensive burns. Sodium compounds with Olive Oil 
constitute Hard Soaps. 

Internally. — Sodium closely resembles Potassium in its 
action on the alimentary canal, but is more powerful because 
much more slowly absorbed. Thus the Bicarbonate stimulates 
the muscular wall of the stomach, and is more commonly given 
as a stomachic than the other alkalis,' in doses of gv. 8 togr. 15, 
shortly before meals. Part of the salt at the same time be- 
comes converted into the chloride, which assists the digestion 
of albumen. As the Bicarbonate, Soda Water, the official 
Lozenge, in mixture with Sal- volatile and an essential oil such 
as Peppermint, or as a natural alkaline water (Vichy, &c.), 
given between meals, it acts as an antacid to the contents of 
the stomach, relieving indigestion. The alkali also liquefies 
tenacious mucus, and enables the gastric juice to reach the 
food more freely. Weak solutions are used in lavage. Com- 
mon Salt in large doses is a safe and available emetic. 

The salts of Sodium, being much less diffusible than 
those of Potassium, pass on into the small intestine. Here 
the Sodium Sulphate and Phosphate and Tartarated Soda 
(Rochelle Salt) act as saline purgatives. The Sulphate, which 
is a constituent of several natural purgative waters, including 
Carlsbad, Marienbad, Friedrichshall and Hunyadi Janos, is 
the most powerful of these, producing an abundant watery 
evacuation. It is used as a hydragoguein dropsies, especially 
in ascites from hepatic disease ; in congestion of the portal 
system ; and as an ordinary purgative. The Phosphate is 
a milder but sufficiently active purgative, less unpleasant to 
the palate ; it is often given to children. Soda Tartarata, the 
purgative basis of the Seidlitz Powder, is frequently employed 
to complete the effect of purgative pills. The Chloride is 
anthelmintic to Oxyuris vermicularis when administered 
in enema. .-- 


The salts of Sodium are slowly absorbed into the blood 
and slowly excreted from it, remaining in it chiefly as the 
Bicarbonate and Phosphate. Taken, as they constantly are. 
in food, these salts are the chief sources of the natural 
alkalinity of the liquor sanguinis, which may be increased by 
their medicinal exhibition as well as by the Citro-tartrate, 
Rochelle Salt and Sulphate, This effect of Sodium as an alka- 
liniser of the blood has been used in the treatment of the last 
stages of diabetes, where oxybutyric acid is present in the 

46 Sodium, 

tissues. Intravenous injections of normal saline containing 
Sodium Bicarbonate are used in diabetic coma ; also in shock. 
In medicinal doses, the salts of Sodium have no 
appreciably specific influence on any particular organ. This 
circumstance is due to the facts that the whole organism is 
saturated with Sodium, which participates in many of the 
ordinary tissue-changes ; that it is taken in large quantities 
in food (especially vegetables and fruits) ; and that the 
moderate amount contained in medicinal doses does not 
obviously affect metabolism. In this respect Sodium differs 
remarkably from Potassium, and it is said therefore to 
produce none of the depressing effects of that drug. As we 
have just seen, advantage is taken of this negative action of 
Sodium in its therapeutical applications. Natural mineral 
waters containing Sodium do, however, increase metabolism ; 
and these are used successfully in gout, obesity and glycosuria. 


Sodium is excreted by all the mucous surfaces, by the 
kidneys, by the liver, and possibly by the skin ; and in pass- 
ing through the various epithelial structures it modifies the 
amount, composition and reaction of their secretions. The 
actions of the different salts naturally differ considerably. 

1. Alimentary Canal. — The Sulphate and the Phosphate of 
Sodium act as hydragogue purgatives by diminishing, if in 
small amounts, absorption from the bowel ; if in large 
amount, they form in the intestine a hypertonic solution which 
draws fluid from the tissues. In both cases the intestine 
becomes distended with excess of watery fluid which induces 
mild peristalsis {see pages 500-503). Both salts and the 
Bicarbonate are said to be hepatic stimulants or direct 
cholagog^es ; the Phosphate more so than the Sulphate. The 
value of these salts in hepatic and intestinal disorders, already 
referred to, is perhaps partly attributable to their effect in 
increa.sing the bile. Soda Tartarata and Sodii Citro-tartras 
Effervescens have a similar but feebler action. 

2. Kidneys. — Sodium acts as a diuretic, but less powerfully 
than Potassium, increasing the water and the solid consti- 
tuents, including urea, and diminishing or neutralising the 
acidity of the urine. The Bicarbonate is the most useful salt 
of Sodium for this purpose ; the Nitrate, whilst also diuretic, 
is inferior in this respect to the Potassium Nitrate, and very 
seldom employed. The Tartarated Soda may be usefully 
combined with other alkalinisers of the urine, as in the 
Seidlitz Powder ; or the Effervescing Citro-tartrate may be 

Sodium. 47 

given. The uses of these alkalinisers of the urine are ex- 
plained under Potassium. 

3. Respiratory Passages. — The bronchial mucous mem- 
brane is said to become anasmic under the influence of large 
doses of Sodium salts, and its secretions to diminish ; but if 
the dose be moderate, the sputa become more abundant and 
liquid, and are more easily expelled by cough. The Bicar- 
bonate and Chloride are therefore indicated in the early 
stages of bronchitis, when the mucous membrane is hyper- 
semic and swollen, and cough harassing. The effects of 
Sodium on the stomach, blood and urine add much to its 
usefulness in such cases. 

When a comprehensive view is taken of the actions and 
uses of the salts of Sodium (locally in the alimentary canal, 
in the blood, in the tissues, and in the organs and passages 
where it is excreted from the body), it is found to be peculiarly 
indicated in a condition of system which has been called 
"irregular" or "visceral gout," and "chronic derangements 
of the liver," and which is specially characterised, amongst 
other symptoms, by catarrhs from the mucous membranes ; 
by disturbances of the functions of different organs, such as 
the heart and brain ; by imperfect biliary activity and consti- 
pation ; and by scanty, high-coloured, very acid urine, with 
occasional discharges of albumen and sugar. In such a con- 
dition great benefit may be derived from a course of anialine 
waters. If the stomach be the principal seat of catarrh, i.e. 
if chronic indigestion be urgent, the more purely carlonated 
alkaline waters should be selected, such as those of Vichy, 
Bilin and Ems. If the derangement chiefly involve the liver 
and intestines, the sulpliated and salt (NaCl) maters will be 
more suitable, such as Carlsbad, Kissingen, Wiesbaden and 
Marienbad. For chronic catarrh of the bladder and urinary 
passages, Ems, Vichy, Wildungen and Carlsbad are indicated. 


The actions and uses of the preparations of Sodium may 
be summarised as follows, and the special actions of some of 
the salts particularly noticed : Sodii Carhonas and Bicarbmias 
(the former rarely, the latter almost invariably used) are 
direct and remote antacids ; local sedatives, etc. Soda 
Ta/rtarata is like the carbonates, but purgative ; and more 
rapidly and distinctly diuretic and alkalinising, by virtue of 
the Potassium it contains. Sodii Citro-tartras is like Tar- 
tarated Soda, but milder. Sodii Sulphas and l^odil Phosphas 

48 Ammonium, 

are chiefly hydragogue purgatives and cholagogues, the 
former acting more on the bowels, the latter more on the 
liver. Sodii Chloridum is in large doses a free and safe 
emetic; an anthelmintic in enema. A -9 per cent, solution 
in sterilised water is '• normal saline "(p.l55). It is an important 
constituent of the waters of Homburg, Wiesbaden, Nauheim, 
Kissingen and Baden-Baden, and of sea-water. Sea-ivater 
sterilised and diluted to the strength of normal saline has 
been injected subcutaneously or given undiluted by mouth 
with benefit for malnutrition of infants and in intestinal dis- 
orders in adults. Improvement is also recorded in psoriasis 
and eczema treated by this method. The other salts of 
Sodium possess peculiar properties by virtue of their second 
constituent, and are described under their acid radicals. 

AMMONIUM. NH^. 18 042. 

All the official salts and preparations of Ammo- 
nium are derived directly or indirectly from the 
Chloride, that is, ultimately from Ammoniacal Gas 

Ammonii Chloridum. —Ammonium Chloride. 
NH4CI. Sal Ammoniac. 

Source. — Made by neutralising Ammoniacal Gas Liquor 
with Hydrochloric Acid ; evaporating to dryness ; and purify- 
ing by sublimation. NH^HO + HC1 = NH4C1 + HoO. 

Characters. — Colourless crystals ; inodorous. Soluhility. — 
1 in 3 of cold water; 1 in 55 of alcohol 90 per cent. 
Volatilises with heat. Impurities. — Iron, lead, and other 
metals ; carbonates, nitrates, sulphates and thiocyanates. 

Bose.—b to 20 gr. 

IVom Ammonii Chloridum are m/ide : 

1. Liquor Ammonin Fortis. — Strong Solution of 
Ammonia. NH3, 32 -5 per cent, by weight, dissolved 
in Water. 

Source. — Made by heating Ammonium Chloride 
with Slaked Lime, and collecting the gaseous product 
in distilled water. 2NH.Cl-fCa(HO)o = 2NH3 + CaCL 

Characters. — A colourless liquid with a very pun- 
gent charaoteristic odour^ and strong alkaline reaction ; 

Ammonium. 49 

Sp. gr. 0-888. Impurities. — Ammonium chloride, sul- 
phide, and sulphate ; lime ; other metals ; tarry 

From Liquor Ammonia Fortis are made : 

a. Linimentum Camphorse Ammoniatum.— 
Ammoniated Liniment of Camphor. Strong Solu- 
tion of Ammonia, 100; Camphor, 50; Oil of 
Lavender, 2*5 ; Alcohol 90 per cent, to make 400. 
1 in 4. 

h. Spiiitus Ammonise Aromaticus. — Aromatic 
Spirit of Ammonia. Spirit of Sal Volatile. Strong 
Solution of Ammonia, 200 ; Ammonium Carbonate, 
100; Oil of Nutmeg, 14-1; Oil of Lemon, 203; 
Alcohol 90%, 3000; Water, 1500. Distil the oils, 
alcohol and water ; dissolve the Strong Solution of 
Ammonia and Ammonium Carbonate in a small 
part of the distillate with the aid of heat ; and 
add the rest to make 3725. Sp. gr. -888 to -893. 
Dose, 20 to 40 min. repeated ; 60 to 90 min. at 
once (well diluted). 

c. Spiritus Ammoni99 Fetidus.— Fetid Spirit 
of Ammonia. Made by adding Strong Solution of 
Ammonia to a distillate of an extract made from 
Asafetida by maceration in alcohol 90 7o' Dose, 
20 to 40 min. repeated ; 60 to 90 min. at once. 

d. Tinctura Guaiaci Ammoniata.— See p. 263, 

e. Liquor Ammoniae. — Solution of Ammonia. 
NH3 (10%) dissolved in water. Strong Solution 
of Ammonia, 1 ; Distilled Water, 2. Sp. gr. 0-959, 


Linimentum AMMONiiE.— Liniment of 
Ammonia. Solution of Ammonia, 1 ; Olive 
Oil, 2 ; Almond Oil, 1 ; shaken together. 

From Liquor AmmonicB are m^ide : 

a. Ammonii Benzoas. — Ammonium Ben- 

Boate. See Benzoinum, page 334. 

)8. Ammonii Bromidum. — Ammonium 

Bromide. See Bromum, page 131. 

7. Ammonii Phosphas. — Ammonium 
Phosphate. (NHJ2HPO4. 

Source. — Made by neutralising Phosphoric 
Acid with Solution of Ammonia. 

50 Ammonium, 

Characters. — Transparent colourless 
prisms, becoming opaque by exposure. Solu- 
hility. — 1 in 2 of cold water; insoluble in 
alcohol 90%. Dose,^ to 20 gr. 

Solution of Ammonia is also used in pre- 
paring Tinctura Opii Ammoniata, 
Tinctura Quininas Ammoniata, and 
Tinctura Valerianae Ammoniata. 

2. Ammonii Carbonas. — Ammonium Carbonate. 

Source. — Made by subliming a mixture of Am- 
monium Chloride (or Sulphate) and Calcium Carbonate. 
(1) 2NH4CI + CaCOg = (NHOgCOg + CaCl,. (2) 
2(NH4)2C03 = NH4HCO3 + NH4NH2CO2 + NRgV H2O. 
(3) NH4HCO3 + NH4NH2CO2 = N3H11C2O6. This salt 
IS considered to be a mixture of Ammonium 
Hydrogen Carbonate (NH4HC0i,) with Ammonium 
Carbamate (NH4NH2COJ). 

Characters. — Translucent crystalline masses, 
efflorescent, volatile and pungent to the nose ; alka- 
line. Solubility, 1 in 4 of cold water. 20 gr, neutralise 
26| gr. Citric Acid, or 28| gr. Tartaric Acid. Im- 
purities. — Sulphates and chlorides ; tarry matters. 

Dose. — 3 to 10 gr. (as a stimulant or expectorant ; 
30 gr. as an emetic). 

From Ammonii CarhoTuis are made : 

a. Spiritus Ammonise Aromaticos. See page 

b. Liquor Ammonii Acetatis.— Solution of 
Ammonium Acetate. " Mindererus' Spirit." 

Source. — Made by neutralising an aqueous 
solution of 50 of Ammonium Carbonate with 
sufficient Acetic Acid ; and adding water to make 
1000. NH4HCO3, NH4NH2CO3 + SCHg-COOH = 
3CH3COONH4 + HjO + 2CO3. ^'^s^> 2 to 6 fl.dr. 
Should be preserved in a green glass bottle. 

c. Liquor Ammonii Citratis. — Solution of 
Ammonium Citrate. 

Source. — Made by neutralising an aqueous 
solution of 125 of Citric Acid with 87-5 of Am- 
monium Carbonate ; and adding water to make 
1000. Dose, 2 to 6 fl.dr. Should be preserved in 
a green glass bottle. 

Ammonium. 5^ 

Salts of Ammonium are soluble and colourless ; and are 
easily decomposed and give up Ammonia on being heated 
after mixing with a caustic alkali or lime. 


Externally. — Ammonia is a stimulant to nerves and other 
structures, causing a sensation of pain and burning, and 
reddening the part by dilating the vessels. If the appli- 
cation be prolonged and the vapour confined, blistering may 
result ; but dilute preparations produce only a rubefacient 
effect and a sense of heat. It is used in the forms of Lini- 
mentum Ammonias and Linimentum Camphors Ammoniatum 
to stimulate the circulation in a part, either for the purpose 
of increasing the local nutrition, for instance, in stiffness or 
other chronic conditions of joints, or as a counter-irritant 
in diseases of deeper parts, e.g. on the surface of the chest in 
bronchitis. Liquor Ammonias is not to be used as a caustic ; 
and vesication by it is better avoided. A.mmonia is applied to 
insect stings ; also to snake bites, with doubtful benefit. 

Internally. — Admitted into the nose, the vapour of Am- 
monia itself, or the Carbonate (** smelling salts "), is a powerful 
general stimulant, instantly causing a pungent sensation, 
watery secretion from the parts, including the conjunctiva, 
sneezing and other disturbances of respiration, and increased 
tension and frequency of the pulse. It is used accordingly as 
a means of resuscitating consciousness, the action of the 
heart, and respiration, in failure of the circulation such as 
fainting, and in asphyxia from any cause — drowning, hanging, 
or poisoning by narcotics. It arrests hiccup in some instances. 
The Chloride in the form of a vapour is inhaled for vai'ious 
affections of the nose and throat. i 

In the stomach. Ammonia produces the same effects as 
externally. A full dose (30 gr. of the Carbonate well diluted) 
is an' emetic, which maybe used in croup and bronchitis. 
Smaller doses cause a sense of warmth at the epigastrium, 
and act as carminatives and reflex general stimulants (see 
page 481), Sal Volatile chiefly being used for this purpose. 
In common with Sodium and Potassium, it has an antacid 
effect on the contents of the stomach, and is given after 
meals in dyspepsia. Like these, also, it acts as a natural 
stimulant to the stonvich if given before meals ; and 
Sal Volatile is a common ingredient of alkaline stomachic 

S? Ammonium. 

mixtures. On the bowels, Ammonia in medicinal doses 
acts as a stimulant and carminative. 


Ammonia is absorbed into the blood, and is there fixed ; 
possibly increasing the alkalinity of the plasma of which it 
is a natural constituent, and diminishing the tendency to 


Ammonia stimulates the central nervous system generally, 
especially the cord and the respiratory centre, whilst the force 
and frequency of the heart and the blood pressure are increased. 
It is thus a general stimulant. It is much given in exhausted 
states of the vital powers, especially if respiration and circu- 
lation threaten to fail, as in typhoid fever complicated with 
pneumonia ; in the bronchitis of old or weakly subjects ; and 
in ordinary acute pneumonia with increasing feebleness ot 
the heart. For serpent's bite it is given internally in water, 
or hypodermically (10 to 20 minims diluted), whilst it is 
applied to the wound. The Chloride is a direct cholagogue; 
the Carbonate appears to increase the glycogen in the liver. 
Salts of Ammonium decidedly increase the production of 
urea; partly, at least, by their own decomposition with 
Carbonic Acid in the liver : (1) 2NH3 + COg = NH4NH2CO3 
(Ammonium Carbamate). (2) NH4NH2CO2 = CO(NH3)2 
(Urea) + H2O. 


Ammonia is excreted by the kidneys as urea or uric acid, 
and possibly also as nitric acid. Thus, instead of diminishv 
ing, it maintains or actually increases the acidity of the 
urine, whilst the amount of urea and uric acid also rises, as 
well as the volume of secretion. The Chloride of Ammonium, 
although excreted partly unchanged, possesses these im- 
portant powers most fully, the Acetate less fully ; they may- 
be employed as diuretics in dropsies and fevers. 

The bronchial secretion is distinctly increased hy the 
Carbonate and Chloride of Ammonium, and rendered more 
liquid and easily raised. These salts prove of great service 
as expectorants in the treatment of bronchitis when tho 
secretion is scanty and thick, or the patient feeble ; the 
accompanying stimulation of the respiratory centre increases 
the vigour of cough and expectoration, whilst the heart also 
is strengthened. 

Lithium, 53 

The mucous secretion of the stomach is affected by Am- 
monia as by the other alkalis, and the Chloride may be used 
in chronic dyspepsia associated with bronchitis. Ammonia 
remotely stimulates the intestines, and causes diarrhoea if 
given in large doses. 

On the shin Ammonium Acetate acts as a well-marked 
remote stimulant, Liquor Ammonii Acetatis being one of our 
most common diaphoretics. The Chloride also possesses the 
same property, but in a less degree. 


These may be thus summarised : Liqnor Ammonice Forti* 
and Liquor Ammoniac : used as local and general stimulants, 
the former externally only. Ammonii CarboTias: volatile 
stimulant, emetic, and double expectorant (through the nerves 
and secretions), Ammonii Chloridum : local refrigerant, its 
solution producing cold; gastric, intestinal, and hepatic 
stimulant; nervous stimulant; diuretic, double expectorant, 
and diaphoretic. Liquor Ammonii Acetatis ; diaphoretic and 
diuretic (febrifuge), and nervous stimulant. Liquor Ammonii 
Citratis : diuretic and diaphoretic. Spiritus Ammonice Aro- 
maticzts : agreeable and powerful carminative, antacid, and 
general stimulant. Ammonii Phosphas : direct cholagogue, 
possibly alkaliniser of the blood ; nervine stimulant. Spiritus 
Ammonice Fetidus : see Asafetida. Ammonii Benzoas : see 
Benzoinum. Ammonii Bromidum : see Bromum. 

LITHIUM. Lithium. Li. 6-94. 

This metal is obtained from several minerals, such 
as Petalite and Lepidolite ; and traces of it occur 
in certain mineral waters, e.g. Baden-Baden, Carlsbad, 
and Vals. Only two of its salts are official. 

Lithii Cai'bonas* — Lithium Carbonate. LigCOg. 

Source. — Obtained from native silicates of Lithium. 

Cliaracters. — A white powder, or minute crystalline grains ; 
alkaline. Impurities. — Many other metals ; deficiency of 
Lithium, detected by weight of residue. Solubility. — 1 in 70 
of water ; insoluble in alcohol 90 per cent. 

Dose. — 2 to 5 gr. (in 3 or 4 fl.oz. of aerated water). 

54 Lithium. 

From Zithii Ca/rhonas is made : 

Lithii Citras.— Lithium Citrate. CsH/OHrCOOLi)* 

Source. — Made by saturating Citric Acid with 
Lithium Carbonate. 

Characters. — A white crystalline deliquescent salt. 
Solubility, 1 in. 2 of cold water. Dose, 5 to 10 gr. 

From Lithii Citras is made : 

Lithii Citras EfFervescens. — Made by heating 
Lithium Citrate with Citric and Tartaric Acids and 
Sodium Bicarbonate, stirring until the powder assumes 
a granular character, sifting, and drying. Dose, 60 to 
120 gr. 


They impart a rich crimson colour to flame ; and give a 
white precipitate with Na^COa after long standing. The 
Hydrate, Carbonate and Phosphate are only slightly soluble 
in water. 



Externally. — Salts of Lithium have been used in alkaline 
fomentations for gout. 

Internally. — Salts of Lithium have doubtless an antacid 
action on the alimentary canal, very similar to that of I'ota.s- 
sium. The Carbonate is apt to cause indigestion, but is 
given in very weak solutions. 


Lithium quickly enters the blood, and is believed to 
increase its alkalinity, like Potassium. 


In this respect also Lithium closely resembles Potassium, 
being a cardiac and neuro-muscular depressant if given in 
large doses or for a length of time. 


Lithium is rapidly excreted by the kidneys, and probably 
by the mucous membranes. It is a powerful diuretic, and 
diminishes the acidity of the urine, holding uric acid in 
solution as the biurate. It is a valuable remedy in gout, as it 

Calcium. 55 

hastens the excretion of urates. In uric acid gravel it might 
prevent accretion and fresh deposits in the kidneys and 
urinary passages. 

Both salts of Lithium may be used, the main difference 
between them being as regards solubility, which is very 

CALCIUM. Calcium. Ca. 4007. 

There are three great sources of the official salts 
and preparations of Calcium, namely, (1) Chalk, (2) 
Native Sulphate, and (3) Bone-ash. 

1. Creta PraBparata.— Prepared Chalk. Native 
Calcium Carbonate freed from most of its impurities by 

Characters. — White friable masses or a white 
powder; incompatible with all acids and sulphates. 
Impurities. — Metals ; phosphates, sulphates, silica. 
Dose, 10 to 60 gr. 


a. Mistura Cretse. — Chalk Mixture. Prepared 
Chalk, 5; Tragacanth, 0-7; Kefined Sugar, 10; 
Cinnamon Water to make 160. Dose, | to 1 fl.oz. 

/3, Pulvis Cretffl Aromaticus. — Aromatic 
Powder of Chalk. Prepared Chalk, 11 ; Cinnamon, 
4; Nutmeg, 3; Cloves, 1-5; Cardamom Seeds, 1 ; 
Sugar, 25. Dose, 10 to 60 gr. 

From Pulvis Crette Aromaticus is made : 

Pulvis Cret^ Aromaticus cum Opio. 
— Aromatic Powder of Chalk with Opium. 
Aromatic Powder of Chalk, 39 ; Opium, 1. 
Dose, 10 to 40 gr. 

Oreta Prceparata is used to prepare : 

Hydrargyrum cum Crkta.— See Hyd/ra/r- 
gyrum, page 94. 

IVom Creta Prceparata are made : 
a. Calx. — Lime. Calcium Oxide. CaO. 
Source. — Obtained by calcining Chalk, Limestone* 
or Marble. CaCOa = CaO + CO,. 

56 Calcium. 

Characters. — Compact whitish masses, which 
readily absorb water, swell, and fall to powder (slaking), 
with development of much heat. 

From Calx u made : 

Calcii Hydras. — Calcium Hydroxide. Slaked 
Lime. Ca(H0)2. 

Source. — Recently made by slaking Calciun. 
Oxide with Water. CaO + HgO = Ca(H0)2. 

Characters. — A white powder, strongly alka- 
line, soluble in cold water (1 in 900), and more 
with sugar (1 in 60). Impurities. — Many metals 
and other salts. Incompatible with vegetable and 
mineral acids, alkaline and metallic salts, and 
tartar emetic. 

From Calcii Hydras are made : 

i. Liquor Calais. — Solution of Lime. 
Lime Water. Made by shaking up Calcium 
Hydroxide (previously washed in water to free 
it from chlorides) in Distilled Water, and de- 
canting. ^ gr. of Lime in 1 fl.oz. Dose, 1 to 
4 fl.oz. 


LiNiMENTUM Calcis. — Solution of 
Lime and Olive Oil, equal parts, shaken 
Liquor Calcis is also used in preparing : 

Lotio Hydrargyri Flava, Lotio Hy- 
drargyri Nigra, and Argenti Oxidum. 

ii. Liquor Calcis Saccharatus. — Saccha- 
rated Solution of Lime. Made by digesting 
Calcium Hydroxide and Sugar in Water ; and 
decHiiting. Contains 8 grains of Lime in 1 
fl.oz. or 2 per cent, by weight of CaO. Dose, 
20 to 60 min. 

iii. Calx Chlorinata. — See Chlorum, 
page 123. 

iv. Calcii Hypophosphis. — See Phosphorus, 
page 107. 

b. Calcii Chloridum.— Calcium Chloride. CaCL, 

Calcium. 57 

Smirce. — Made by neutralising Hydrochloric Acid 
with Calcium Carbonate ; and desiccating. 

Characters. — White, very deliquescent masses, witu 
bitter acrid taste. Solubility. — 1 in 1 of water ; 1 in 3 
of alcohol 90 per cent. Impurities. — Carbonates ; salts 
of aluminium and iron ; hypochlorites, detected by 
evolving CI with HCl. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 

Calcii Cliloridum is used to make : 

Calcii Carbonas Prsecipitatus. — Precipitated 

Calcium Carbonate. Precipitated Chalk. CaCOg. 

• Source. — Obtained by the interaction of 

Calcium Chloride and Sodium Carbonate. CaCL 

+ NasCOs = CaCOg + 2NaCl. 

Characters. — A white micro-crystalline 
powder, insoluble in water. Impurities. — Phos- 
phates, sulphates, aluminium, and iron. Dose, 
10 to 60 gr. 

From Calcii CarhoTias Pracipitatus is pre- 
pared : 

Synipus Calcii Lactophosphatis. — Syrup 
of Calcium Lactophosphate. Made by dis- 
solving 25 of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate 
in 60 of Lactic Acid, adding 46 of Concen- 
trated Phosphoric Acid, triturating; and 
adding Orange - Flower Water undiluted, 
Sugar and Water to 1,000. Dose, f to 1 fl.dr. 

Calcii Carbonas Pracipitatui is contained in: 

Trochiscus Bismuthi Compositus (4 gr. 
in each). 

2. Calcium Sulphate.— Pure native Calcium Sul- 
phate. CaS04,2H20. " Plaster of Paris." 

Calcium Sulphate is used to make : 

Calx Sulphurata. — See Sulphur, page 137. 

3. Calcii Pliospiias. — Calcium Phosphate. 

Source.— Made by (1) dissolving Bone-ash in dilute 
Hydrochloric Acid ; (2) adding dilute Solution of Ammonia ; 
and washing and drying the precipitate. (1) Ca32P04 + 
4HC1 = CaH42P04 + 2CaCla ; (2) CaH42P04 + 2CaCl2 + 
4NH4HO = Ca32P04 + 4NH4OI -f 4H2O. Also by interaction 
of CaCl, and NaaHPO^. 

S^ Calcium. 

Characters.— A light white amorphous powder, insoluble 
in water ; soluble in diluted HCl or HNO3. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 

Calcii Phosphas is contained in Pulvis Antimonialis, and 
in Extractum Euonymi Siccum. 


Calcium gives a red colour to flame. Solutions of Calcium 
salts give a white precipitate with Ammonium Oxalate, in- 
soluble in Acetic Acid ; not with Ammonium Sulphide. 


Externally. — Lime in the form of Calcium Oxide is 
caustic ; combined with Caustic Potash (Vienna Paste), it 
used to be employed for this purpose. Liniraentum Calcis 
and Carron Oil (Lime Water and Linseed Oil) are popular 
remedies for burns and for the relief of itching in skin 
diseases. Dusted on the skin as Chalk, either separately or 
combined with other powders, e.g. Boric Acid, it is astringent 
and desiccative (drying), and is used to promote the healing 
of burns, eczema and ulcers. 

Internally. — The local effect of lime is antacid, like that 
of the alkalis and magnesium, combined with an astringency 
peculiar to itself. In the mouth. Chalk is used as an antacid 
and physical dentifrice. Admitted into the stomach and 
intestines, as Lime-water or the Carbonate, Calcium (1) unites 
wit4i the/r<?d acids of the contents. Lime-water prevents the 
gastric juice from curdling milk in large lumps, and is given 
extensively to artificially-reared infants, the Liquor Calcis 
Saccharatus being an excellent form wlien dilution of the 
food is undesirable. Lime is a valuable antidote in poisoning 
by the mineral acids and oxalic acid, and one which is 
available in the form of whiting; it must be freely given. 
Acid dyspepsia, with heart-burn, may be relieved with Lime- 
water or the Compound Bismuth Lozenge, given after food. 
(2) On the gla/nds of the stomach the action of Calcium 
appears to be depressant ; it is not suited for administration 
before meals. Lime-water is, indeed, a general gastric 
sedative, arresting some forms of vomiting, especially in 
the acid dyspepsia of infants and in pregnancy. 

The Calcium salts can be traced along the whole length 
of the canal, and most of their bulk is finally expelled un- 
absorbed. Their astringent effect in diarrhcEa is probably 

Calcium. 59 

due to a sedativB influence on the sympathetic nerve endings, 
and to their action in diminishing the permeability of the 
vessel walls, thus decreasing the secretions. Lime and 
Chalk thus come to be two of our most valuable drugs 
in diarrhiea, either alone or with Aromatics, Opium, or 
vegetable astringents, as in the official preparations. 

Lime-water is also employed locally as an enema for 
killing the thread-worm, and as an injection for gleet. 


Calcium enters the circulation in very small quantities 
only, and appears in the plasma as a phosphate. It is an 
essential factor in blood coagulation. The Chloride is used 
as a haemostatic in haemophilia and haemorrhages, as well as 
for chilblains, but experiment has not proved conclusively 
that it hastens coagulation. 


The important part played by Calcium as a constituent of 
bones has suggested its use as a specific remedy in rickets, 
fractures, and other lesions of these structures ; and the 
Phosphate and Lime-water are extensively used for the two 
former conditions. Calcium raises the tone of the heart and 
vascular system, and is used for heart failure in pneumonia; 
it is said to be of value in tetany and infantile convulsions ; 
it reduces the protein loss in nephritis and albuminuria. 


The greater part of Calcium being expelled by the bowel, 
little remains to be excreted by the kidneys. An alkalinising 
effect on the urine can scarcely be appreciated, but it is 
certainly diuretic in the form of the waters of Bath, Con- 
trex^ville, and Wildungen, which are valuable in gout, 
rheumatism and gravel. 


Oreta in its various forms and combinations, Caleii Car- 
bonas Praoijntatns, Liquor Calais, and Liqiwr Galcig Sac- 
charatus : possess the general actions and uses of Lime. 
Caleii Chloridum: recommended as a specific in scrofulous 
enlargement of glands ; haemostatic. Qilcii Phosphas : spe- 
cific in bone diseases and scrofula. Calx Chlorinata and 
its derivatives : media for supplying chlorine, and used ac- 
cordingly (page 123), Caleii Hypopliosphis : employed as a 
specific in tuberculosis and other wasting diseases (page 123). 
In the remaining preparations the action of the Calcium or 

6o Magnesium. 

Chalk is comparatively insignificant, as in the three prepara- 
tions of Mercury of which they are ingredients, and in 
Antimonial Powder. Calcii Alphas : used for surgical and 
pharmaceutical purposes. Calx Sulpliurata : used in sup- 
puration, boils and scrofulous sores (page 137). 

MAGNESIUM. Magnesium. Mg. 24-32. 

All the oflBcial salts and preparations of Magnesium 
are derived directly or indirectly from the Sulphate : 

Iflagnesii Sulphas.— Magnesium Sulphate. MgS04, 
7H2O. Epsom Salt. 

Source. — Made from native Magnesium Carbonates, by 
interaction with Diluted Sulphuric Acid ; or by purifjdng 
the native Sulphate. 

Characters. — Small colourless rhombic prisms, with a 
bitter taste. SoUihility, 1 in 1*3 of cold water. Incompatible 
with alkaline carbonates, lime-water, lead acetate, and silver 
nitrate. Impurities. — Other metals ; nitrates. Dose, 30 to 
120 gr. repeated ; j to J oz, at once. 


MiSTUEA Senn^ Composita. — 1 oz. in 4 fl.oz. 
See Senna, page 278. 

From Magnesii Sulphas are made : 

a. Magnesii Sulphas EflFervescens. — Effervescent 
Epsom Salt. — A white granular powder. Made like 
Sodii Citro-tartras Effervescens (p. 42), with the 
addition of Magnesium Sulphate. Dose, 60 to 240 gr. 
repeated ; ^ to 1 oz. at once. 

h. Liquor Magnesii Carbonatis. — "Fluid Mag- 
nesia." The Carbonate in solution. 

Source. — Made by boiling together aqueous solu- 
tions of Magnesium Sulphate and Sodium Carbonate, 
and filtering the precipitate; diffusing it in water; 
and dissolving it in Carbonic Anhydride undei 

Characters. — A clear, slightly effervescing fluid. 
Nearly 10 gr. of Carbonate in 1 fl.oz. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.oz. 

0. Magnesii Carbonas PonderoBus. Heavy Mag- 
nesium Carbonate. aCMgCO,), Mg(H0)^4H,0. 

MagnmsiOm. 6i 

Source. — Made by mixing strong toiling solu- 
tions of Magnesium Sulphate and Sodium Carbon- 
ate, evaporating, purifying, and drying. 4MgS04 + 
4Na2C03 -f 5H2O = 3(MgC03), Mg(H0)2, 4H2O + 
4Na2S04 -t- CO2. 

Cfinraeters. — A white granular powder, compara- 
tively insoluble in water. Dose, 5 to 30 gr. repeated ; 
30 to 60 gr. at once. 

Magnedi Carhonas Ponderoms is contained in : 

Trochiscus Bismuthi Compositus. — 2 gr. in 
each. iSee p. 119.) 

From Magnesii CarhoncLS Ponderostis is made : 

Magnesia Ponderosa. — Heavy Magnesia. 
Heavy Calcined Magnesia. MgO. 

Source. — Made by exposing the Heavy Car- 
bonate to a dull red heat. 

Characters. — A white powder, insoluble in 
water. Dose, 5 to 80 gr. repeated ; 30 to 60 gr. 
at once. 

d. Magnesii Carbonas Levis.— Light Magnesium 
Carbonate. 3(MgC03)Mg(HO)24H20. 

Source. — Made like Magnesii Carbonas Ponderosus, 
but with cold dilute solutions ; boiling for 15 minutes ; 
filtering, washing, and drying. 

Characters. — A very light white powder, proving 
microscopically to be partly amorphous, with prismatic 
crystals. 3^ times the bulk of the Heavy Carbonate. 
Dose, 5 to 30 gr. repeated ; 30 to 60 gr. at once. 

Ih'om Magnesii Carbonas Levis is made : 

Magnesia Levis. — Light Magnesia. Light 
Calcined Magnesia. MgO. 

Source. — Made by exposing Light Magnesium 
Carbonate to a dull red heat. 

Characters. — A white, very light powder, 3^ 
times the bulk of Heavy Magnesia ; sparingly 
soluble in water. Dose, 5 to 30 gr. repeated ; 30 to 
60 gr. at once. 

Magnesia Levis or Ponderosa is contained in 
Pulvis Rhei Compositus (6 parts in 9). 

62 MagnesWM. 

general chemical characters op magnesium saltfi. 

The soluble salts of Magnesium give a white precipitate 
with Ammonia and Sodium Phosphate. 


Externally, the Silicate, French Chalk (not official), is 
used as a dusting powder. 

Internally, Magnesium is a valuable means of decom- 
posing the contents of the stomach and intestines : — 

(1) The Oxide and Carbonates form comparatively in 
soluble or innocuous compounds with the mineral acids, 
oxalic acid, and mercuric, arsenical and cupric salts ; in large 
quantities they prevent the absorption of alkaloids by render- 
ing the contents of the stomach alkaline ; the Sulphate 
precipitates insoluble sulphates of lead and barium. Mag- 
nesia or its salts may therefore be employed as antidotes in 
poisoning by these substances, the Oxide being preferred to 
the Carbonate to prevent the evolution of gas, and care being 
taken to give it very freely. 

(2) By a similar process of decomposition, Magnesia 
serves to neutralise excessive acidity in the stomach and 
bowels, and is converted into tlie chloride, lactate and 
bicarbonate, this reaction removing irritant acid, and forming 
salts of Magnesium which have a purgative effect. The 
Carbonate yields carbonic acid, whicli exerts its sedative 
action on the stomach. Either substance may be given 
between meals with Sodium Bicarbonate and Sal Volatile 
as an antacid in pyrosis, if a laxative effect also is desired. 

The chloride, bicarbonate, or lactate formed in the 
stomach, and the Sulphate of Magnesium directly given, 
having reached the intestine, are absorbed very slowly ; and 
if in sufficient quantity, produce marked effects as saline 
purgatives, the Sulphate being hydragogue in its action, with 
little direct stimulation of the muscular coat. The result is 
free evacuation ot a quantity of water by the bowel, and with 
it almost the whole of the Magnesium. Magnesium Sul- 
phate (Epsom Salt) is our most common saline purgative, in 
the form of Mistura Sennas Composita ; of a simple solution 
in Acid Infusion of Roses with a carminative ; and of several 
popular aperient waters, such as Friedrichshall, Piillna 
and Hunyadi Janos, of which it is an important constituent. 
Magnesium Sulphate is a mild, painless, non-nauseating 
purgative, more rapid in its action than the Sodium salt. It 

Barium. 63 

may be used to complete the effect of purgative pills in 
portal congestion ; as an habitual laxative in chronic con- 
stipation, combined with other salts in the above-named 
waters; in dysentery, and in feverish attacks with loaded 
bowels. It may also be given in enema. Magnesia and the 
Carbonates are given as purgatives to children for diarrhoea 
with foul acid stools — very frequently as Pulvis Rhei Com- 
positus (Gregory's Powder) ; and similar combinations are 
valuable in intestinal catarrh connected with portal con- 
gestion and gout. 

In small doses neither salt is purgative, but enters the 

Reaching the circulation as the chloride or lactate. Mag- 
nesium increases the alkalinity of the plasma, of which it 
is a normal constituent. 

Magnesium Sulphate paralyses nervous tissues. A sterile 
solution injected into the spinal canal induces anesthesia 
and has cured tetanus (3-4 c.c, of 25 % solution), while 
hypodermic injections are recommended for chorea and 

When a Magnesium salt does not purge, it is excreted 
chiefly by the kidneys. It renders the urine more abundant, 
and this diuretic eflrect contributes to the value of Magnesium 
waters such as those of Harrogate, Ems, Baden-Baden, Aix- 
les-Bains, Carlsbad, etc., in gout and gravel; but they are 
ineffective as alkalinising agents. 

BARIUM. Barium. Ba. 137-37. 

This metal is introduced into the Appendix of the 
Pharmacopoeia for testing purposes only, but may 
also be given medicinally. 

Barium Chloride. BaCl2,2H20. 

Characters. — Colourless translucent tables. Dose, \ to 

Solution of Barium Chloride.— 1 in 10 of Water. 

64 Cerium. 


Salts of Barium give an insoluble white precipitate with 
Sulphuric Acid or any soluble sulphate. 


In the lower animals Barium salts greatly disturb the 
blood pressure, first increasing it, but greatly lowering it 
before death. The Chloride has accordingly been recom- 
mended in aneurysm. In animals, Barium also affects the 
central nervous system, and through it the muscles of the 
bowels, bladder, vessels and limbs, causing purgation, urina- 
tion, spasms and convulsions ending in paralysis. The 
empirical use formerly made of the metal in chronic nervous 
diseases and in glandular enlargements may possibly be 
explained by these effects. 

CERIUM. Cerium. Oe. 140-25. 

Only one salt of this metal is official. 
CerJi Oxalas.— Cerium Oxalate. Ge^QiO^z, lOHjO. 

Source. — Made by precipitating a solution of Ammonium 
Oxalate with a soluble Cerium salt. 

Characters. — A white granular powder ; insoluble in 
water. Impurities. — Other metals ; other Oxalates (e.g. of 
lanthanum and didymium), the ash of which effervesces with 
boiling HCl. Dose.— 2 to 10 gr. 


Cerium has no effect on the vomiting centre ; it acts as 
a mechanical sedative. It has been given with benefit in 
vomiting, acid dyspepsia and heart-burn, especially when 
they occur in pregnancy. 



The metallic elements officially recognised fall 
naturally into several Sub-Groups, according to their 
actions and uses : (1) Plumbum, Argentum, Zincum, 
Cuprum, and Aluminium ; (2) Ferrum and Manga- 
nesium ; (3) Hydrargyrum ; (4) Phosphorus, Arse- 
nium, Antirnonium, and Bismuthum. Phosphorus is 
included here, although a non-metallic element, be- 
cause it is very closely allied pharmacologically with 
Antimony and Arsenic. 

Sub-Group 1. 

Plumbum, Argentum, Zincum, Cuprum, Aluminium. 

PLUMBUM. Lead. Pb. 207 10. 

There are two official sources of the salts and 
preparations of Lead contained in the Pharmacopoeia, 
namely : (1) the Oxide, and (2) the Carbonate. 

1. Plumbi Oxidum.— Lead Oxide. PbO. Litharge. 

Soitrce. — Made by the action of air on melted Lead. 

Characters. — Heavy scales of a pale yellowish-red colour. 
Soluble in diluted nitric acid and in acetic acid ; insoluble in 
jwater. Imp^irities.— Copper, iron, and carbonates. 


Emplastrum Plumbi. — Lead Plaster. Lead Soap. 
Oleate of Lead, 16 of Oxide boiled in 32 of Olive Oil 
and 16 of Water. 3PbO + 3H20 + 2C3H5(CisH3302)8, 
(Glyceryl Oleate in Olive Oil) = 3Pb(C,8H3302^2. i^ead 
Oleate + 2[C3Hg(OH)3], Glycerin. 

Plumbi Oxidnmor its Emplastrum is also contained 
in the following Emplastra: Hydrargyri, Plumbi, 
lodidi, llesinse, and Saponis. 


66 Plumbum. 

From Plumbi Oxidum is made : 

Plumbi Acetas. — Lead Acetate, Pb(CaH302)2,3H20. 

" Sugar of Lead." 

Source. — Made by dissolving Lead Oxide or Lead 
Carbonate in Acetic Acid. PbO + 2HC2H3O2 + 2H20= 
Pb(C2H302)2, 3H2O. 

Chara/iters. — White spongy-looking masses of 
interlaced small white monoclinic prisms, slightly 
efflorescent, having an acetous odour and a sweet as- 
tringent taste. Sohihility. — 10 in 25 of cold water, 
yielding a slightly acid solution ; 1 in 30 of alcohol, 
90 per cent. Incompatibles. — Hard water, mineral 
acids and salts, vegetable acids, alkalis, lime-water, 
potassium iodide, all vegetable astringents, prepara- 
tions of opium, albuminous liquids. Impurities. — 
Other metals, chlorides and nitrates. Dose, 1 to 5 gr. 


a. PiLULA Plumbi cum Opio. — Lead Acetate, 
18 ; Opium, 3 ; Syrup of Glucose, 2. About 1 of 
Opium in 8. Dose, 2 to 4 gr. 

h. SupposiTORiA Plumbi Composita. — Lead 
Acetate, 36 ; Opium, 12 ; Oil of Theobroma, 132; 
in 12 suppositories. 1 gr. of Opium in each. 

0. Unguentum Plumbi Acetatis.— 1 ; with 
Paraffin Ointment, white, 24. 

From Plumbi Acetas are made: 

a. Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis Fortls. — 

Strong Solution of Lead Subacetate. Goulard's 
Extract. Vh.p{C^2,^^^, dissolved in water. 

Source. — Made by boiling together Lead 
Acetate, 5 ; Lead Oxide, 3^ ; and Water, 20 ; 
filtering, and adding water. PbO -f Pb2C2H30a 
= Pb20(C2H302)2. 

Characters. — A clear, colourless liquid, 
with sweet astringent taste and alkaline reac- 
tion. Sp. gr., 1-275. 


Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis Dilu- 
TUS. — Goulard's Lotion. Goulard Water. 
Strong Solution of T^ead Subacetate, 1 ; 
Alcohol 90 per cent., 1 ; Water, 78. 

Plumbum. 67 

/S. Glycerinum Plumbi Subacetatis. 

Source. — Made by boiling together Lead 
Acetate, 5 ; Lead Oxide, 3-5 ; Glycerin, 20 ; 
and Water, 12 ; filtering, and evaporating. 

Unguentum Glycerini Plumbi 
Subacetatis.— 1 ; with ParaflSn Oint- 
ment, white, 5. 

2. Plumbi Carboiias. — Lead Carbonate. Lead 
Hydroxycarbonate. 2(PbC03),Pb(OH)2. "White Lead." 

Source. — Made by exposing Lead to the vapour of Acetic 
Acid, and at the same time to air loaded with Carbonic 
Anhydride from spent tan. 6Pb + 6HC2H3O2 + SOg (air) + 
2CO2 = 2(PbC03),Pb(OH)2 + 2H2O + 3(Pb2C2H302) (residual 
acetate, which again becomes oxydised, the process being 

Characters. — A soft heavy white powder. Solubility. — 
Insoluble in water; entirely soluble in diluted Acetic 


Unguentum Plumbi Carbonatis. — 1 ; with 
Paraffin Ointment, white, 9. 

From Plumbi Acetas (or from Lead Nitrate) is made : 
Plumbi lodidum. — Lead Iodide. Pbl2. 
Source. — Made by mixing solutions of Lead 
Acetate and Potassium Iodide ; and washing and drying 
the precipitate. 

Characters. — A heavy bright-yellow powder ; taste- 
less ; odourless. Solubility. — 1 in 200 of boiling water, 
falling out as brilliant golden-yellow crystalline scales 
as the solution cools. 


a. Emplastrum Plumbi Iodidi. — 2 ; with 
Lead Plaster, 16, and Resin, 2. 

b. Unguentum Plumbi Iodidi.— 1 ; with 
Paraffin Ointment, yellow, 9. 


Salts of Lead give a black precipitate with HgS ; a white 
precipitate with Alkaline Carbonates, and also with Diluted 

68 Plumbum. 


Externally. — Lead salts act readily upon wounds, ulcers, 
and exposed mucous membranes. They (1) precipitate the 
albuminous fluids which cover their surface or flow from them 
as discharge ; (2) coagulate the protoplasm of the young 
cells of the superficial layers ; (3) constrict the small vessels 
of the part, both directly, and also indirectly through the 
precipitation which forms a support to the vessel walls— thus 
circulation is diminished and escape of plasma prevented ; 
and (4) probably also depress the nerves. These effects, as 
a whole, are called astringent, anuphlogistic and sedative. 
The Solutions of the Subacetate are much employed as 
applications to ulcers, and as injections for chronic inflam- 
matory discharges from the vagina, urethra, ear, etc. ; the 
Carbonate is dusted upon ulcers or used as Ointment. The 
Strong Solution of the Subacetate is a powerful irritant, 
causing pain and reaction, and is rarely used undiluted. The 
Unguentum Plumbi lodidi may be rubbed into enlarged joints, 
glandular swellings and nodes, to produce its absorbent effect, 
which is chiefly referable to the Iodine. Applied in ointment. 
Lead certainly enters the circulation, probably in consequence 
of decomposition ; and its specific effects presently to be 
described may arise in this way. Lead is said not to be 
absorbed by the unbroken skin ; yet the Diluted Solution of 
the Subacetate is of unquestionable value in the treatment of 
contusions and superficial inflammations, probably from its 
astringent action on the blood-vessels. In the same form or 
as the Ointment it relieves itching. 

Internally. — The local action of Lead is first appreciated 
in the mouth as a peculiar astringent taste, with a sharp 
sweetness in the case of the Acetate. On the mucous mem- 
brane of the throat it acts in the manner already described : 
coagulating the mucus, producing an astringent effect on the 
cells and vessels of the part, and causing a sensation of dry- 
ness. If inflammation be present it is rapidly controlled ; 
and the Subacetate, either cautiously painted on as the 
strong Solution, or used as a gargle of the Diluted Solution, 
is an eflacacious remedy for tonsillitis. 

The local action of Lead continues in the stomach and 
intestine. It diminishes the secretions (including the bile), 
contracts the vessels, and arrests or reta,rds the peristaltic 
movements ; whilst it is itself converted into an albuminate 
by the fluids which it encounters. The Acetate is accordingly 

Plumbum, 69 

given, with or without Morphine, to arrest haematemesis ; 
and it is one of the most certain drugs in the treatment of 
obstinate diarrhoea, especially if ulceration be present and 
hsemorrhage threatening, as in typhoid fever, where it may 
be advantageously combined with Morphine or Opium. 


Lead quickly enters the blood as albuminate, but passes 
very rapidly through it, and cannot be found in it even after 
large doses. If Lead be given for some time, the blood 
becomes more watery, and the red corpuscles fewer in 


All the tissues take up Lead freely from the blood, and 
retain it obstinately as albuminate. The central nervous 
system is an important seat of its deposit, whilst it is even 
more abundant in the kidneys and liver as the channels of 
its escape, and in the bones from the sluggishness of their 
metabolism. Thus combined with the active cells of the 
body, Lead sets up a series of symptoms known as 
••plumbism." These are pathological, not physiological, 
effects, and take the form of a blue line on the gums, 
dyspepsia, constipation and colic ; ana3mia and debility ; a 
tense, infrequent pulse, with increased cardiac action ; disturb- 
ances of the urinary flow ; neuralgia ; tremors, followed by 
paralysis, of the muscles, chiefly affecting the extensors of 
the wrist ; and finally Interstitial nephritis and general 
arterial sclerosi_s. Lead is an active ecbolic. 

These symptoms and the results obtained by experiments 
on animals have been variously interpreted. Some authori- 
ties refer them to an irritant action of Lead on the 
involuntary muscular fibre of the stomach, bowels, and 
blood-vessels, similar to its astringent local effects, whence 
muscular contractions, painful spasms, narrowing of the 
vessels, and finally paralysis and other phenomena of ex- 
haustion. Other pharmacologists contend that Lead acts 
primarily on the nerves and central nervous system, and only 
secondarily on the muscles, vessels, etc. Its effect in raising 
the blood pressure has been referred to irritation of the 
splanchnics, and consequent narrowing of the abdominal 
vessels; that is, to increased peripheral resistance. The 
mcreased blood pressure is the cause of the infrequent 
powerful cardiac action, and to some extent of the urinary 

70 Argentum. 

4. specific uses. 

The specific actions of Lead are turned to important 
uses. It is a powerful hsemostatic, used in bleeding from 
the stomach and bowel, as we have said, and also from the 
lungs, Opium being advantageously combined with it to 
ensure mental and bodily rest, as the Compound Pill or 
Suppository, or as Lead Acetate, Morphine Acetate and 
Acetic Acid. Its value in diarrhoea is also partly referable to 
its specific action. 


Lead is slowly excreted in the bile, urine, sweat and milk. 
In the bowel, the portion that has been excreted by the liver 
is reabsorbed, is again excreted, and finally escapes in the 
fasces as the sulphide. In passing through the kidneys, Lead 
diminishes the excretion of uric acid. It is used as a haemo- 
static in renal haemorrhage ; more rarely in bronchorrhcea 
and in profuse sweating. 


The special action and uses of the different preparations 
of Lead are as follows : — The Acetate is the only salt given 
internally. The Solutions of the Suhacetate are the only 
liquid preparations of the metal, and are used externally in 
lotions, injections, collyria, etc., as well as in the form of the 
Ointment. The Oxide is made into Emplastrum Pluvihi, the 
basis of almost all plasters. The Iodide possesses, as already 
described, absorptive powers, by virtue of the Iodine, an 
effect which the Lead probably promotes. Phimhi Carhonas, 
in powder or as the Ointment, is applied to ulcers and 
inflamed surfaces for astringent purposes. 

ARGENTUM. Silver. Ag. 107 88. 

Two salts of Silver are official, the Nitrate and 
the Oxide. 

Arg^eiiti Nitras.— Silver Nitrate. AgNOj. Lunar 

Source. — Prepared by the interaction of Silver and Nitric 
Acid. Characters. — Colourless, tabular, right rhombic 
prisms. Solubility. — 2 in 1 of water ; slightly soluble in 
alcohol 90 per cent. ; soluble in ether and glycerin. Incom- 
patibUs. — Alkalis and their carbonates, chlorides, acids 

Argent UM. 71 

(except nitric and acetic), potassium iodide, solutions of 
arsenic, and astringent infusions. Impiirities. — Other metals ; 
other nitrates, detected by evaporation of filtrate after 
precipitation with HCl. Uose.—^ to -| gr. (in pill, with 
Kaolin excipient). 

From Argenti Nitras are made : 

1. Argenti Nitras Induratus. — Toughened 

/Sijwrce.— Prepared by fusing Silver Nitrate, 95, 
and Potassium Nitrate, 5 ; and pouring the mixed 
product into proper moulds. 

Characters.— Vfhite or greyish-white cylindri- 
cal rods or cones ; freely soluble in distilled water ; 
only sparingly in alcohol 90 per cent. 

2. Argenti Nitras Mitigatus. — Mitigated 

Source.— Frepsiied by fusing Silver Nitrate, 
20, and Potassium Nitrate, 40 ; and pouring the 
mixed product into proper moulds. 

Characters.— White or greyish- white cylindri- 
cal rods or cones ; freely soluble in distilled water ; 
sparingly in alcohol 90 per cent. 

3. Argenti Oxidum.— Silver Oxide. Ag20. 
Source. — Made by mixing solutions of Silver 

Nitrate and Calcium Hydroxide. 2AgN03 + 
Ca2H0 = AgjO + Ca2N03 + H2O. 

Characters. — A brown powder ; slightly soluble 
in water. Incompatible with creosote, phenol, 
potassium permanganate, and many other sub- 
stances, with which it forms explosive compounds. 
Impurities. — Metallic silver, evolving gas with 
nitric acid ; nitrates ; other metals. Base, § to 2 
gr. (in pill, with Kaolin excipient). 


Salts of Silver give a black precipitate with HgS ; a white 
curdy precipitate with HCl, blackening on exposure to light. 


Externally. — In the form of the solid pencil, Nitrate of 
Silver is a caustic, causing destruction with deep staining of 
the superficial layers, acute pain, inflammation of the deeper 

72 Argentum. 

layers, separation of the part as a slough, and then rapid 
healing. Unlike Caustic Potash, its effects are limited to the 
area of application. On this account it is the best caustic 
for ordinary use, and may be employed to destroy the affected 
part in bites of dogs and venomous animals, and in post-mortem 
wounds, or to remove small growths, especially lupus. 

Solutions of the Nitrate, when applied to the broken skin 
or a mucous membrane, exert much the same action as Lead, 
but in a greater degree. Silver precipitates the albumins and 
the chlorides of the plasma or discharge ; coagulates the pro- 
toplasm of the young cells; and contracts the vessels by 
forming with the albumins a coagulum which supports 
and constricts the vessel wall. Silver Nitrate is a strong 
antiseptic : it coagulates the proteins of the bacteria, and 
possesses besides specific toxic powers towards them. 
It or Protargol, a soluble proteid compound {see p. 122), 
is employed to touch callous and weak ulcers, including 
bed-sores ; in diseases of the conjunctiva ; and as an 
injection to inflamed surfaces, e.g, the urethra, vagina, os 
uteri and bladder. Solid caustic is a hsemostatic in bleeding 
from leech-bites. A weak solution in Spiritus Athens Nitrosi 
is used to harden the skin in threatening bed-sore. 

Internally. — In the mouth, Silver meets with chlorides 
and albuminous fluids, combines with these, and acts on the 
surface of the mucous membrane as it does on the skin. The 
Nitrate is a useful remedy in inflammation of the tonsils and 
pharynx, whether applied in the solid form in acute cases, or in 
solution as an astringent in relaxed, chronic states. 

Reaching the stomach. Silver Nitrate is decomposed by 
the hydrochloric acid and mucus, and cannot act as an irritant 
upon the mucous membrane unless given in poisonous doses. 
Its value in ulcer of the stomach must therefore be questioned. 
When properly given as a large enema (^ to 1 gr. to 1 fl. oz. 
of Distilled Water) for ulceration of the bowel, e.g. in chronic 
dysentery, it certainly possesses more action. 


Silver slowly enters the blood as albuminate, or is absorbed 
as the pure metal by the lacteals, after the manner of fat. It 
has no obvious effect on the blood. 

Silver becomes locked up, in the metallic form, in all the 
connective tissues of the body, and permanently stains ex- 
posed parts a dusky black-brown. It probably remains inert 
within the body ; but some authorities believe that it affects 

ZiNCUM. 73 

the nervous tissues, producing neuritis.- The unsightly dis- 
coloration of the skin in argyria is a serious objection to its use. 
Although Silver once admitted to the tissues is not ex- 
creted, a certain amount has been found in the urine ; and a 
proportion passes through the bowels unabsorbed, appearing 
in the fgeces as sulphide. It may cause nephritis. 


The Nitrate is almost invariably used both externally and 
internally ; but the Nitrate of Silver and Potassium must \>e 
substituted in diseases of the eye. The Oxide is less irritant, 
and is chiefly given internally, in the form of pill. 

ZINCUM. Zinc. Zn. 65-37. 

The primary source of the oflBcial salts and pre- 
parations of Zinc is the laminated or granulated metal. 

1. Zinci Cliloridum.— Zinc Chloride. ZnClg. 
Source. — Produced by the interaction of Hydrochloric 

Acid and Zinc. 

Characters. — Colourless opaque rods or tablets, very 
deliquescent, and caustic. Solubilitij. — Almost complete in 
water, alcohol 90 per cent., and ether. 

Impurities. — Sulphates ; other metals. 

2. Liquor Zinci Cli I ori di. — Solution of Zinc 

Source. — Made by (1) dissolving Zinc in diluted Hydro- 
chloric Acid, boiling, and cooling ; then adding in succession 
(2) Chlorine Water, and (3) Zinc Carbonate, to precipitate 
iron or lead present as impurities ; finally filtering, and 
evaporating to a fixed bulk. (1) Zn2-t-4HCl = 2ZnCl2+2H,. 
(2) 2FeCl2 + Clo=2FeCl3. (3) 2FeC]3 + ZnC03(ZnH202)2,HoO 
= 2Fe(OH)3 + 3ZnCU + COg. Also, SPbClg -f 3Clo + 2ZnCU8 
(ZnHa02)2, H.O = SPbOg + tiZnClg + 2CO2+ GHgO. 

Characters. — Colourless, with sweetish astringent taste 
Sp. gr. 1-530. 

3. Zinci Snlphas.— Zinc Sulphate. ZnS04, IB.^0. 
Source. — Formed by the interaction of Zinc and Diluted 

Sulphuric Acid. 

Characters. — Minute colourless prisms, with a strong 
metallic styptic taste. Solubility. — 10 in 7 of water ; insoluble 
in alcohol. Impurities. — Acetates, chlorides ; other metals. 

Dose. — 1 to 3 gr. as a tonic ; 10 to 30 gr. as an emetic. 

74 ZiNCUM. 

From Zind Sulphas are made : 

a. Zinci Carbonas. — Zinc Carbonate. ZnCOj, 
(ZnH202)2,H20- Zinc Hydroxycarbonate. 

Source.— Trodnced by the interaction of Zinc Sul- 
phate and Sodium Carbonate. 3ZnS04 + 2H2O + 
8Na2C03=ZnC03(ZnH202)3 + 2CO2+ SNa^jSO^. 

Characters. — A white, tasteless, inodorous powder, 
insoluble in water. Entirely soluble in diluted Nitric 
Acid. Impurities. — Sulphates and chlorides; other 

From Zinci Carbonas are made : 

a. Zinci Oxidum. — Zinc Oxide. ZnO. 
Source. — Made by exposing the Carbonate to 
a dull red heat ; or from Metallic Zinc by com- 

Characters.— FreTpaTed from the Carbonate, it 
is a soft, nearly white, tasteless and inodorous 
powder, becoming pale yellow when heated ; pre- 
pared by combustion, it is white. Insoluble in 
water. Impurities. — Carbonates, chlorides, sul- 
phates ; other metals. Dose, 3 to 10 gr. 


Unguentum Zinci. — Zinc Ointment. 
Zinc Oxide, 3 ; Benzoated Lard, 17. 

From Zinci Oxidum is made : 

Zinci Sulphocarbolas. — See Acidum Car- 
bolicum, page 195. 

/3. Zinci Acetas.— Zinc Acetate. ZnCCjHjOa), 

Source. — Made by neutralising Acetic Acid 
with Zinc Carbonate. 

Characters. — Thin, translucent, colourless 
crystalline plates, of a pearly lustre ; with shar}), 
unpleasant taste. Solubility. — 10 in 25 of water. 
Impurities. — Those of the Carbonate. Bose, 1 
to 2 gr. 

y. Zinci Valerianas. — Zinc Valerianate. See 
Valeriana Ilhizoma, page 325. 
Zinci Carbonas is also used in making 

Liquor Zinci Chloridi. 

ZlNCUM. 75 

h. Unguentum Zinci Oleatis. — Prepared by pre- 
cipitating Zinc OLeate by mixing aqueous Solutions of 
Zinc Sulphate and Hard Soap ; washing ; drying ; 
and mixing with an equal weight of Soft Paraffin 


Salts of Zinc give a white precipitate with (NH4)2S, 
insoluble in excess ; a white precipitate with Solution of 
Ammonia, soluble in excess. 

iTicampatibles of Zinc Salts in General, 

Alkalis and their carbonates, lime-water, lead acetate, 
silver nitrate, astringent vegetable infusions or decoctions, 
and milk. 



Externally . — The salts of Zinc closely resemble in their 
action the salts of Lead, Silver and Copper, being caustic 
in their stronger forms, astringent or antiseptic in their 
weaker forms. Zinc presents every degree of this action ac- 
cording to the salt employed, that is, probably according to 
the solubility and diffusion power of the particular com- 
bination of the metal. Thus the Chloride, which is highly 
deliquescent, penetrates the tissues and is a powerful eschar- 
otic, causing destruction of the part, with severe pain, 
separation of a slough, and subsequent healing. It is em- 
ployed to destroy morbid growths, chronic ulcers and gan- 
grenous parts, either as a paste or solid arrows made with 
plaster of Paris or flour, or as a strong solution. The Sulphate 
and Acetate have less affinity for water, and are much less 
powerful than the Chloride. When applied to the broken 
skin, an ulcer, or an exposed mucous surface, they precipitate 
the albuminous juices or secretions, coagulate the protoplasm 
of the upper layers of growing cells,and indirectly cause con- 
traction of the vessels, though less than Silver and Lead. 
The Zinc Sulphate is the most common of this class of 
applications to healing ulcers and wo«nds, limiting the 
amount of discharge, checking excessive or " weak " growth, 
and modifying the intensity of the inflammatory pro- 
cess with which healing is associated. A solution of this 
salt is the basis of the " Red Lotion " of many hospital 
pharmacopoeias ; and other weak solutions of the same are 

76 ZiNCVM. 

employed as a wash or injection for the eyes, urethra, vagina, 
and other accessible mucous tracts. • The Oxide, Oleate and 
Carbonate act locally as mild astringents in inflamed con- 
ditions of the superficial layers of the skin such as eczema 
controlling exudation and hyperaemia and protecting the 
parts from the air. Being insoluble in water, they are applied 
either as powder or ointment. The value of preparations of 
Zinc is referable in part to their powerfully disinfectant pro- 
perties, a lotion of the Chloride (40 gr. to 1 fl.oz. of Water) 
preventing decomposition for several days. 

Internally, the local action of Zinc corresponds. It is but 
little used in the mouth or throat, but its effect on the 
stomach as a local irritant furnishes us with the most familiar 
of our direct emetics. Zinc Sulphate, in doses of 20 grains, 
causes rapid and complete vomiting, attended with less 
immediate depression and less subsequent nausea than Anti- 
mony and Ipecacuanha. It is much employed in narcotic 
poisoning ; more rarely in croup, diphtheria and phthisis, to 
clear the air-passages ; and even to empty the stomach in 
acute dyspepsia. The Oxide on reaching the stomach is partly 
dissolved, and acts like the soluble salts of Zinc. 

In the intestine the irritant action of Zinc is continued, if 
it be given in large doses, but this effect is never desired thera- 
peutically. On the contrary, the Oxide, in sufficient doses to 
relieve a moderate superficial catarrh, is often a very effica- 
cious astringent in the treatment of diarrhoea in children. 


Zinc enters the circulation very slowly, but nothing that 
can be turned to therapeutical account is known respecting 
its influence on the plasma or corpuscles. 

The action of Zinc upon the tissues has been learned 
chiefly from its effect on workers in the metal. When it finds 
its way into the body for a length of time, it is a direct 
depressant to the nervous centres, especially the sensory parts 
of the spinal cord, and thus indirectly weakens and disturbs 
the muscular system. It has been employed with unquestion- 
able success in epilepsy, chorea and whooping cough, all of 
which are characterised by nervo-muscular excitement. 


The kidney, mammary gland, and probably the mucous 
surfaces and skin, arc the channels of elimination of Zinc. 
It is possible that the metal exerts a second or remote astrin- 

Cuprum. 77 

gent effect on these parts as it is leaving the system ; for the 
Sulphate and Oxide appear to have the power of arresting 
chronic discharges from remote mucous passages, such as the 
uterus and vagina, even when given internally ; and it is certain 
that the Oxide diminishes the perspirations of phthisis in 
some instances. 


These have been sufficiently indicated in the preceding 
description. The Chloride stands alone as a powerful 
escharotic, never to be given internally ; it possesses also dis- 
infectant properties as the Liquor Zinci Chloridi, which is 
used to mop out very foul wounds, and very extensively to 
wash infected rooms, flush drains, etc. (Burnett's disinfec- 
tant). The Sulphate and Acetate closely resemble each other 
in their action, but the Acetate is little used. The Oxide, 
Carbonate and Oleate are similarly allied, the first being most 
employed. Zi7ici Valerianas probably acts as a Zinc salt 
only, the Valerianic Acid appearing to be inert. See Valeriana 
Rhizoma, page 324. 

CUPRUM. Copper. Cu. 63-57. 

The Sulphate is the only salt of Copper employed 
medicinally, although other compounds, as well as the 
metal itself, are introduced into the Pharmacopoeia for 
chemical testing. 

Cupri Sulphas.— Copper Sulphate. CuS04,5H20. 
Cupric Sulphate. " Blue Vitriol." "Bluestone." 

Source. — Obtained by the interaction of Water, Sulphuric 
Acid and Copper or Cupric Oxide, evaporating, and crystal- 
lising. 4H2SO4 + Cu2 = 2CUSO4 + 2SO2 + 4H2O. 

Clcaracters. — Blue triclinic prisms. Solubility. — 1 in 3*5 
of cold water, yielding a strongly acid solution ; very soluble 
in glycerin ; almost insoluble in alcohol 90 per cent. Im- 
purities.— Other metals. Incompatibles. — Alkalis and their 
carbonates, lime-water, mineral salts (except sulphates), 
iodides, and most vegetable astringents. Dose, as an astrin- 
gent, J to 2 gr. ; as an emetic, 5 to 10 gr. 

78 Cuprum. 

genelial chemical characteks of cupric 8alt8. 

Copper Salts give a brownish-black precipitate with H2S. 
Their solutions become deep blue with excess of NH4HO ; 
and deposit metallic Copper on a polished iron surface. 


Externally. — The action of Copper differs but little from 
that of Silver and Zinc. It does not affect the unbroken skin, 
nor is it absorbed by it into the blood. Applied freely to 
wounds, ulcers or the delicate surface of exposed mucous 
membranes, such as the conjunctiva, the Sulphate ("Blue- 
stone ") is caustic ; and is in frequent requisition to control 
exuberant granulations and touch granular lids, and for allied 
purposes. A swift and slight application of the crystal, or its 
solution in water, acts so far like Silver Nitrate: precipi- 
tating the discharges from a mucous or ulcerated surface; 
coagulating the superficial layers ; thus contracting the blood- 
vessels and arresting discharge. It is used as a stimulant 
to ulcers ; and a solution of 2 to 5 gr. to the fl.oz. may be 
used as an astringent lotion, or injected into the vagina, 
rectum, or urethra. 

Internally. — If long administered. Copper may cause a 
greenish discoloration on the bases of the teeth {not of the 
gums), from direct combination with decomposing products 

The Sulphate, in large doses (10 gr.), is not entirely con- 
verted into an albuminate in the stomach, but acts on the 
mucous membrane as an irritant and causes vomiting. It is a 
rapid direct emetic, and is suited for administration when 
the stomach is to be surely and speedily emptied of a narcotic 
poison like opium, or the air-passages are to be evacuated of 
mucus, as in bronchitis, if Ipecacuanha have failed. Jt causes 
less depression and subsequent nausea than Tartai Emetic. 
If Copper Sulphate fail to induce vomiting, the stomach must 
be evacuated by some other means, lest dangerous inflamma- 
tion result. 

Lastly, Copper Sulphate is a valuable antidote to Phos- 
phorus, as it is reduced by the metalloid, the Copper being 
deposited upon the Phosphorus and rendering it inert. In 
cases of poisoning by Phosphorus, 3 gr. of Bluestone should 
be given in water every few minutes until vomiting occurs, 
followed by turpentine (page 403) and a saline purgative. 

Id the intestines Copper is an astringent in small 

Aluminium, 79 

quantities ; an irritant purgative in larger quantities. Small 
doses, combined usually with Opium, are given for some kinds 
of diarrhoea. 


Given in small doses, Copper is very slowly absorbed into 
the blood ; but we neither know any efiEect that it produces 
here, nor use it in this connection. 

Its specific action on the tissues, in all of which it is 
found, is most difficult to evoke. It is said to weaken the 
voluntary muscles and heart, and to affect the nutrition of the 
central nervous system. 

Copper is chiefly excreted by the liver, that is, leaves the 
body with the bile and faeces ; part is discharged in the urine, 
and part by the saliva. Possibly it has some astringent 
action during its elimination. 

ALUMINIUM. Al. 271. 
Two salts of this metal are official. 

1. Allimeil* — Alum. Aluminium and Potassium Sul- 
phate (Potassium Alum) Al2(S04)3K2S04,24H20 ; or Aluminium 
and Ammonium Sulphate (Ammonium Alum) Al2(S04)j 

Source. — Produced by the combination of Aluminium 
Sulphate with Potassium Sulphate or with Ammonium Sul- 

Characters. — Colourless transparent octahedra, with a 
sweetish, astringent taste. Solubility. — 1 in 10 of cold, 9 in 
3 of boiling, water ; freely in glycerin ; insoluble in alcohol 
90 per cent, (solution acid). Incompatible with alkalis, lime, 
baryta, lead, tartrates, tannic acid, mercury, and iron. Im- 
purities. — Other metals. Dose, 5 to 10 gr. 

Glycerinum Aluminis. — 20, triturated with 
Distilled Water, 7*5, and Glycerin up to 120, with 
gentle heat. 

From Alumen is made : 

Alamen Exsiccatum. — Exsiccated Alum. 

Source. — Made by heating Potassium Alum till 
aqueous vapours cease to be disengaged. 

8o Aluminium. 

Characters. — A white powder. Has lost about 
46% of weight by heating. Solubility. — 1 in 20 of 
cold, and 10 in 7"5 of boiling, water. It absorbs 
moisture when exposed to air. 

2. Ka,olinillll. — Kaolin. A native Aluminium Sili- 
cate, powdered, and freed from gritty particles by elu- 

Characters. — A soft whitish powder, insoluble in water or 
in diluted acids. 

Kaolin is used to prepare : Pilula Phosphori. 


Salts of Aluminium give a gelatinous whitish precipitate 
with (NH4)2S, soluble in Liquor Potassae. 


ExterTuilly. — Alum possesses the astringent and styptic 
effects fully discussed under Plumbum, page 68. In the form 
of powder, it arrests bleeding from the nose, gums and other 
accessible parts. Exsiccated Alum absorbs water, and is some- 
what caustic, if the skin be broken, for instance over ulcers, 
destroying weak exuberant granulations. Solutions of Alum 
are used as injections in discharges from the rectum, vagina, 
uterus and urethra ; as a collyrium it must be employed 
cautiously. Kaolin is used as a dusting powder. 

Kaolin is also employed as a basis for pills or powders 
containing drugs readily decomposable by ordinary bases, 
e.g. Silver Nitrate, Potassium Permanganate and Phos- 

Internally. — The local action of Alum is appreciated in 
the mouth as an "astringent taste," and in the throat as 
" dryness," the mucous secretions of the parts being coagu- 
lated, and the membrane constringed, especially if it be 
inflamed and swollen. Alum is therefore used a.s a mouth 
wash in ulceration and tender gums; and in the form of 
gargles or sprays, combined with other substances, as a 
remedy for sore throat. A similar effect is produced in the 
stomach and intestines, dyspepsia and constipation being the 
result ; in large doses Alum is emetic and purgative. A tea- 
Fpoonful mixed with syrup is an excellent vomit in croup. 

Ferrum, 8i 

In doses of 30 gr., frequently repeated, it relieves lead colic 
by opening the bowels, and probably precipitating the soluble 
salts of lead. 


Alum is absorbed into the blood, probably as an albu- 
minate. It is believed to possess astringent properties in the 
tissues, arresting haemorrhage and chronic discharges from 
the mucous membranes ; and is used with doubtful benefit in 
haemoptysis, epistaxis, gleet and diarrhoea. Aluminium 
chloride (not official) relieves the pains of tabes. Alum is 
excreted by the kidneys, and may arrest haematuria. Part of 
the salt possibly escapes by the skin, as it proves useful in 
some cases of excessive sweating. 

Sub-Group 2. 

FERRUM. Iron. Fa 55 84. 

All the ojficial salts and preparations of Iron are 
made from the metal, directly or indirectly. 

Ferrum. — Iron. Annealed Iron Wire, No. 35, or 
Wrought-iron Nails, free from oxide. 

From Ferrum are made : 

1. Ferri Sulphas.— Ferrous Sulphate. FeS04,7H20 
Source. — Prepared by the interaction of Diluted 
Sulphuric Acid and Iron. 

Characters. — Pale bluish green, oblique rhombic 
prisms, with astringent taste. Soluhility. — 1 in 1^ of 
cold water ; insoluble in alcohol 90 7o- Impurities. — 
Persalts ; other metals. Dose, 1 to 5 gr. 

From Ferri Sulphas are made : 

a. MisTURA Ferri Composita. Compound 
Mixture of Iron. — "Griffiths' Mixture." Ferrous 
Sulphate, 25 ; Potassium Carbonate, 30 ; Myrrh, 
60 ; Sugar 60 ; Spirit of Nutmeg, 50 ; Kose Water, 
4800. FeSO^ + K3CO3 = FeCOg + K2SO4. A dark, 
green mixture. Contains Iron, Carbonate. Dose, 
i to 1 fl.oz. 

h. Ferri Sulphas Exsiccatus. Exsiccated 
Ferrous Sulphate.— FeS04,H.p. 

82 Ferrum. 

Source. — Made by heating the Sulphate to 
212° F., thus removing 40 7o of i*^s weight ; and 

Characters. — A nearly white powder, slowly 
but entirely soluble in water. 2^ gr. = about 4 gr. 
of crystalline Sulphate. Dose, ^ to 3 gr. 


a. PiLULA Aloes et Ferri.— 1 in 9. 
See Aloe Socotrina, page 415. 

j8. PiLULA Ferri, Iron Pill. " Blaud's 
Pill." — 150; Exsiccated Sodium Carbonate, 
95; Syrup, 150; Gum Acacia, 50; Tragacanth, 
15; Glycerin, 10; Water, 20. About 1 gr. of 
Ferrous Carbonate in each 5-gr. pill. Bose, 
5 to 15 gr. 

c. Ferri Carbonas Saccharatus. Saccharated 
Iron Carbonate. — Ferrous Oxy carbonate, aFeCO,, 
yFe(0H)2, more or less oxydised, mixed with 
sugar; the ferrous salt, reckoned as Carbonate, 
FeCOg, forming about one-third of the mixture. 

Source.— Made by precipitating a solution of 
Ferrous Sulphate with a solution of Ammonium 
Carbonate; rubbing the washed precipitate 
with sugar ; and drying. (1) FeSOj + (NH4)2C03 
= FeCOg + (NH4)2S04. (2) SFeCO, + (from 
exposure) = FeCOg + Ye^O^ + 2CO2. The sugar 
helps to prevent further oxydation. 

Characters. — Brownish-grey lumps, with a 
sweet chalybeate taste. Irnpurities. — Sulphate; 
excess of Iron Oxide. Dose, 10 to 30 gr. 

d. Ferri Arsenas. — Iron Arsenate. Ferrous 
Arsenate, Fe3(As04)2, 6H3O, with Ferric Arsenate 
and some Iron Oxide. 

Source. — Made by mixing hot solutions of 
Sodium Arsenate and Ferrous Sulphate, adding 
Sodium Bicarbonate ; and washing and drying the 
precipitate. SFeSO^ -f 2Na2HAs04 + 2NaHC0, 
= Feg(As04)2 -t- SNa^SO^ + 2H2O -f- 200,. 

Characters. — A greenish amorphous powder 
tasteless (but not to be t.asted) ; insoluble in water 
readily soluble in HCl. Impnrities. — Sulphates 
and general impurities. Dose, j*j to \ gr. (in pill). 

Ferr um. 83 

c, Ferri Fhoephas. — Iron Phosphate. Hydrous 
Ferrous Phosphate, Fe3(P04)2,8H20, not less than 
47 per cent., with Ferric Phosphate and some 

Source. — Made by mixing warm solutions of 
Sodium Phosphate and Ferrous Sulphate ; adding 
Sodium Bicarbonate ; and washing and drying the 
precipitate. SFeSOi + 2Na2HP04 + 2NaHC03 = 
Fe3(P04)2 + SNaaSO^ + 2H2O + 2CO2. 

Characters. — A slate-blue amorphous powder ; 
insoluble in water, soluble in HCl. Impurity. — 
Arsenium. Dose, 5 to 10 gr. 

/. Liquor Ferri Persulphatis. — Solution of 
Ferric Sulphate. 

Source. — Made from a hot solution of Ferrous 
Sulphate in Sulphuric Acid and Water, by boiling, 
with Nitric Acid and Water. 6FeS04 -f 3H2SO4 
+ 2HN03 = 3(Fe23S04) + 4H2O + 2N0. 

Characters. — A dark red, inodorous, very as- 
tringent solution, miscible with water and alcohol. 
Sp. gr. 1-441. 

From Liquor Ferri Persulphatis a/re made : 

a. Ferri et Ammonii Citras. — Iron and 
Ammonium Citrate. 

Source. — Made by precipitating diluted 
Solution of Ammonia with diluted Solution of 
Ferric Sulphate and then dissolving the re- 
sulting Ferric Hydrate in a hot solution of 
Citric Acid ; neutralising with Ammonia ; 
evaporating, and drying in thin layers on 
porcelain or glass plates. 

Characters. — Deep red, transparent scales, 
slightly sweet and astringent in taste. SolU' 
lility. — 2 in 1 of water, giving a feebly acid 
solution ; almost insoluble in alcohol 90 per 
cent. Imjjurities. — Tartrates; giving a cry- 
stalline precipitate with Acetic Acid ; alkaline 
salts, detected in ash. Dose, 5 to 10 gr. 

Visum Fekri Citeatis. — 18-3; 
Orange Wine, 1000. 8 gr. in 1 tl.oz. 
Dose, 1 to 4 fl.dr. 

84 Ferr um. 

p. Ferri et QuininsB Citras. — Iron and 
Quinine Citrate. 

Source. — Made like Ferri et Ammonii 
Citras, freshly precipitated Quinine being also 
dissolved in the Citric Acid solution. 

Characters. — Greenish - golden yellow 
scales, somewhat deliquescent ; bitter and 
chalybeate in taste. Solubility. — 2 in 1 of 
water, the solution being very slightly acid. 
1 of Quinine in 666. Impurities. — Alkaline 
salts, detected in the ash ; other alkaloids 
instead of Quinine, insoluble in ether when 
precipitated by NH4HO. Dcse, 5 to 10 gr. 

7. Ferrum Tartaratum. — Tartarated Iron. 
Source. — Made like Ferri et Ammonii Citras, 
with Acid Potassium Tartrate instead of 
Citric Acid. 

GharaMers. — Garnet scales, slightly sweet- 
ish and astringent. Solubility. — 1 in 1 of water ; 
sparingly in alcohol 90 per cent. Impuri- 
ties. — Ammonia, evolved by boiling with solu- 
tion of sodium hydroxide ; ferrous salts. 
Dose, 5 to 10 gr. 

S. Liquor Ferri Acetatis. — Solution of 
Ferric Acetate. 

Source. — Made by precipitating diluted 
Solution of Ferric Sulphate with diluted Solu- 
tion of Ammonia ; drying ; dissolving the 
resulting Hydroxide in Glacial Acetic Acid ; 
and diluting. (1) FcaSSO^ + BNH^HO = 
FegBOH + 3(NH4)2S04. (2) FejGOH -|- 
6HC2H3O2 = FcaeCCaHgOa) + 6H2O. 

Charaoterg. — A red fluid, with a soui 
styptic taste and acetous odour ; miscible with 
water and with alcohol 90 per cent, in all 
proportions. Sp. gr. 1*031. Dose, 5 to 15 

2. Syrupus Ferri Phosphatis. — 1 gr. of Anhydrous 
Ferrous Phosphate, FegCPO^j, in 1 fl.dr. 

Source. — Prepared by dissolving Iron (in wire) 
in Concentrated Phosphoric Acid and Water; 

Ferrum. 85 

filtering into Syrup ; and adding Water. Do&e, \ 
to 1 fl.dr. 

3. S3n:upus Ferri Fhosphatis cum Quinina et 
Slrychnina. — Syrup of Phosphate of Iron with Quinine 
and Strychnine. 

Source. — Made by dissolving Iron (in wire), 8'6, 
in concentrated Phosphoric Acid, 62-5, and Water ; and 
dissolving in the resulting solution Strychnine, 0-57, 
and Quinine Sulphate, 14-8 ; filtering into Syrup, 700; 
and addirrg Water to make 1000. 1 fl.dr. represents 
1 gr. of anhydrous Ferrous Phosphate, ■* gr. of Quinine 
Sulphate, and -jL gr, of Strychnine. Lose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

4. Liquor Ferri Perchloridi Fortis. — Strong Solu- 
tion of Ferric Chloride. 

Source. — Made by (1) dissolving Iron (in wire) in 
Hydrochloric Acid and Water; (2) adding Hydrochloric 
Acid, and pouring into Nitric Acid; evaporating; 
and adding HCl and Water. (1) Fe + 2HC1 = FeCL + 
Ha. (2) GFeCla + 6HC1 + 2HNO3 = SFcgCL + 4H2O + 

Characters. — An orange-brown liquid, with a strong 
styptic taste ; miscible with water and alcohol in all 
proportions. Sp. gr. 1-42. 22-5 grains of Iron in 110 
min. Impurities. — Ferrous salts ; other metals. 


a. LiQUOii Feeri Perchloridi. — Solution of 
Ferric Chloride. 1 of Strong Solution to 3 of 
Water. Sp. gr. 111. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 

h. TiNCTURA Ferri Perchloridi. — Tincture 
of Ferric Chloride. 1 of Strong Solution to 1 of 
Alcohol 90 per cent., and 2 of Water. Dose, 5 to 
15 min. 

From Liquor Ferri Perchloridi Fortis is mxide : 

c. Ferrum Redactum. — Reduced Iron. Me- 
tallic Iron at least 75 per cent., with a variable 
amount of Oxide. 

Source. — Made by reducing Ferric Hydroxide 
(obtained from a diluted solution of Ferric 
Chloride by precipitation with Ammonia), heated 
to duir redness, by a stream of dry hydrogen. 
Fe203,3H20 + 3H2 = Fe2 + 6HaO. 

86 Ferrum. 

Characters. — A fine greyish-black powder, 
strongly attracted by the magnet. Impurities. — 
Excess of oxide, detected volumetrically ; sul- 
phides. Dose, 1 to 5 gr. 


Trochiscus Ferri Redacti.— 1 gr. with 
the Simple Basis. 

5. Liquor Ferri Pemitratis. — Solution of Ferric 
Nitrate, FeaGNOj. 

Source. — Made by dissolving Iron Wire in Nitric 
Acid and Water. Fe, + 8HNO3 = FeoGNO, + 4H2O + 

Characters. — A clear reddish-brown liquid, acid 
and astringent to the taste. Sp. gr. 1-107. 110 min. 
contain 3-3 gr. of Iron. Impurities. — Ferrous salts ; 
other metals ; chlorides and sulphates. Dose, 5 to 15 

6. Vinum Ferri. — Iron Wine. Iron (in wire) 
digested in Sherry for thirty days. 1 in 20. Dose, 
1 to 4 fl.dr. 

7. Syrupus Ferri lodidi. — Syrup of Ferrous Iodide. 
Made by mixing with Syrup a hot solution of Iron (in 
wire) and Iodine in Water. Sp. gr. 1-380 to 1-387. 
1 gr. of Ferrous Iodide in 11 min. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 


Ferrous salts give with (NH4)2S a black precipitate ; with 
Potassium Ferrocyanide a precipitate at first white, after- 
wards blue ; with Potassium Ferricyanide a dark blue pre- 
cipitate. Ferric salts give a black precipitate with (NH4)2S ; a 
blue with Potassium Ferrocyanide, a blue-black with a 
tincture of Galls. 

Incompatibilities of Preparations of Iron in general. 

Alkalis and their Carbonates, Lime Water, Calcium Car- 
bonate, and Magnesia and its Carbonate give green precipitates 
with P'errous Salts, brown with Ferric salts. Tannic and Gallic 
Acids give a deep blue-black with Ferric salts ; and preparations 
of Iron, therefore, tinge Infusions of Chiretta and Hops, and 
change to brown or black those of Chamomile, Cusparia, 
Gentian, Orange, Cascarilla, Cloves, Digitalis, Cinchona, and 
all astringent infusions, but they can be given in Infusion of 
Qujissia or of Calumba. 

Ferrum. 87 


ExtcTTially. — A solution of a Ferric salt has a corrugat- 
ing and astringent effect upon the broken skin and mucous 
surfaces: it coagulates the albuminous tissues, plasma and 
blood ; and constringes or condenses the elements. The 
blood-vessels are thus closed or diminished in size, not actively 
as by Adrenalin, but by compression from without ; the 
circulation through them is diminished ; haemorrhage, if pre- 
sent, is arrested ; and the abnormal escape of plasma and 
leucocytes, which characterises chronic inflammation or 
catarrh, is checked. Solutions of the Ferric salts are there- 
fore used as haemostatics or styptics, to arrest hasmorrhage 
from accessible parts, such as leech-bites, the nose and uterus ; 
to cure naevi ; less extensively in chronic discharges from the 
vagina, rectum and nose, as astringents. Injected into the 
rectum, they destroy worms. Iron is not absorbed by the un- 
broken skin. 

Internally. — The constringent effect of Iron is appreciated 
in the mouth as a "styptic taste," whilst the teeth and 
tongue are blackened by the sulphide formed by decomposition. 
Beyond this, the local action corresponds with that just 
described externally. Various Iron solutions are usefully 
applied, either as gargles or with the brush, in some forms of 
chronic sore throat. 

In the stomach all the salts of Iron, whatever their nature, 
are converted into the chloride, and partly combine with the 
acid albuminates like some other metals. If Iron be given in 
excess, or if the food or the hydrochloric acid of the gastric 
juice be deficient, the metal decomposes the whole of the di- 
gestive fluid, and acts upon the mucous membrane as an 
astringent and irritant. Iron is thus unfavourable to digestion; 
and in this connection we must carefully note : (1) that Iron 
may disorder the digestion even in healthy subjects ; (2) that 
(with few exceptions) it must not be given in or after disease 
until the gastric functions so far have been restored ; (3) that 
it is well to begin then with the mildest preparations ; and 
(4) that it must be given after meals. — Dialysed Iron, in 
doses of 1 fl. oz., diluted with water, is an antidote to 
Arsenic. It should be preceded by a dose of common Salt or 
Sodium Bicarbonate, and given repeatedly. 

In the dnodennm Iron is converted into carbonate and 
hydroxide, and partly absorbed. The further effect of Iron 
on tbo bowel is a remote one, to be presently described. The 

88 Ferrum. 

unabsorbed portion — by far the larger proportion — escapes 
as the Sulphide. 


The action of Iron on the blood is unique. Its specific 
effect consists in increasing the number of red corpuscles and 
the amount of haemoglobin if they are deficient. It has now 
been proved conclusively that the inorganic salts of Iron can 
be absorbed by the body. The probable course of the Iron 
may be summarised as follows : — 

The chloride of Iron which is formed in the stomach 
is broken up in the duodenum into Iron carbonate and 
hydroxide ; the Iron is absorbed, either as these salts, or as 
the albuminate, by the epithelium of the duodenum. By 
staining sections of the duodenum with ammonium sulphide, 
granules of Iron can be found in the mucous membrane and 
in the interior of the leucocytes. The leucocytes carry the 
Iron first to the spleen and later to the liver, there to be 
stored up as *' ferratin " until it is required for the forma- 
tion of haemoglobin, or until it is excreted in the lower 
bowel as a waste product. As above noted, only a small 
part of the Iron administered is absorbed in this way. 
Within the vessels it exists only as haemoglobin. In 
healthy subjects a " course " of Iron increases the 
number and value of the red corpuscles ; whilst in the 
anaemic the rapidity of these changes, as estimated day by 
day with the hajmacytometer and haemoglobinometer, is 
remarkable. Iron accordingly is used as a hssmatinic in an 
endless variety of conditions in which hasmoglobin is deficient, 
such as simple ansemia, scrofula, amenorrhcEa, cardiac disease, 
nephritis, syphilis, malarial cachexia, and convalescence from 
acute disease. The cautions already given respecting digestion 
must be faithfully respected, to secure its hoematinic action 
over a length of time. Iron is a constituent of many well- 
known mineral waters, the most important being those of Spa, 
Tarasp, Kissingen, Kreuznach, Pyrmont and St. Moritz on the 
Continent; Tunbridge Wells, Harrogate and Strathpeffer in 
Britain ; the Rawley Springs, Sweet Chalybeate and Bed- 
ford in the United States. Many blood-derivatives contain- 
ing Iron (hsematogen, haemoglobin, etc.) are now used. 


Iron is stored in the liver cells, and there synthesised 
into various albuminous compounds. Its tonic effect ap- 
pears to be entirely referable to its action on the red cor- 

Ferrum, 89 

puscles. Abundance of oxygen is essential for every bodily 
and mental function ; and the feeling of " tone," vigour, and 
mental fitness varies with the degree of oxygenation of the 
blood, i.e. vp^ith the quality of the blood as regards haemoglobin. 
Nervous, muscular and cardiac debility are thus removed by 
Iron ; and even digestion is restored by this gastric irritant, if 
it can be introduced successfully into the blood. The tem- 
perature is said to be slightly raised by Iron, showing increased 
oxydation. Fever is generally held to contra-indicate the use 
of Iron ; and the same has been said of the use of it, except 
in mild forms or special combinations, in tuberculosis. 


Iron is excreted by almost every channel. As it is ab- 
sorbed, so a trace of it is excreted, along tlie whole length 
of the intestine, and colours the fasces black (sulphide). Only 
a small amount escapes in the urine (even if it be given 
hypodermically), saliva, sweat, milk, and pancreatic juice, and 
from the various mucous surfaces. Whilst passing out of the 
system. Iron produces a second or remote astringent effect. 
As regards the bowels, the clinical applications of this fact 
are most important. Thus most of the salts of Iron cause 
constipation unless combined with a purgative, such as Mag- 
nesium or Sodium Sulphates or Aloes ; no good can be derived 
from Iron until the bowels have been thoroughly relieved, and 
are acting regularly ; and certain salts, such as the Perchloride 
and Pernitrate, which are more astringent to the intestines 
than others, have been employed to check chronic diarrhoea 
and dysentery. This remote astringent action of Iron is the 
greater from the fact that it is also excreted by the liver, 
and passes down with the bile. Escaping very sparingly by 
other channels. Iron has been given in full doses when we 
desire its action upon them, but probably is of very little 
if any use in these directions. In the kidneys it is excreted 
by the cells, not by the glomeruli ; the urine falls somewhat 
in volume, but urea and other solids and the acidity are 
increased. It is doubtful whether haematuria be arrested by 
Iron. Iron similarly reduces the secretion of viilk in nursing 
women. The remote effect of Iron on mucous surfaces was 
once believed to account for its value as a haemostatic in 
recurrent passive bleedings from the nose, uterus, and re- 
spiratory passages, and as a remote astringent in chronic 
discharges from the same and allied parts, especially leucor- 
rhoea. More probably in all these instances its haematinic 
action is the really useful one. 

90 Ferrvm. 

5. actions and uses of the different pbepaba- 
tions op iron. 

Large as is the number of the preparations of Iron, they 
and their special actions may be easily remembered if grouped 
as follows : — 

1. Iron, its Oxides and Carbonates. — This group com- 
prises Ferrum Kedactum, Vinum Ferri, Ferri Carbonas Saccha- 
ratus, Pilula Ferri and Mistura Ferri Composita. These pre- 
parations possess the hasmatinic action of Iron with but little 
astringency, and are accordingly selected to restore the blood 
when the patient has indigestion and constipation. They are 
the principal forms of Iron used in the routine treatment of 
ansemia, amenorrhoea and chlorosis in young women. These 
solid preparations form soluble compounds in the stomach as 
readily as do the fluid preparations belonging to the next 
group. The Mistura Ferri Composita and Pilula Ferri, although 
preparations of Ferrous sulphate, contain the Carbonate, 
and are favourite and valuable preparations for anasmia with 
amenorrhoea; the Iron acts as a hasmatinic, the Potassium 
also builds up the red corpuscle (the salts of which are almost 
entirely Potassium compounds), and the Mjrrrh increases the 
production of leucocytes as well as stimulating the uterus. 
Ferrum Redactum and the Saccharated Carbonate, although 
bulky powders, are easily taken and well borne. Vinum Ferri 
is an agreeable preparation largely prescribed for children. 

2. Compounds of Iron with the Mineral Acids.— Ferri 

Sulphas in its various forms, Liquor Ferri Perchloridi and its 
preparations, and Liquor Ferri Pernitratis, are comprised in 
this group, which are characterised by their corrugating and 
astringent action. They are chosen, therefore, in all the ex- 
ternal and internal applications of Iron for local purposes, 
especially as haemostatics. The Strong Solution of the Per- 
chloride diluted with 3 of water was injected into the uterus in 
post-partum haemorrhage ; there is grave danger of causing 
emboli by its use. Cotton-wool or lint soaked in the same solu- 
tion is used for plugging deep wounds, the cavities of the nose, 
mouth, etc., in haemorrhage ; but the action of the Iron on 
the surfaces of wounds, and the extensive coagulation which 
it sets up in the veins, are both objections to its employment, 
unless bleeding cannot be arrested otherwise. Internally 
these astringent preparations might be tried in haemorrhage 
from the stomach or bowels, kidneys or bladder; but not, as 
a rule, in haemoptysis. As haematinics, the Tincture or Liquor 
of the Perchloride, and the Pernitrate, well diluted, are much 
given to convalescents after the appetite has been restored, 

Fee RUM. 91 

and to persons who require a tonic ; in passive haemorrhages 
and chronic inflammatory discharges, such as leucorrhoea ; 
and as a doubtful specific in erysipelas. In ordering this class 
of Iron salts, we carefully observe the various precautions 
already mentioned in connection with digestion. Proto- 
sulphate is well borne in the form of pill, and is a rapid 

3. Compounds of Iron with Vegetable Acids.— These are 
the Ferri et Ammonii Citras, Ferrum Tartaratum, and the 
Liquor Ferri Acetatis. They are at once the weakest, the 
blandest, and the least constipating preparations of Iron ; 
and therefore are employed when only small quantities of the 
metal have to be given over a length of time as a tonic, or to 
commence a course of hsematinics when the alimentary canal 
cannot tolerate the stronger preparations. They make little 
impression upon more severe forms of anaemia. They can be 
given with alkalis. 

4. Compounds of Iron with other Active Bodies. — Iron is 
combined in the Pharmacopoeia with Iodine — Ferri lodidum ; 
with Arsenic Acid— Ferri Arsenas ; with Phosphoric Acid — 
Ferri Phosphas ; and with Quinine — Ferri et Quininae Citras. 
Speaking generally, it may be said that in these preparations 
the Iron is intended to relieve anaemia, or to act as a tonic in 
the sense we have described, whilst the other constituent 
specifically influences the diseased condition on which the 
anaemia or debility depends. Thus Ferrous Iodide is em- 
ployed in syphilis and scrofula ; the Arsenate in chronic 
diseases of the skin, liver, etc., with a gouty, rheumatic or 
malarial taint ; the Phosphate in diseases of the bones, such 
as rickets ; the compound with Quinine in malarial cachexia, 
where it may rapidly restore the blood corpuscles. But all 
the preparations of this group, especially the last, are also 
used as ordinary tonics, according to circumstances. The 
Solution of the Ferric sulphate is introduced solely as a 
source of several other preparations. Various non-official 
preparations are designed for hypodermic use. 

MANGANESIUM. Manganese. Mn. 54-93. 

Potassium Permanganate is the only drug to be 
discussed under this head. 

Potassii Permang^anas. — Potassium Perman- 
ganate. KjMnjOg. 

92 Manganesjum. 

Source. — May be obtained by the interaction of 
Potassium Chlorate, Potassium Hydroxide and Man- 
ganese Dioxide. (1) SMnOa + KClOg + 6KH0 = 
3K2Mn04 + KCl + SHgO ; a manganate being formed. 
(2)^ SKgMnO^ + 2H2O = KsMnaOg + 4KHO + MnOg ; the 
manganate becoming permanganate by boiling. 

Characters. — Dark purple slender iridescent 
prisms, inodorous, with a sweet astringent taste, yield- 
ing a rich purple solution when moistened. Soluhility. 
— 1 in 18 of cold water. Neutral. Incompatible with 
oxydisable matters, glycerin, alcohol, sugar, ammonium, 
alkaloids. Imjmrities. — Other metals ; carbonates, 
chlorides, sulphates. Dose, 1 to 3 gr. 


Liquor Potassii Permanganatis.— 1 dissolved 
in 100 of Distilled Water. Dose, 2 to 4 fl.dr. 


Manganese salts give a flesh-coloured precipitate with 
(NH4)aS ; a white with NH4HO, partly soluble in excess. 


Externally. — Potassium Permanganate is an irritant or even 
caustic in the pure state ; it is a stimulant in the form of the 
Solution, and promotes the healing of ulcers and wounds. 
Its principal applications, however, are independent of its 
physiological actions on the human tissues, and due to its 
influence as an antiseptic, disinfectant and deodorant on 
the causes, processes and products of sepsis and decom- 
position. By giving up oxygen freely, the Permanganate 
either destroys the ferments or organisms on which these 
processes depend, or forms chemical compounds, incapable 
of decomposition, with the materials on which they flourish 
— the tissues, plasma, pus, etc. : it is thus an antiseptic. By 
similarly oxydising the products of decomposition already 
begun, it so alters their chemical properties as to deodorise 
and decolorise them ; and it also destroys the power of 
further infection which such products generally possess : it 
is thus a disinfectant. Potassium Permanganate, or Zinc 
Permanganate (jiot ojficial), therefore is used as a dressing 
for foul ulcers; 1 in 150 destroys bacteria or prevents their 
reproduction. An immediate local injection of a 1 per cent. 
solution is an antidote in snake-bite. 

Manganesium. 93 

Internally. — This salt is employed as a mouth -wash in 
foul conditions of the teeth and mouth, as a gargle in putrid 
sore-throat, and as an injection in infective and foul dis- 
charges, such as gonorrhoea, vaginitis, ozaena and cancer of 
the uterus. It is an antidote in poisoning by morphine and 


Nothing is definitely known of the actions of Permanganic 
Acid on the blood, tissues or organs of excretion. It is difficult 
to believe that any portion of the salt escapes decomposition 
before absorption, unless it be given in poisonous doses ; and if 
given subcutaneously Manganese is excreted by the intes- 
tine. Manganese dioxide, into which the Permanganate is 
converted, does not combine with the hasmoglobin, and ia 
believed to be inert, although once given as a haematinic. 
The internal administration of the Potassium salt for some 
supposed effect on infective fevers or gangrenous processes 
must therefore be useless. It has been prescribed as an 

By far the most important application of Potassium Per- 
manganate is in solution as a disinfectant and deodorant 
apart from the human body : to cleanse the hands after contact 
with infectious cases ; to disinfect stools and foul discharges 
after removal from the patient ; to wash utensils ; and to flush 
water-closets, etc. Its great advantages are that it is rapid 
and complete in its action, odourless, and non-poisonous in 
solutions of ordinary strength ; and that it shows by change 
of colour whether it is acting or exhausted. The principal 
disadvantage connected with it is its expense. 

Sub-Group 3. 

HYDRARGYRUM. Mercury. Hg. 2006. 

Mercury is a drug of the first therapeutical importance. 
A large number of salts and other preparations of it 
are in use, which will be conveniently discussed in 
the following order : 1 . the Metal itself ; 2. Red 
Mercuric Oxide ; 3. Mercurous Chloride ; and 4-. 
Mercuric Chloride. 

94 Hydrargyrum, 

1. ilydrargyrum.— Mercury. Hg. 

Source. —Obtained from Cinnabar, native Mercurio 

Characters. — Silver-white, liquid at ordinary tempera- 
tures ; easily divisible into spherical globules. Boils at 
674-6'' F., and solidifies at 39-1^ F. 

Preparations containing free Mercury. 

a. Hydrargyrum cum Creta.— Mercury with Chalk, 
Grey Powder. 1 in 3, with Prepared Chalk. Dose, 1 
to 5 gr. 

h. Emplastrum Hydrarg3rri. — Mercurial Plaster. 
1 in 3, with Olive Oil, Sublimed Sulphur and Lead 

c. Emplastrum Ammoniaci cum Hydrargyro.— 

1 in 5. See Ammoniacum, page 304. 

d. Pilula Hydrargyri.— Mercury Pill. "Blue Pill." 
1 in 3, with Confection of Roses, IJ ; and Liquorice 
Root, \. Dose, 4 to 8 gr. 

e. Unguentum Hydrargyri.— Mercury Ointment 
1 in 2 nearly, with Lard and Prepared Suet. 

From Unguentum Hydrargyri are prepared : 

o. LiNiMENTUM Hydrargyri. — 3 ; with 
Strong Solution of Ammonia, 1 ; and Camphor 
Liniment to make 4*5. 1 of Mercury in 6. 

)8. Unguentum Hydrargyri Compositum. 
Compound Mercury Ointment. " Scott's Dress- 
ing," 10 ; with Yellow Beeswax, 6 ; Olive Oil, 6 ; 
and Camphor, 3. 1 of Mercury in o nearly. 

/. Liquor Hydrargyri Nitratis Acidus. — Acid Solu- 
tion of Mercuric Nitrate. Mercuric Nitrate, Hg2N0„ 
in solution in Nitric Acid. 

Source. — Made by dissolving 24 of Mercury in 30 of 
Nitric Acid and 9 of Water, and boiling. 

Characters. — A colourless, strongly acid liquid ; 
sp. gr. about 20. Impurity. — Mercurous Nitrate, giving 
precipitate when dropped into diluted Hydrochloric 

g. Unguentum Hydrargyri Nitratis. — Mercuric 
Nitrate Ointment. " Citrine Ointment." Made hy 
adding a cold Solution of 4 of Mercury in 12 of Nitric 

Hydrargyr um. 95 

Acid, to 16 of Lard melted in 28 of Olive Oil ; heating 
until the mixture froths up ; and stirring till cold. 


Unguentum Hydrargyri Nitratis Dilu- 
TUM. — Diluted Mercuric Nitrate Ointment. 1 in 4, 
with Soft Paraffin, yellow. 

a. Ilydrargyri Oxidum Rubriim.— Red Mer- 
curic Oxide. HgO. " Red Precipitate." 

Source. — Made by heating Mercurous Nitrate (made from 
Mercury and diluted Nitric Acid) until acid vapours cease to 
be evolved. 

Characters. — Orange-red crystalline scales or powder, 
nearly insoluble in water. Evolves O gas when heated, Hg 
remaining behind. Impurities. — Red lead and brick-dust, 
detected by being non- volatile ; nitrates, detected by yielding 
nitrous vapours by heat. Lose, ^V &i'- to | gr. {not o^(Heial). 


Unguentum Hydrargyri Oxidi Rubri.— Red 
Mercuric Oxide Ointment. Red Precipitate Oint- 
ment. 1 in 10, with Paraffin Ointment, yellow. 

3. Ilydrargyri Subchloridiim. — Mercurous 
Chloride. Calomel. Hg2Cl2. 

Source. — Obtained as a sublimate when a mixture of 
Mercurous Sulphate and Sodium Chloride is heated. 

Characters. — A dull white, heavy, nearly tasteless powder. 
Solubility. — Insoluble in water, alcohol 90 per cent,, or ether ; 
boiling concentrated nitric acid oxydises and dissolves it. 
Entirely volatilised by heat. Impurities. — Mercuric Chloride, 
soluble in warm ether ; other chlorides, which are not volatile. 
Dose, I to 5 gr. 


a. LoTio Hydrargyri Nigra. — Black Mercurial 
Lotion. Black Wash. Calomel, 0-685; Glycerin, 5; 
Mucilage of Tragacanth, 12 -5; Solution of Lime, to 
make 100. HgaClg-f Ca2H0 = HgaO + CaClg -f HgO ; 
the Black Oxide being formed. 

h. PiLULA Hydrargyri Subchlobidi Com- 
POSITA. — Compound Calomel Pill. Plummer's Pill. 
Calomel, 25 ; Sulphurated Antimony, 25 ; Guaiacum 
Resin, 50 ; Castor Oil, 103 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., 3. 
Dose, 4 to 8 gr. 

96 Hydrargyrum. 


Calomel Ointment. 1 in 10, with Benzoated Lard. 

4. Hydrargyri Perchloridum. — Mercuric 
Chloride. HgCl,. Corrosive Sublimate. 

SoxLTce. — Obtained as a sublimate by heating a mixture 
of Mercuric Sulphate, Sodium Chloride and a little Black 
Oxide of Manganese. HgSOi + 2NaCl + MnOg = HgCla 
+ Na2S04 + MnOg. The Manganese prevents the formation 
of Calomel by setting free CI, which converts the Sub- 
chloride into the Perchloride. 

Characters. — Heavy colourless masses of prismatic 
crystals. Soluhility. — 1 in 16 of cold, 1 in 2 of boiling water ; 
1 in 3 of alcohol 90 per cent. ; 1 in 4 of ether ; 1 in 2 of 
cold glycerin on trituration. Incomjmtible with alkalis and 
their carbonates, potassium iodide, lime-water, tartar-emetic, 
silver nitrate, lead acetate, albumen, soaps, decoction of bark. 

Impurities. — Fixed salts ; detected by not volatilising. 

Dose, -^ to J^ gr. 


a. Liquor Hydrargyri Perchlobidi. — 1 dis- 
solved in 875 of Distilled Water, j^^ gr. of Mercuric 
Chloride in 1 fl.dr. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 

b. LoTio Hydrargyri Flava. — Yellow Mercurial 
Lotion. Yellow Wash. Mercuric Chloride, 046 ; with 
Solution of Lime, 100. HgClg -t- Ca(HO)2=HgO -I- CaCl, 
+ HgO ; the Yellow Oxide being formedf 

Irom Hydrargyri TercJdorldum are made : 

c. Hydrargyri lodidum Rubrum. — Mercuric Iodide. 
Hglg. Biniodide of Mercury. 

Source. — Precipitated by the interaction of Mercuric 
Chloride and Potassium Iodide. 

Characters. — A vermilion crystalline powder. 
Solubility, — Almost insoluble in water ; sparingly iu 
alcohol 90 per cent. ; freely and entirely in ether, or in 
solution of Potassium Iodide. Entirely volatilised by 
beat under redness. Impurities, as of the Perchloride. 
Do^e, -^^ to -jV gr. 


a. Liquor Arsenii et Hydrargyri Iodidi 
— Solution o-f Arsenious find Mercuric Iodides 
Donovan's Solution. 

Hydrargyrum. gj 

Source. — Made by dissolving by trituration 
1 each of Arsenious Iodide and Mercuric Iodide in 
100 of Water. 

Characters. — A clear pale yellow liquid, with 
a metallic taste. Contains 1 gr. each of Aslj and 
Hglg in 110 min. Dose, 5 to 20 min. 

/3. Unguentum Hydkabgyri Iodidi Rubri. 

— Mercuric Iodide Ointment. 1 ; Benzoated Lard, 


d. Hydrargyrum Ammoniatum. — Ammoniated 
Mercury. NHsHgCl. White Precipitate. 

Source. — Made by precipitating a solution of 
Mercuric Chloride with diluted Solution of Ammonia ; 
washing and drying. HgCl2+2NH4HO = NHgHgCl 
4- NH4CI + 2H2O. 

Characters. — An opaque white powder ; insoluble 
in water, alcohol 90 per cent., and ether. Impurities, 
as of the Perchloride. 


Unguentum Hydrargyri Ammoniati. 

—Ammoniated Mercury Ointment. White 
Precipitate Ointment. 1 in 10, with White 
Paraffin Ointment. 

e Hydrargyri Oxidum FlavTun. — Yellow Mercuric 
Oxide. HgO. 

Source. — Made by precipitating a solution of 
Mercuric Chloride with Sodium Hydroxide. HgClo 
+ 2NaH0 = HgO + 2NaCl + H2O. 

Characters. — A yellow powder ; insoluble in water ; 
entirely volatilised by heat. Has the same composi- 
tion as the Red Oxide, but is non-crystalline. 


Unguentum Hydrargyri Oxidi Flavi. 
— Yellow Mercuric Oxide Ointment. 1 ; Soft 
Paraffin, yellow, 49. 

/. Hydrarg3rri Oleas. — Mercuric Oleate. 

Source. — Made by boiling a solution of Mercuric 
Chloride with a solution of Oleic Acid and Hard Soap 
in Water ; and washing and drying the precipitate. 
A light greyish yellow substance, of unctuous con- 
sistence and saponaceous odour. 

98 Hydra rgyr um. 


Unguentum Hydra-RGYEI Oleatis.— 
Mercuric Oleate Ointment. 1 ; Benzoated 
Lard, 3. 


Solutions of Mercurous salts give a black precipitate with 
HgS ; and a white precipitate with HCl, blackened by NH4HO. 
Those of Mercuric salts give a brown precipitate with HoS ; 
a scarlet with KI. The insoluble Mercurials are volatilised 
by heat. 



Externally. — Mercury and most of its preparations cause 
little irritation of the unbroken skin unless applied for some 
time ; but all the stronger mercurial preparations are to be 
used with caution locally. On ulcers and mucous surfaces 
mercurials produce /owr definite effects:—!. Weak solutions 
of Mercuric Chloride (^ — \ gr. to 1 fl.oz.), and the Oint- 
ments of the various salts, are astringent, antiseptic, and 
stimulant, like the preparations of other metallic salts {^see 
page G8). On this principle many inflammations of the 
skin and eyelids are treated with Red Precipitate, White Pre- 
cipitate and Citrine Ointments. 2. Stronger solutions of 
Corrosive Sublimate cause inflammation of the skin, and con- 
centrated solutions are caustic. Neither effect is employed 
surgically ; but the Acid Solution of the Nitrate, also a 
powerful caustic, is used to destroy small growths on the 
skin. 3. All mercurials are antiseptic and disinfectant, 
especially Mercuric Chloride (jsee page 104). 4. Part of the 
application is absorbed very readily, and produces, both 
locally and generally, the specific effect of the metal to be 
described presently. The official Lotions are intended to have 
a local specific action, and are much used in syphilis. As it 
is frequently desirable to obtain the general effects of Mercury 
by local application, it will be well to describe here the various 
methods of thus administering the drug. 

(1) Inunction.— In the form of the Ointment, metallic 
Mercury may be rubbed into a soft part of the skin. Thus 
applied. Mercury undoubtedly enters the blood ; it has been 
contended, however, that the metal is not admitted by the 
skin, but through the lungs in the form of vapour arising 
from the heated body smeared with the Ointment, or even is 

Hydrargyrum. 99 

small particles by the mouth. Fortunately, the question is of 
little practical importance, the fact remaining that the 
system can be quickly brought under the influence of Mercury 
by inunction. The Oleate painted on the skin and the 
Liniment, Compound Ointment and Plaster worn on it also 
convey the metal into the body. 

(2) Fumigation. — The vapour of Calomel, rising from a 
vessel heated by a lamp, is conducted to a part or to the whole 
of the surface of the body of the patient, and there allowed to 
settle as a fine deposit of the salt. The effect is increased by 
simultaneous diaphoresis, induced either by the vapour of 
water or by such a drug as Jaborandi. 20 gr. of Calomel 
may thus be fumigated, during a sitting of twenty minutes. 
The same doubt exists as to the precise way in which Calomel 
thus administered enters the system. 

(3) Baths. — As a bath of dilute solutions of Mercuric 
Chloride, say 3 dr. to 30 gallons of water, with 1 fl.dr. of 
Hydrochloric Acid. 

(4) Ejidcrmically . — Mercurials may be dusted on the raw 
surface of a blistered portion of the skin or soft syphilitic 
growths (condylomata). 

(5) Hypodermically . — Various preparations of Mercuric 
Chloride,including albuminates and peptonates,may be injected 
under the skin or into the tissues. This method is powerful, 
and produces neither salivation nor gastric disturbance ; but 
it is apt to cause troublesome local irritation. 

(6) Inlialations.—li\i% vapour of Mercurials may be inhaled, 
as we have seen ; but this method is rarely employed inten- 

(7) Per rectum. — Mercury may be given in the form of 

Whilst the specific action of the drug, presently to be 
described, is developed by these methods, the local effects 
are more marked : certain skin diseases are healed, condylo- 
mata removed, and indurations and chronic inflammatory 
processes in connection with bones or joints reduced. 

Internally. — The local action of Mercury is the same in- 
ternally as externally, according to the nature and strength of 
the preparation employed. Very dilute aqueous solutions of 
Mercuric Chloride (4 gr. to 10 fl.oz., with 8 min. of Hydro- 
chloric Acid) may be used as a gargle or wash for syphilitic 
ulcers of the mouth. All the salts of Mercury act upon the 
mouth, gums and salivary glands, causing salivation and 
stomatitis; these effects are produced largely during their 

loo Hydrargyrum. 

excretion, although Mercuric Chloride causes, from its metal- 
lic taste, a reflex flow of saliva. 

In the stomach, Mercurials combine with the Sodium 
Chloride of the secretions, and, whatever their original form, 
are converted into a double Sodium and Mercury Chloride, 
which further unites with the albuminous juices to form a 
complex molecule of Mercury, Sodium, Chlorine and Albumen. 
This compound, although precipitated at first, is soluble in an 
excess either of Sodium Chloride or of Albumen ; exists in 
the stomach, therefore, in solution ; and is readily diffusible 
and easily absorbed. It is not specially irritant in moderate 
quantities, and none of the salts.of Mercury given in medicinal 
doses produce vomiting like Zinc and Copper ; indeed^ 
Ringer has shown that Calomel in -^ gr. doses, or Hydrargyrum 
cum Cret^ in \ gr, doses, given every two or three hours, 
arrests some forms of vomiting in children. Tliis may be a 
disinfectant effect. In large or concentrated doses Mercurials 
are irritant or corrosive to the stomach, and should always be 
given cautiously and after meals. 

The action of Mercurials in the duodenum takes the form 
of purgation. Mercuric Chloride is never employed to pro- 
duce this effect, but Calomel and divided Mercury in the form 
of the Pilula Hydrargyri or Hydrargyrum cum Cret^ are 
common purgatives. The action of Mercurials as purgatives 
is mainly a local one, but some of the metal is absorbed only 
to be re-excreted, and the whole is expelled in the faeces. 
The same effect follows hypodermic injection of the drug. 
Probably the intestinal glands are stimulated to increased 
secretion, and the mucous membrane is irritated to such a 
degree as to produce a moderate increase of watery exudation 
from its vessels into the bowel, peristalsis also becoming more 
brisk. At the same time the putrefactive (bacterial) factor 
of duodenal digestion and its attendant flatulence are checked. 
The gall bladder and bile ducts are believed to be stimulated 
also. The result is thorough evacuation of the contents of 
the small intestine, as large, loose, possibly green, but not 
watery stools, charged with products of pancreatic digestion, 
and with bile which has been hurried out of the duodenum, 
and not decomposed or allowed to re-enter the portal circula- 
tion by absorption from the lower bowel, as it normally does. 
Thus Mercurials, particularly Calomel, increase the amount of 
bile evacuated without directly increasing the amount secreted ; 
that is, are indirect cholagogiies by being duodenal purgatives. 
The manner in which indirect cholagogue action stimulates 
the liver to further secretion is discussed on p. 514. The porga* 
tive action of Mercurials is greatly assisted by a subsequent 

Hydr a RGYR UM. I O I 

saline, such as Seidlitz Powder or Mistura Senn» Coaiposita. 
The class of diseases in which Mercurials are selected as pur- 
gatives chiefly includes congestion of the portal system and 
liver, especially when associated with indigestion from heart 
disease, free living or gout ; constipation with irdtable stomach, 
or actual ulceration of the stomach or bowels ; very rarely 
habitual constipation, except at long intervals to enable gentle 
laxatives to act moro freely. Diarrhoea, distinctly referable 
to the presence of putrefactive organisms within the bowel, 
particularly in children, is rationally treated with salts of 
Mercury, which act as intestinal disinfectants. 


As we have seen, Mercury enters the blood freely through 
the broken or unbroken skin. From the bowel but a small 
part of a medicinal dose is absorbed, the rest passing off in 
the faeces as the sulphide. Opium delays its progress through 
the intestine. The complex molecule which Mercury forms 
in the stomach and intestines is decomposed on entering the 
blood by combination with Oxygen and Albumen, a Mercury 
Oxyalbuminate being the result; and apparently the same 
compound is formed when the metal enters by other channels. 

Little direct effect on the blood can be attributed to Mer- 
cury ; an impairment of nutrition generally, including digestion, 
attends its excessive use, and induces impoverishment both of 
the plasma and the corpuscles, indirectly referable to the 
drug. The blood becomes more watery and coagulates less 
firmly, and nutrition may be further disordered in consequence, 
with the production of low forms of inflammation and ulcera- 
tion. It is understood that this is not a specific effect of 
Mercury, and that the influence of Mercury upon inflamma- 
tory products and syphilitic growths, to be presently described 
is not exerted through the blood but upon the tissues them- 
selves. Still, the impoverishing effect of this drug upon the 
blood must be kept constantly in mind, and the quality of the 
blood sustained by abundance of food and strict attention to 
digestion. If the appetite fail, or serious dyspepsia arise, 
Mercurials must be stopped. 


Mercury quickly leaves the blood and enters the tissues, 
where it is apt to remain almost indefinitely, being excreted 
with comparative slowness, especially when the kidneys are 
diseased. It has been found in every organ of the body, most 
abundantly in the liver. It is a remarkable fact, however, 
that no marked pathological change has ever been demon- 

I02 Hydrargyrum. 

strated in the viscera, such as the vessels, liver or nervous 
system, even in cases of chronic poisoning by this metal, 
beyond slight inflammatory lesions and ulcerations in the 
alimentary canal, osseous softening and traces of spinal 
myelitis. Mercury in this respect also differs from Lead, 
Silver, Antimony and Arsenium. The greater part of the 
action of Mercury appears to depend on its property of pre- 
cipitating proteins. Mercury albuminate, being soluble in 
salt solutions and also in excess of albumin, can still exert 
after absorption an irritant action on the tissues of the body. 
Thus the salivation is due to some irritant effect on the 
secretory mechanism, along with stomatitis and possibly ulcer- 
ation and periostitis. On the Spirochasta pallida, Mercury 
acts in a similar way, namely, by precipitating its proteins 
and thus killing it. In this instance, Mercury shows a selec- 
tive action : its specific toxic power towards the syphilitic 
parasite is much greater than towards other blood parasites. 
With reference to its poisonous effects, Mercury given 
for a considerable period in moderate doses may (but by 
no means necessarily does) produce a train of symptoms 
Icnown as " hydrargyrism," which chiefly take the form of 
swelling of the gums, salivation, dyspepsia and diarrhoea ; 
ulceration of the mouth, mucous membranes and skin ; pains 
in the bones, nervous phenomena, including muscular tremors, 
paralysis and mental disturbance ; cardiac depression ; 
debility, anaemia and cachexia. Some of these effects may 
be permanent. The temperature is not directly raised, nor 
are the total excretions more abundant, so that there is no 
positive evidence of increased mctaboUsm as an effect of 


The uses of Mercury as a specific remedy bear no definite 
relation to these effects, which have been mentioned chiefly 
that they may be recognised and arrested. The principal 
application of the drug is in syphilis, a disease attended by 
the growth of cells around the small vessels, and the develop- 
ment of these into nodes, gummata, various eruptions, etc. 
Mercury has a powerful influence in controlling tlie severity 
of this disease. Its employment may be commenced with 
various local applications to the primary sore, and regular in- 
ternal doses of the Solution of Mercuric Chloride, Calomel, 
Grey Powder or some of the other preparations, until saliva- 
tion threaten. In the opinion of the highest authorities the 
secondary stage is rendered less severe or is entirely pre- 
vented by this means. The drug must be continued daring 

Hydrargyrum. 103 

secondary symptoms ; as a rule, it is rarelj required in the 
tertiary stage. The particular preparation employed varies 
with the experience of the practitioner. Quinine and Opium 
are useful means of support to be combined with Mercury in 
a course of the metal, and we must repeat that unless the 
appetite and digestion continue good the use of it must be 

The other specific use of Mercurials is in internal inflam- 
mations, especially iritis and inflammation of serous mem- 
branes — peritonitis, pericarditis, pleurisy, meningitis and 
orchitis. This line of treatment, once universal in England, 
is now almost obsolete, excepting, perhaps, in subacute or 
chronic peritonitis. Used as an antiphlogistic, Mercury is 
usually combined with Opium. Possibly some of the benefit 
thus attending mercurialisation in inflammation, and formerly 
referred to its " resolvent " action on the fibrin of exudations, 
is due to its purgative and intestinal antiseptic effects, or to 
the syphilitic nature of the process. 


Mercury slowly passes out of the system in all the secre- 
tions (the saliva, sweat, milk, urine and bile), probably as an 
albuminate, and stimulates many of the glands en route. It 
is in this way, as we have seen, a powerful sialagogue, causing 
swelling of the salivary glands and a profuse flow of the 
secretions of the mouth. This effect is to be avoided. The 
diaphoretic effect of Mercury is comparatively insignificant ; 
various eruptions may occur. Given in 3-gr. doses four times 
a day for three or four days on end (the mouth being 
watched), Calomel occasionally produces a remarkable effect 
as a diuretic in cardiac dropsy. It also assists to a marked 
degree such diuretics as Digitalis and Squill ; but it must be 
given with caution in kidney disease, as it may cause albu- 
minuria, is believed to set up or aggravate inflammation of 
the tubules, and readily produces its debilitating effects when 
the renal function is impaired. In the fseces Mercury leaves 
the body as the sulphide, which is derived, first, from that 
considerable portion of the dose which is not absorbed j 
secondly, from the portion excreted by the liver (in the bile), 
and by the salivary, pancreatic and intestinal glands. But 
little use is made of the remote local action of Mercury. 


The preptarations of Mercury, although so numerous, are 


readily remembered, and their special actions understood, 
when grouped as follows : — 

1. Metallic Mercury and preparations containing it. 

2. Mercuric Chloride and its preparations. 

3. Mercurous Chloride and its preparations. 

4. The Oxides, Iodides^ Ammoniated Mercury, Oleate and 
preparations : a complex group, the action and uses of which 
correspond mainly with those of Mercuric Chloride, partly 
with those of Mercurous Chloride. 

5. Acid Solution of Mercuric Nitrate and the Ointment. 

1. Metallic Mercury and its preparations. — These may be 
employed in all the classes of cases for which Mercurials are 
adapted. The metal itself is never given internally, except in 
the finely divided form in which it exists in Pilula Hydrargyri 
and Hydrargyrum cum Cret^. The Blue Pill is chiefly used 
as a purgative and indirect cholagogue, but is also given for 
syphilis in small doses combined with Opium and Quinine, 
and as a diuretic along with Digitalis and Squill (the famous 
" Guy's Pill "). Hydrargyrum cum Cretd is a favourite purga- 
tive for children, and also a convenient preparation for a 
course of Mercury in syphilis. Unguentum Hydrargyri is the 
usual means of administering the metal by inunction. A 
portion as large as a pea or hazel nut is rubbed daily into the 
inside of the thigh, or smeared on flannel and applied round 
the loins, the gums being carefully watched. The latter is a 
very sure and tolerably safe but very dirty method, which is 
chiefly employed in infants. Mercury Ointment may also be 
smeared over inflamed parts, such as the testis ; and it is used 
as a parasiticide. The Liniment of Mercury (the Ointment 
as a liquid soap) is soaked on lint and applied to chronically 
inflamed parts like the joints or the abdomen. The same use 
may be made of the Plasters, and of the Compound Ointment, 
" Scott's Dressing." A suppository may be used in syphilis, 
or to kill ascarides. 

2. Mercuric Chloride. — This is the most powerful of all 
Mercurials. It is one of the most active of antiseptics. 1 part 
in 10,000 destroys micrococci and bacilli ; 1 in 1,000 destroys 
their spores. A solution of the former strength is suitable 
as an ordinary lotion for wounds ; the latter strength may be 
used as a spray or wash in diphtheria, and to disinfect foul 
ulcers, especially of syphilitic origin ; and a solution of 1 in 
500 may be employed with care. It is much used as an anti- 
septic dressing in combination with cotton wool, wood wool. 

IIydrargyr um. I o 5 

etc. It is also applied in ringworm, pityriasis versicolor, and 
other parasitic skin diseases. Internally, the Liquor is well 
borne and efBcient in syphilis. It serves also as a disinfectant 
in some kinds of diarrhoea. A solution — 8 gr. to 1 fl.oz. of 
Distilled Water, with 8 gr. of Ammonium Chloride ('* sal 
alerabroth ")— and albuminates and peptonates have been 
used for interstitial injection in syphilis. Lotio Hydrargyri 
Flava is applied to syphilitic sores. As a general disinfectant, 
I of Mercuric Chloride in 500 of Water is thoroughly efficient. 

3. MercurouB Chloride. — Calomel resembles metallic Mer- 
cury in being used both externally and internally as a stimu- 
lant, disinfectant, antisyphilitic and purgative remedy. 
Externally it is applied to the inflamed cornea, syphilitic 
sores, and chronic inflammatory growths as Calomel dust ; by 
fumigation ; as the Unguentum, and as the Black Wash. In- 
ternally, Calomel is a valuable purgative possessing also the 
action of a disinfectant. It is readily taken and easily borne 
even in irritable states of the stomach ; and acts as an indirect 
cholagogue, hepatic stimulant and diuretic. The Compound 
Calomel Pill is in much repute as a hepatic and metabolic 
stimulant, with little or no directly purgative effect, to be given 
every night or every other night, for a week or more at a 
time, in gout and other morbid conditions consequent on free 
living. Calomel combined with Opium was the favourite 
Mercurial prescribed by the last generation of surgeons and 
physicians in the treatment of inflammation ; in syphilis it is 
still employed with success. 

4. The Oxides, Iodides and Ammoniated Mercury. — These 
substances, although forming a convenient group, chiefl[y 
belong to the second group named as regards their action 
and uses. Thus the following closely resemble Mercuric 
Chloride, viz. Hydrargyri Oxidum Flavum, Hydrargyri Oxidum 
Rubrum, Hydrargyri lodidum Rubrum, and Hydrargyrum 
Ammoniatum. The first two are chiefly used externally in 
syphilis and chronic inflammations of the skin and eyes. The 
Oleate is used in syphilis and inveterate ringworm. The 
" White Precipitate Ointment " is useful as a parasiticide and 
an application to chronic inflammatory (infective) eruptions 
in children. 

With Mercurous Chloride may be classed the Green or 
Mercurous Iodide, no longer official because unstable and 
therefore dangerous, but still used by some surgeons. The 
student will not forget that Lotio Hydrargyri Flava really con- 
tains the Yellow Oxide, and Lotio Hydrargyri Nigra the Black 
Oxide, although they are reckoned preparations of Mercuric 

1 06 Phosphor us. 

Chloride and Mercurous Chloride respectively, Donovan's 
Solution is valuable in obstinate syphilides. 

6. Liquor Hydrarg3rri Nitratis Acidus and Mercurio 
Nitrate Ointment. — These are not used in syphilis. The 
former is applied as a caustic in lupus and other limited 
growths and ulcers of the skin ; the Ointment as a stimulant 
to chronic skin diseases, and to the edges of the eyelids in 
chronic inflammation and ulceration of the follicles. 

Precautions in the use of Mercurials. — Mercury must not 
be given to persons with anaemia or debility, unless these are 
distinctly referable to syphilis, and even then it must be 
employed with caution. This remark also applies to tubercu- 
losis and renal disease. Individuals are occasionally met 
with in whom even small doses of Calomel or Blue Pill 
quickly induce hydrargyrism from a kind of idiosyncrasy. In 
every instance the patient must be carefully nourished, as we 
have said. On the contrary, children, even infants, bear Mer- 
cury very well, although the prolonged administration of the 
metal to them appears to produce a peculiar change in the 
permanent teeth when they appear, which is extremely 
unsightly (mercurial teeth of Hutchinson). 

Sub-Group 4. 

Phosphorus, Arsenium, Antimonium, Bismuthum. 

PHOSPHORUS. Phosphorus. P. 3104. 

Under this head will be described not only the 
element itself, but the Hypophosphites, which are 
derived from it, and are believed to be closely related 
to it phamiacologically. 

Pliospliorus. — A solid non-metallic element obtained 

from Calcium Phosphate. 

Characterg. — A semi-transparent, wax-like solid ; luminous 
in the dark ; ignites in the air. Sp. gr. 1-77 ; melts at 110° F. 
Solnhility. — Insoluble in water, 1 in 3.^0 of absolute alcohol, 
1 in 80 of olive oil and of ether, 1 in 25 of chloroform. 2 in 
1 of carbon bisulphide, and in boiling oil of turpentine. 
Dose, in pill or solution, y^ to ^V &^- 

Phosi-hor us. 107 


1. Oleum Phosphoratum. — Phosphorated Oil. — 
1 dissolved at 180° F. in 99 of Almond Oil, previously 
heated for 15 minutes to 300" and filtered, hose, 1 to 
5 min. 

2. PUula Phosphori. — 1 ; Lard, 125; White 
Beeswax, 125 ; Kaolin, 11-5 ; Carbon Bisulphide, 3-3. 
When dispensed every 3 grains of this mixture is to be 
incorporated with 1 grain of Gum Acacia powdered ; 
the resulting pill (2 per cent, of P.) should be varnished. 
Bo»e, 1 to 2 gr. 

From Phosphorus is made : 

3. Calcii Hypophosphis. Ca(PH202)2. 

Source. — Obtained by the interaction of Phosphorus, 
Calcium Hydroxide and Water. 3CaH202 + 2P4 + 6H.0 
= 3Ca(PH202)a+2PH3. 

Cliaracters. — White pearly crystals, with a bitter 
nauseous taste. Solubility. — 1 in 8 of cold water ; in- 
soluble in cold alcohol 90 per cent. Dose, 3 to 10 gr. 

Calcii Hypophosphis is used in m/iking : 

Sodii Hypophosphis. NaPHjOj. 

Source. — Obtained by the interaction of 
Sodium Carbonate and Calcium Hypophosphite. 
Ca2PH202 + Na^COj = 2NaPHa02 + CaCOj. 

Characters.— 1\. white, granular, deliquescent 
salt, with a bitter nauseous taste. Solubility. — 1 
in 1 of water; 1 in 30 of alcohol 90 per cent./ 
insoluble in ether. Dose, 3 to 10 gr. 

Phosphorus is also used in making : 

Acidum Phosphoricum Concentratum. 


Phosphorus is luminous when opened in a dark place. 
ffypophosphites give a black precipitate with AgNOs ; a grey 
with HgClj. With Zn and H3SO4 they yield PH,. Acid solu- 
tions decolorise KMnO^. 

1 08 Phosphor us. 


Phosphorus has a powerful action on the body, and one 
which has been proved by elaborate investigations on animals 
to be of the most interesting kind to the physiologist. As a 
poison Phosphorus is also of great importance. Unfortunately, 
however, it cannot be said to be of much value to the thera- 
peutist, as it has disappointed most attempts to turn it to 
practical account in the treatment of disease. 


Externally and internally Phosphorus acts as a powerful 
local irritant and caustic ; but it is never given to produce 
this effect. For the same reason the drug must not be 
ordered in the solid form, but carefully mixed with oil or fat. 
The Phosphorated Oil is best administered on sugar or in 


Phosphorus enters the blood, and may be found in it partly 
unchanged, partly oxydised into phosphorous or phosphoric 
acid at the expense of the oxygen of the red corpuscles. It 
causes increased destruction of red blood cells, but stimulates 
the formation of new corpuscles ; alkalinity is reduced from 
increased formation of lactic acid. Phosphorus has been em- 
ployed in leukaemia and lymphadenoma, but on the whole 
with disappointing results. 


In the tissues Phosphorus may be traced as the uncom- 
bined element : another proof that itsoxydation in the blood 
is incomplete. Its effect on metabolism, when given in large 
doses, is most distinct and definite. It increases the nitro- 
genous products, including urea, tyrosin and leucin ; reduces 
the glycogen of the liver to nil; raises the temperature; 
diminishes the excretion of carbonic acid, and the volume of 
oxygen absorbed ; and leads to fatty degeneration of epi- 
thelial, glandular and muscular protoplasm throughout the 
body. Phosphorus increases destructive metabolism or auto- 
lysis. Oxydation processes are diminished ; less fat but more 
carbohydrate and protein matters are decomposed; thus the 
nitrogen excretion is augmented. The increased autolysis 
occurs chiefly in the liver. Fatty degeneration occurs as a 
result of this stimulated autolysis : the cells remove the fat 
from the blood and store it ; thus the blood transfers fat from 
the normal adipose tissue to replace its loss; this is again 

Ar SENIUM, 109 

removed by the cells of the liver and heart which, having lost 
their power of decomposing fats, s\i.oyN fatty degeneration. 

The uses to which Phosphorus has been puc as a specific 
remedy do not obviously depend on these effects upon nutri- 
tion. It has been given in nervous disorders, such as 
neuralgia ; in adynamic conditions, such as typhoid fever ; in 
some skin diseases, including pemphigus, psoriasis, and lupus 
erythematosus, and as an aphrodisiac. It is difficult to under- 
stand how these morbid states can be benefited by a sub- 
stance which diminishes oxydation ; but Lecithin (a phos- 
phorised fat) and Glycerophosphoric Acid, one of its con- 
stituents (non-official), are used to stimulate metabolism. 

In very small doses over a considerable length of time, 
Phosphorus affects the structure of bones, converting the 
spongy portion into firm, compact substance, without altering 
its composition chemically. It has therefore been recom- 
mended in rickets and for ununited fracture ; but in rickets, 
at least, is far inferior to certain other medicinal measures. 

Sodium and Calcium Hypophosphites. — The Hypophos- 
phites have recently been much employed in cases of nervous 
and general debility, and in chronic pulmonary disease. They 
act, according to some authorities, in the same manner as free 
Phosphorus, without being irritant. As the Hypophosphites 
are probably converted into phosphates in the stomach, they 
may be expected to stimulate the liver and bowels, and 
(especially the calcium salt) to affect the growth and healing 
of bones, lymphatic glands, and adenoid tissue, including 
tubercle ; but their therapeutic value is doubtful. 


Phosphorus is excreted by the kidneys as Phosphorus, as 
phosphorous acid, and as phosphates. It is not employed in 
this connection. 

AKSENIUM. ArseniUxM. As. 7496. 

All the preparations of this metal are derived from 
White Arsenic. 

Aciduill Arseniosuni. — Arsenious Anhydride. 
As40g. Arsenious Acid. White Arsenic, 

Source. — Obtained by roasting certain arsenical ores. 

Characters. — A heavy white powder ; or stratified, opaque, 
white porcelain-like masses. Solubility. — 1 in 100 of cold, 1 
in 10 of boiling, water, yielding an odourless, tasteless, faintly 

no Arsenium. 

acid solution ; 1 in 5 of glycerin. Volatilised at 400° F. 
Iticovipatihles. — Salts of iron and magnesium ; lime water. 
Impurities. — Lead, Cadmium, Antimony, Tin ; and sulphides. 
Dose, g\j to 3*5 gr. (in solution or pill, after meals). 


1. Liquor Arsenicalis. — " Fowler's Solution." 
Source. — Made by boiling Arsenious Anhydride and 

Potassium Carbonate in Water ; and colouring with 
Compound Tincture of Lavender. 1 in 100. It is 
doubtful whether any decomposition occurs. 

Characters. — A reddish liquid, alkaline to test- 
paper, with the odour of lavender. Dose, 2 to 8 min. 

2. Liquor Arsenici Hydrochloricus. — Hydrochloric 
Solution of Arsenic. 

Souree. — Made by boiling Arsenious Anhydride 
with Hydrochloric Acid and Water. 1 in 100. No 
decomposition occurs. Characters. — Colourless, with 
an acid reaction. Dose, 2 to 8 min. 

Fro7ii Aciduin Arseniosum are made : 

3. Sodii Arsenas. — Sodium Arsenate. Na^HAsO^. 
Source. — Made by (1) fusing Arsenious Anhydride 

with Sodium Nitrate and Carbonate ; (2) dissolving the 
product in Water, and crystallising ; and (3) heating to 
300° F. (1) AsiOg + INaNOg + 2Na2C03 = 2Na4As207 
(Sodium Pyro-Arsenate) +N2O3 + COj. (2) Na^AsjO, 
+ H2O = 2Na^HAs04. 

Characters. — A white powder. Solubility. — 1 in 6 
of water ; the solution is alkaline. Heated to 
300-* F., it should not lose weight. Ivipurities. — Other 
metals ; carbonates, chlorides, nitrates and sulphates. 

Dose, -^ to T»^ gr. 


LiQUOB Sodii Arsenatis.— 1 in 100 of Diiu 
tilled Water. Dose, 2 to 8 min. 

From Arsenate of Sodium is made : 

Ferri Arsenas. See Ferrum, page 82. 

4. Arsenii lodidum. — Arsenious Iodide. Asl^ 
Source. — Made by the direct combination of Iodine 

and Arsenium. 


Characters.— ^m^\ orange-coloured crystals. Soht^ 
hility.~-\ in 11 of water; 1 in 42 of alcohol 90 per 
cent. Aqueous solution is acid. Dose ^V to \ gr. 

Liquor Aesenii et Hydraegyri Iodidi.— 
Donovan's Solution. See Hydrargyrim, page 96. 


Arsenic volatilises by heat, emitting the odour of garlic. 
It also gives Marsh's and Reinsch's tests. Acid arsenical 
solutions give a yellow precipitate with H gS ; Arsenates give 
a chocolate precipitate with AgNOg. 


Externally. — Arsenious Acid is irritant and caustic. It is 
used occasionally to destroy lupus, epithelioma, and other 
superficial or limited new growths, in the form of a " paste," 
composed of Arsenious Acid 1, Charcoal 1 , Red Sulphuret of 
Mercury 4, and Water. Arsenic must be used locally with 
great care, as it is absorbed from the broken skin, ulcers, and 
mucous membranes, unless sufficient inflammation be set up 
to throw it off. 

Internally. — The local corrosive action of Arsenic may be 
employed in caries of the teeth to destroy the painful pulp 
before stopping, a paste chiefly composed of Arsenious Aci(i, 
Cocaine, Morphine Sulphate and a sufficiency of Creosote to 
make a stiff compound being placed in the cavity. 

Reaching the stomach in medicinal doses, the preparations 
of Arsenic do not combine with the albuminous contents like 
Mercury, but remain unchanged. They thus act upon the 
mucous membrane, stimulating the nerves and vessels, causing 
a sense of heat and hunger, and increasing the gastric func- 
tions. In these small doses Arsenic is employed with advan- 
tage in some cases of gastric dyspepsia ; and a similar effect 
on the duodenum makes it of value in lienteric diarrhoea. If 
the dose be increased, the stimulant action may readily pass 
into irritation of the stomach, attended by pain and sick}ie;3S, 
and diarrhoea from intestinal disturbance. These symptoms 
are to be avoided. They are probably due to vascular con- 
gestion and liquid transudation into the bowel ; combined 
with a specific action of the Arsenic on the epithelium, which 
undergoes fatty degeneration. 

112 Arsenium. 


Arsenic quickly enters the blood ; it diminishes the mature 
red cells and hgemoglobin, but stimulates the bone marrow, 
leading to the formation of new erythroblasts. It has been 
used with success in some forms of ansemia ; and this both in 
idiopathic forms (pernicious anaemia, leukasraia) and where the 
corpuscles and plasma have suffered from failure of nutrition 
elsewhere (symptomatic anasmia), as in tuberculosis, malaria, 
gout and rheumatism. It appears to have inhibitory powers 
over the growth of trypanosomes and Spirochzeta pallida. 
See page 122, Atoxijl ; Salvarsan. 


Arsenic enters all the organs and tissues, but is not known 
to combine with their albuminous constituents ; it remains in 
them for a considerable time, and is slowly excreted. During 
this period, however, it distinctly influences metabolism, pro- 
bably by diminishing oxydation in the tissues or by some 
specific action on the cells ; the subcutaneous fat is increased, 
and the bones and muscles develop more rapidly under its 
influence. It first reaches the liver, and reduces the amount 
of glycogen in it, so that it may be occasionally, but by no 
means often, used with success in diabetes mellitus. In the 
other organs it interferes similarly with metabolism, apparently 
(like Phosphorus) through the oxygenating process. An 
increased amount of nitrogenous waste appears in the urine ; 
the temperature rises ; and the excessive fatty product of the 
albuminous decomposition remains unexcreted, constituting 
fatty degeneration. Short of this effect, Arsenic appears to pro- 
duce a wholesome increase of the metabolism or vital activity 
of all the organs ; and it is perhaps in this way that the drug 
acts as a general tonic, and as a valuable remedy in such 
classes of disturbed nutrition as gout and chronic rheumatism. 
For the same reason it hastens the degeneration and absorp- 
tion of inflammatory products in catarrhal pneumonia and 
phthisis. It is possible, however, that Arsenic affects the life 
processes of other living particles in the body besides the 
tissue elements, namely, the organisms of certain diseases. 
It is, next to Quinine, the most successful medicinal agent in 
the treatment of chronic malaria, brow-ague and other varieties 
of neuralgia due to the same cause, and malarial cachexia ; 
and it is used with advantage in hay-fever. It sometimes 
dispels lymphomatous tumours. Beyond a safe amount, 
Arsenic produces a series of nutritive disorders in the tissues, 
characterised chiefly by debility and nervous disturbances, 

Arsenium. 113 

known as " chronic arsenical poisoning," which need not be 
detailed here. 

Next to nutrition generally, the nervous system appears to 
oe most influenced by Arsenic. It is found abundantly in 
the grey matter of the cord in cases of poisoning, and acts 
by diminishing the sensibility and reflex irritability of the 
centres. The motor nerves and muscles are affected later 
(peripheral neuritis), particularly when Arsenic is imbibed 
along with Alcohol in impure beer. Arsenic is useful in 
chorea, neuralgia, and asthma, especially when malaria, gout, 
or anaemia is associated with the neurosis. Like Phosphorus, 
Arsenic increases the compact tissue of bone at the expense 
of the medullary tissue, and is given sometimes in osteo- 
arthritis. In large doses it has a depressing effect on the 
respiration, circulation and temperature. 


Arsenic is excreted chiefly in the urine, in the form of 
arsenious acid : also by the gastro-intestinal mucosa, the 
liver and skin. It is not known to affect the kidney specially. 
The gastro-enteric irritation set up by overdoses of Arsenic 
is probably due to paralysis of the mesenteric capillaries pro- 
ducing congestion of the tissues ; transudation of fibrinous 
liquid into the intestine results, and the epithelium under- 
goes fatty degeneration. The liver, as we have seen, is 
modified in its activity ; and part of the value of Arsenic in 
chronic gout, gravel and skin diseases may be referable to its 
action on the greatest metabolic organ in the body. Either 
indirectly or directly, its effect on the skin is very marked. 
It is the most valuable of all internal remedies for certain 
eruptions obviously connected with disordered nutrition, such 
as psoriasis, hydroa, chronic (not acute) eczema, lichen planus 
and pemphigus ; whilst it may cause herpes, pigmentation 
and keratosis, and aggravate erythema multiforme. Donovan's 
Solution is used in syphilides. Iron Arsenate checks nighfe 
sweats in phthisis. 


An Arsenical preparation should always be given immedi- 
ately at the end of meals, unless its gastric effect be distinctly 
desired, which is rarely the case; and it ought not to come 
into free contact with the exposed mucous membrane. For 
the same reason it must be given with especial caution if 
dyspepsia be present. Epigastric fulness, pain and tender- 
ness, a sense of constriction in the throat, irritation or sore- 

114 Antimoni Uhi. 

^ness of the conjunctivae, and especially vomiting, ought to 
fluggest a diminution (not necessarily the suspension) of the 
drug. Children bear Arsenic well, whilst old subjects are 
said to bear it badly. A combination of Iron with Arsenic is one 
of the best of haematinics and tonics, probably because the Iron 
provides suflScient oxygen to complete the increased metabolism 
iproduced by the Arsenic. Weight for weight of the metal, the 
Arsenates are less active than the Arsenites. Sodium Cacody- 
late, As(CH')202Na, containing 48 per cent.of Arsenium, is given 
hypodermically in tuberculosis and otlier chronic infections. 

ANTIMONIUM. Antimony. Sb. 120-2. 

The metal itself (Stibium) is not official, all the 
preparations being derived from Antimonious Sulphide, 
as follows : 

Antinionium Nig^rum Purificatum.— Antimo- 
nious Sulphide. 

Source. — Native Antimonious Sulphide, Sb^Sj, purified from 
silicious matter by fusion and powdering ; and from Arsenic 
by digestion with Solucion of Ammonia, washing and drying. 

Characters. — A greyish-black crystalline powder ; decom- 
posed on boiling with hydrochloric acid. Trnpurities. — 
Arsenium ; Silica, insoluble in boiling HCl. 

From Antimonium Nigrum Purificatum are made : 

1. Antimonium Sulphuratum. — Sulphurated Anti- 
mony. A mixture containing Antimony Sulphides 
and Oxides, SbaSg, SbaOj, SbjSg, Sb^Og ; and S. 

Source. — Made by (1) boiling Antimonious Sulphide 
with Sublimed Sulphur and Caustic Soda; diluting 
with boiling water ; and (2) precipitating with Diluted 
Sulphuric Acid, washing, and drying. 

Characters. — A dull-red powder, without odour, 
and with a slight taste. Readily soluble in solution of 
NaHO, also in hot HCl with evolution of H^S, the 
solution yielding a white precipitate with water. 
Impurity. — Arsenium. Dose, 1 to 2 gr. 

Antimonium Sulphuratum is contained in Pilula 
Hydrargyri Subchloridi Composita— about 1 in 4^. See 
Hydrargyrum, page 95. 

2, Idquor Antimonii Chloridi (nrm-official). — 

Antiawnium. 115 

Solution of Antimonious Chloride, SbCla, in Hydro- 
chloric Acid. 

Source. — Made by dissolving Antimonious Sulphide 
in Hydrochloric Acid. SbgSa + 6HC1 = 2SbCl3 + SHgS. 

Characters.— A heavy liquid, colourless when pure ; 
giving a white precipitate when dropped into water. 

From Solution of Antimonious Cldoride is mads : 

Antimonii Oxidnm. — Antimonious Oxide, 

Source. — Made by (1) pouring Solution of Anti- 
monious Chloride into Water ; and (2) decomposing 
the precipitated Antimony Oxychloride with 
Sodium Carbonate. 

Characters. — A greyish white powder, insoluble 
in water ; readily in HCl. Impurities. — Higher 
oxides, insoluble when boiled with acid potassium 
tartrate ; other metals. Dose, 1 to 2 gr. 


a. PuLVis Antimonialis. — A substitute 
for "James's Powder." 1, with 2 of Calcium 
Phosphate. Dose, 3 to 6 gr. 

From, Antimonii Oxidum is made : 

h. Antimonium Tartaratum. — Tartarated 
Antimony. Potassio-tartrate of Antimony. 
Tartar Emetic. [K(SbO)C4H406].2H20. 

Source. — Made by preparing a paste of 
Antimonious Oxide and Acid Potassium Tar- 
trate with water ; setting aside until combina- 
tion takes place ; and purifying by crystallisa- 
tion from water. (CH0H)2C00H-C00K + 
SbaOg z= [K(Sb0)C4H406]2H20. 

Characters. — Colourless transparent crys- 
tals, exhibiting triangular facets. Taste sweet 
and metallic. Solubility. — 1 in 17of cold, 1 in 
3 of boiling, water ; slightly soluble in weak 
alcoholic liquids ; almost insoluble in alcohol 
90 per cent. Solution is faintly acid Incom- 
patibles. — Tannic acid and most astringent 
infusions (not gallic acid), alkalis, lead salts. 
Impurities. — Cream of tartar, detected 
volumetrically and by solubility; other 
metals. Dose.— As a diaphoretic, ^^ to | gr. (as 
a depressant, ^ to 1 gr.); as an emetic, 1 to 2gr. 

1 16 AJtriMONWM. 


ViNUM Antimoniale. — 4 ; boiling 
Distilled Water 44 ; Sherry to make 875. 
Contains \ gr. in 1 fl.dr. Dose, 10 to 30 
min. ; as an emetic, 2 to 4 fl.dr. 


Salts of Antimonium give an orange precipitate with HjS, 
and can be detected by Marsh's and Reinsch's tests. 


Externally. —Antimony, in the form of the Chloride, is an 
eschaxotic, employed chiefly in veterinary practice, occasionally 
by. the surgeon as an application to poisoned, foul or malig- 
nant surfaces. Tartarated Antimony applied to the skin, 
either in aqueous solution or as anointment (half a drachm at 
a time, repeated), causes a pustular eruption, and was once 
used as a counter-irritant in diseases of the lungs, joints, or 
meninges. Antimony is freely absorbed from the broken skin, 
and from mucous surfaces. 

Internally, the local action is equally irritant. In doses of 
1 to 2 grains Tartarated Antimony is an emetic, whence its 
popular name. The effect is partly reflex, due, that is, to the 
irritant action of the drug upon the walls of the stomach ; 
partly central, from immediate stimulation of the vomiting 
centre in the medulla. Further, its reflex effect on the 
stomach is produced not only when the salt is admitted to it 
by the mouth, but after it reaches the stomach by the blood, 
that is, when it is being excreted by the gastric mucosa. 
Thus, whilst Tartar Emetic induces vomiting most quickly 
when swallowed, it is not speedy and evanescent in its effects, 
but causes both previous and subsequent nausea and depres- 
sion. It is not suited, therefore, for use in cases of poisoning, 
where rapid evacuation is of the first importance, or where 
there is much general depression ; but in the first stage of 
acute inflammatory diseases, accompanied by fever, in strong 
healthy subjects. It is especially indicated in respiratory 
affections, such as laryngitis and bronchitis, where its remote 
effects as an expectorant are valuable ; or to clear the air- 
passages in the same diseases or in whooping cough. 

In smaller continued doses the local action of Tartarated 
Antimony on the stomacli and bowels is apt to produce loss 
of appetite, nausea, pain and diarrhoea. 

ArrriMONi um. 117 


Antimony enters the blood either from within or from 
without, but does not appear to combine with the albumen of 
the plasma. No special action or use has to be mentioned 
under this head. 


Having reached the tissues and organs, Antimony clings to 
them with some tenacity, and may be found in them months 
after its administration. Here it sets up a series of important 
changes, attended by phenomena referable to the general 
nutrition of the body, to the circulation, respiration, and 
nervous and muscular systems ; besides the effects to be after- 
wards described as referable to its excretion. 

The effect of Antimony on metdholism closely resembles 
that of Phosphorus and Arsenic, to the account of which the 
student is referred. Briefly, the principal results are fatty 
degeneration of the organs and increase of the nitrogenous 
products, oxygenation being comparatively deficient. Upon 
this influence on metabolism depends in part the value of 
Antimony in gout, chronic skin diseases, etc., to be afterwards 
described. The circulation is depressed from the first by 
Tartarated Antimony. Even in small doses it reduces the 
strength and very soon the frequency of the pulse, which 
tends to become irregular, whilst fainting may occur ; these 
effects being due to the action of the drug, first, upon the 
heart (partly directly on its muscular substance, and partly 
reflexly from the stomach), and secondly, upon the vessel 
walls. Antimony is thus a powerful circulatory depressant. 
The respiratory movements are also weakened and disturbed 
by this drug, which causes shortness of inspiration and 
lengthening of expiration, manifestly a minor degree of the 
disturbance which culminates in vomiting, and allied to the 
process of expectoration. The nervo^is system is markedly 
depressed by Antimony, in part directly, in part indirectly 
through the circulation, the effect of a moderate dose being 
to produce a sense of languor, inaptitude for mental exertion, 
lowness and sleepiness. Tartarated Antimony has accord- 
ingly been used as a sedative in the delirium and insomnia of 
fevers, such as typhus, and in acute alcoholism (delirium 
tremens), combined with Opium in various proportions. 

The muscular system is so powerfully depressed by Anti- 
mony that, before the introduction of Chloroform, it was 
employed to produce muscular relaxation in the reduction of 

1 1 8 A NT J MO N I UM. 

hernijE and dislocations. Nauseating and emetic doses cause 
great weakness of the voluntary movements, inability to 
stand, occasional tremors, and aching of the muscles. Tartar 
Emetic is still given as an antispasmodic. 


Antimony leaves the system by all the mucous surfaces, 
the liver, kidneys and skin ; so that it may cause inflamma- 
tion, salivation and pustulation of the mouth, and catarrh 
and ulceration of the oesophagus, stomach and ileum, even 
when administered by the skin. In being excreted by the 
ttoynach, it produces there, a.s we have seen, a remote emetic 
effect. It is excreted in the hile and may be a hepatic 
stimulant; Sulphurated Antimony, either as Plummer's 
Pill or alone, is reputed to be a cholagogue, especially in 
gout and loaded conditions of the liver. In passing through 
the kidneys it has a slightly diuretic action. In doses of -J<; to 
j gr., Tartarated Antimony stimulates the skin, acting as a 
diaphoretic, of service in feverish conditions. Its internal 
use occasionally develops the characteristic pustular eruption, 
which suggests it as a remedy for certain kinds of chronic 
skin disease, such as acute and subacute general eczema, 
prurigo, and some instances of psoriasis. Antimonial Wine is 
a familiar sedative expectorant, possibly from the excretion 
of the drug by the respiratory surfaces as well as reflexly ; 
and it is given with great advantage in the first stage of 
acute bronchitis in strong subjects, in asthma, in ha;mo- 
ptvsis, and with special care at the commencement of acute 


When the various effects of Antimony thus detailed are 
reviewed together, it is found to be a powerful general depres- 
sant, oxygenation being impaired, nervo-muscular activity 
reduced, the heart weakened, and the waste of the body in- 
creased through all the channels of excretion and by loss of 
heat. When a full dose (1 to 2 gr. of Tartarated Antimony) 
is given, and vomiting induced, this general depression may 
threaten to pass into collapse, with pallor and coldness of the 
surface, and marked fall of the body temperature. On this 
account it may sometimes be employed with benefit as an 
antipyretic or febrifuge at the commencement of acute febrile 
attacks in sound robust subjects, more especially in bronchitis, 
where the attendant increase of the bronchial secretion will 
]jc serviceable, and the possible cmesis by no means contra- 


inclicatecl. Caution must be exercised in prescribing this 
powerful depressant, and the best method of administering it 
is in doses of -J^ to \ gr. in water every 15 or 30 minutes, or 
of 1 to ^ gr. every three hours, until the skin becomes moist 
and cool. 

Recently, preparations of Antimony have been employedl 
intravenously in the treatment of sleeping sickness, with 
partly satisfactory results. The parasites are banished from 
the blood, but still persist in the cerebro-spinal fluid ; hence: 
the condition is not cured. 

BISMUTHUM. Bismuth. Bi. 208-0. 

All the salts and preparations of Bismuth are 
derived from the metal. 

t. Bismuthi Carbonas. — Bismuth Oxycarbonatev. 
2(EiaOaC03), H3O. 

Source. — Made by the interaction of Bismuth Nitrate andl 
Ammonium Carbonate 4(Bi3N03) + 4(N,HiiC205) + 2H„0' 
= 2Bi202C03 + 6CO2 + I2NH4NO3. 

Characters. — A heavy whitish powder ; insoluble in water ;; 
soluble with effervescence in Nitric Acid. Impurities. — 
Nitrates, chlorides and sulphates ; other metals, including 
selenium and tellurium. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 


Teochiscus Bismuthi Compositus.— 2 gr. of 

Oxycarbonate, 4 gr. Precipitated Calcium Carbonate, 
2 gr. Heavy Magnesium Carbonate, and the Rose Basis 
to form one lozenge. 

2. Bismuthi Subnitras. — Bismuth Oxynitrate. 

Source. — Prepared by the interaction of Bismuth Nitrate 
and Water. Bi3N03 + 2H20=BiON03, HgO +2HNO3. 

Characters. — A heavy white powder, inodorous, in minute 
crystalline scales ; insoluble in water ; very faintly acid. 
IvipiiritkSy as of the oxycarbonate. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 


Liquor Bismuthi et Ammonii Citratis — 
^* Liquor Bismuthi.'* Made by exactly dissolving the 


Oxynitrate in diluted Nitric Acid ; adding Potassium 
Citrate and Potassium Carbonate dissolved in Water ; 
boiling ; cooling ; adding Solution of Ammonia to the 
moist precipitate to effect solution ; diluting with Water, 
and filtering. 1 fl.dr. = about 3 gr. of Bismuth Oxide. 
Boie, i to 1 fl.dr. 

From Bismutld Suhnitras is made : 

Bismuthi Ozidum. — Bismuth Oxide. BijOj. 

Source. — Made by boiling Bismuth Oxynitrate 
with Solution of Sodium Hydroxide. 2BiON03 
+ 2NaH0 = Bi203 + 2NaN03 + HjO. 

Characters. — A brownish-yellow powder. Tm- 
purities, as of the Oxycarbonate. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 

3. Bismutlii Salicylas.— Bismuth Salicylate. Bis- 
muth Oxysalicylate. CeH4-OH'COOBiO. 

Source. — Prepared by the interaction of Bismuth Nitrate 
and Sodium Salicylate. 

Characters. — A white or nearly white powder, amorphous, 
insoluble in water. Impurities : as of Bismuth Oxycarbonate ; 
free Salicylic Acid. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. in cachets. 


Solutions of the Nitrate or Chloride give a white precipi- 
tate when thrown into water ; and this is blackened by HjS. 


Externally, applied in the form of powder or ointment^ 
Bismuth Oxynitrate acts only physically on the unbroken 
skin, protecting it from the irritation of air and dirt. If the 
surface be inflamed, as in chapped hands, chapped nipples, 
irritable ulcers and eczema, Bismuth is a mild sedative and 
astringent, sootliing and drying up the part. Accessible 
mucous membranes, when in a condition of catarrh, are 
similarly affected by the drug: thus it is used with success 
as a " snuff " for nasal catarrh (combined with gum acacia 
and morphine) ; as a dusting powder in ophthalmic practice ; 
as an injection in gonorrlioea and leucorrhoea ; and in 
irritability of the cervix uteri as a pessary. Bismuth is not 
known to be absorbed, from unbroken surfaces. 

BiSMUTHUM. 1 2 1 

Internally, the local actions and uses of Bismuth Oxy- 
nitrate constitute all, or nearly all, that is definitely known 
respecting it as a remedy. In the stomach it is insoluble, and 
exerts the same sedative and astringent action as on the skin, 
whether by affecting the nerves and local circulation, or by 
its mechanical properties, that is, by coating and protecting 
the mucous surface. The Liquor Bismuthi et Ammonii 
Citratis is decomposed by the acid gastric juice, depositing 
oxychloride as a white precipitate. Little or no effect is to 
be expected from less than 20-gr. doses of the Oxynitrate for 
an adult, and these may be increased with perfect safety. 
Bismuth is extensively used in Great Britain in the treatment 
of pain and vomiting due to catarrh or structural disease of 
the stomach, such as the gastric catarrh that follows a surfeit 
of food or alcoholic excess, recurrent gastric ulcer and 
cancer; also in some cases of so-called nervous or reflex 
vomiting, as in pregnancy and hysteria, where a true catarrh 
is often present. The Oxycarbonate is given in such condi- 
tions, but is better combiner], on the one hand, with alkalis^ 
such as Sodium Bicarbonate, if there be much actual catarrh ; 
or, on the other hand, with Opium if pain be the chief 
symptom. A combination of the Oxynitrate and Dover's 
Powder is almost a specific for the pain and vomiting of 
gastric ulcer and malignant disease. 

The astringent and sedative influence of Bismuth on the 
intestines constitutes it a valuable remedy for diarrhoea in 
delicate persons, such as children, phthisical subjects, and 
those who have been exhausted by other causes. In lienteric 
diarrhoea, probably referable to duodenal catarrh, it is some- 
times invaluable. But in the intestines, as in the stomach, it 
may have to be freely given (20 to 60 gr. of the Oxynitrate for 
a dose), whilst the addition of Opium, in however small quan- 
tity, greatly assists its action, and in persistent cases of 
diarrhoea may be absolutely necessary, the same combination 
with Dover's Powder giving excellent results. Bismuth 
Oxynitrate is partly converted into the sulphide in the bowels, 
which imparts a characteristic leaden-grey colour to the 
faeces. Bismuth Salicylate is a valuable intestinal disin- 
fectant. See Acidum Salicylicum, page 389. 


Neither the insoluble nor the soluble (but weak) prepara- 
tions of Bismuth enter the blood in any quantity. Still, the 
metal has been detected, both here and in the tissues. Bis- 
muth very slowly finds its way through all the organs ; but 


no specific eflEect can be attributed to the Oxynitrate, even 
when given in doses of several drachms. Soluble salts of 
Bismuth, however, produce fatty degeneration in animals, 
exactly like Arsenic and Phosphorus. Bismuth has been 
found in the urine and milk, but no use is made of its remote 
influence, if any such exist. The breath of patients taking 
Bismuth has occasionally an unpleasant odour somewhat like 
that of garlic, apparently due to the presence of tellurium as 
an impurity. The passage of X-rays is obstructed by the salts 
of Bismuth. Large doses (1-4 oz.) preferably of the Subnitrate, 
mixed with bread and milk, are thus used in the diagnosis of 
diseases of the digestive tract. 

Arg^enti proteinatiiin. — "Protargol," A com- 
pound of Silver with protein. 

Characters. — A fine, brownish-yellow powder, containing 
8 per cent, of silver. Soluble in water 1 in 2 ; solution alka- 
line. Dose, 1-3 gr. 

Uses. — As an antiseptic for ophthalmic worker for wounds 
and ulcers in 4-20 per cent, solutions; for gonorrhoea, ^-1 
per cent. See page 72. 

Sodium Aminarsoiiate.—" Atoxyl." CaHjNAsOj 
Na, 4H2O. 

Characters. —A. white, crystalline, odourless powder ; taste 
saline. Soluble in water 1 in 5. Dose, f-3 gr. intramuscularly. 

Uses. — Atoxyl is employed in chronic skin diseases, 
ansemias and malaria. It causes marked improvement in 
sleeping sickness, killing most, but not all, of the parasites ; 
hence the disease recurs. It and " Ar^acetin," a less poisonous 
substitiU.e, must be used with caution, as many cases of toxic 
optic atrophy have occurred. 

" Salvarsan/' — Dioxydiamido - absenobenzol, 
Ehrlich-Hata, " 606. ' Il2N(OH)C8H, As=AsC,H,(OH)NH,. 

Characters. — A pale yellow powder, soluble in water with 
acid reaction. 

Uses. — Salvarsan has recently been largely given in syphilis 
with, on the whole, satisfactory results. The average dose, 
0-5 gim. (8 gr.), by hypodermic or preferably intravenous 
administration, should always be freshly prepared. Its 
curative effect is undoubted, but its use is not yet generally 
approved. Cases of fatal poisoning have been recorded. It 
is also used in trypanosomiasis. 


GROUP 111. 


The non-metallic elements of the Pharmacopoeia 
fall for discussion into the following natural Sub- 
groups : 1. Chlorum, lodum and Bromum ; 2. Sul. 
phur ; and 3. Carbo. Phosphorus, which is pharma- 
cologically allied with Arsenic, has been described 
under Group II. 

Sub-Group 1. 

Chlorum, Iodum, Bromum. 

CHLORUM. Chlorine. CI. 35-46. 

Although not contained in the Pharmacopoeia aa 
the pure gas under its own name. Chlorine is officially 
obtained from two different sources, namely : (1) 
Chlorinated Lime ; (2) Hydrochloric Acid. 

1. Calx Chlorinata. — Chlorinated Lime. CaCl20y 
CaClg or CaOCl^. A compound of Calcium Hypochlorite 
and Calcium Chloride, or directly of Lime and Chlorine. 

Source. — Made by passing Chlorine Gas over Slaked 
Lime until absorption ceases. 2CaH202 + 2Cla = 
CaCLjOjhCaCla + 2H2O. 

Characters. — A dull white powder, with a charac- 
teristic odour. Becomes moist and decomposes on 
exposure to air. Partially soluble in water. Bleaches 
and disinfects. Contains 33 per cent, available Chlorine. 
Invpurity. — Deficiency in Chlorire- detected volumetTi- 
cally v/ith sodium thiosulphat© 


LiQUOB Calcis Chlorinate. — 1 in 10 of 
Water; mixed, agitated, and strained. Yields 
about 3 per cent, available Chlorine. 

124 Chlorum. 

From Calx ChlorivMa is tnade : 

Liquor Sod^ Chlobinatje.— Solution ol 
Chlorinated Soda. NaCl,NaC10. 

Source. — Made by mixing a solution of Sodium 
Carbonate with Chlorinated Lime triturated in 
water ; and filtering. CaClgOgjCaCLj + 2Na2C03 
= (NaCl,NaC10)2 + 2CaC03. 

Gharaaters. — A colourless liquid, with a feeble 
odour of Chlorine and an astringent taste ; alkaline. 
A mixed solution of Sodium Hypochlorite and 
Sodium Chloride, with Sodium Carbonate. Yields 
25 per cent, of available Chlorine. Bleaches 
indigo sulphate. Dose, 10 to 20 min. 

Calx ChloHnata is also used in the preparation 
of Chloroform. 

2. Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum Dilutxun. — Con- 
tains free Chlorine. See page 144. 


These yield the characteristic odour of Chlorine when 
warmed with HCl and MnOg. 


Extertially, the actions and uses of Chlorine depend upon 
the great affinity which it possesses for hydrogen, and its 
consequent power to decompose compounds in which hydro- 
gen forms part of the molecule, such as ammonia, sulphuretted 
hydrogen, ammonium sulphide and water. The proper- 
ties of the body on which it acts (chemical, vital, or both) 
are completely altered ; whilst nascent oxygen is set free, and 
the Chlorine further combines with the remaining elements 
of the broken-down molecule. Thus it is a powerful irritant 
to the skin, causing redness, vesication, even sloughing, and 
coagulating the albuminates of the part. For the same 
reason, Chlorine is one of the most powerful of disinfectants, 
deodorisers and decolorisers, its activity as a disinfectant 
greatly exceeding that of Phenol, and in some respects even 
of Corrosive Sublimate. As a stimulant and disinfectant. 
Chlorine Water, or the Solutions of Chlorinated Lime or 
Chlorinated Soda, may be applied to foul ulcers, dissection 
and poisoned wounds, and diphtheritic surfaces ; or used in 

lODUM, 125 

contagious ophthalmia, ozaena, and other foul discharges from 
surfaces or cavities. 

Of much more extensive application is the disinfectant 
action of Chlorinated Lime and its preparations apart from 
the body : to purify rooms, wash infected clothes, flush drains, 
and throw upon the stools of typhoid fever and cholera before 
they are disposed of. 

Internally, Chlorine exerts a similar local action upon the 
parts with which it comes in contact ; and is employed as a 
wash or gargle, to disinfect and stimulate foul ulcers of the 
mouth, tongue, and throat, especially in diphtheria. 

In the stomach Chlorine in dilute solutions becomes con- 
verted into hydrochloric acid and chlorides, and loses all 
further effect upon the body as the uncombined element. If 
any portion of a dose reached the intestine it might disinfect 
the contents. 


It is doubtful whether Chlorine enters the circulation or 
reaches the tissues uncombined ; more probably it is entirely 
converted into chlorides. It has been given in typhus, typhoid 
fever, small-pox, and other *' putrescent " diseases, but there 
is little evidence in favour of continuing its use in these cases. 
In chronic dysentery and liver disease of a malarial origin 
Diluted Nitro-hydrochloric Acid is a useful drug. The 
Chlorates in full doses may cause haematuria, purpura, and 
other symptoms of haemolysis or toxaemia. 

lODUM. Iodine. I. 126-92. 

Under this head will be discussed both Iodine and 
the Iodides of Potassium and Sodium, the forms in 
which the element is generally administered in- 
ternally. Reference will also be made to the other 
official Iodides. 

loduni. — Iodine. A solid non-metallic element. 

Source. — Obtained from native iodides and iodates ; and 
from kelp, the ashes of seaweeds. 

Characteri.—K\iom\AQ. prisms or octohedrons of the 

126 JODUM. 

trimetric system, of a dark colour and metallic lustre, and 
peculiar odour, which yield a violet-coloured vapour when 
heated. Soluhility. — 1 in 5,000 of water ; freely in alcohol 
90 per cent., chloroform, ether, or solution of potassium 
iodide. Incompatihles. — Ammonia, metallic salts, mineral 
acids, vegetable alkaloids. Imp^iHties. — Iodine cyanide, 
subliming as colourless prisms ; iron, not volatile ; water, as 


1. Liquor lodi Fortis. — Strong Solution of Iodine. 
" Linimentum lodi." Iodine, 5 ; Potassium Iodide, 3 ; 
Water, 5 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., 36. 1 in 10 nearly. 

2. Tinctura lodi. — Iodine, 1 ; Potassium Iodide, 1 ; 
Distilled Water, 1 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., up to 40. 
1 in 40. Dose, 2 to 5 min. (diluted). 

3. Unguentum lodL — Iodine, 1 ; Potassium Iodide, 
1 ; Glycerin, 3 ; Lard, 20. 1 in 25. 

From ledum are made : 

4. Potassii lodidum. — Potassium Iodide. KI. 
Source. — Obtained by (1) dissolving a slight excess 

of Iodine in a strong solution of Potassium Hydroxide, 
and evaporating to dryness ; 6K0H + 3I„ = 5KI 
+ KIO3 + 3HaO. (2) Mixing the residue with Char- 
coal and fusing, thus converting the iodate, which was 
formed with the iodide, into iodide : 2KIO3 + 6C = 
2KI + 6C0. (3) Dissolving and purifying. 

Characters. — Colourless, opaque, cubic crystals, 
with some odour of iodine, a saline taste, and feebly 
alkaline reaction. Solubility. — In less than its weight of 
water ; 1 in 12 of alcohol 90 per cent. Strikes blue with 
preparations containing starch on addition of chlorine. 
Chief Impurities. — lodates, detected by blue colour 
with tartaric acid and starch ; bromides, cyanides, 
nitrates; many metals. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. (freely 
diluted, after meals). 


a. Linimentum Potassii Iodidi cum 
Sapone. — Potassium Iodide, 3 ; Curd Soap, 4 ; 
Glycerin, 2 ; Oil of Lemon. -25 ; Water, 20. 

b. Unguentum Potassii Iodidi. — Potassium 
Iodide, 100 ; Potassium Carbonate, 6 ; Water, 94 ; 
Benzoated Lard, 800. 

e. Also all the preparations of lodum. 

lODUM. 127 

6. Sodii lodidum. — Sodium Iodide. Nal. 

Source. — Prepared like Potassium Iodide, Sodium 
Hydroxide being used in place of Potassium Hydroxide, 
and the salt crystallised at not less than 68° F. 

Characters. — A dry, white, crystalline, deliquescent 
powder, with a saline and bitter taste. Solubility. — 
Readily soluble in less than its weight of water ; 1 in 
3 of alcohol 90 per cent. Impurities, as of Potassium 
Iodide. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 

Iodine is also used in the production of Iodoform, 
and of the Iodides of Arsenium, Ferrum, Hydrargyrum, 
Plumbum and Sulphur, or of preparations containing 



Iodine is entirely volatilised by heat, with the evolution 
of violet vapours. Aqueous solutions strike a deep blue with 
starch. Solutions of Iodides give the same reaction when 
decomposed by solution of chlorine ; also a yellow precipitate 
with AgNOa, insoluble in HNO3, soluble in NH4HO. Solutions 
of Iodine may be decolorised by Sodium thiosulphate. 


Externally applied. Iodine is a powerful irritant and vesi- 
cant, decomposing organic molecules, and entering into loose 
chemical combination with the albuminous constituents of 
the parts. At the same time it stains the epidermis a deep 
brown ; causes considerable pain ; and is absorbed into the 
blood, partly by the skin and partly by the air of respiration 
as vapour. It is also a very powerful antiseptic and disin- 
fectant, employed to disinfect the skin previous to operations. 

The Tincture, Strong Solution, and Ointment of Iodine 
are extensively used as stimulants and disinfectants to foul 
callous ulcers, much like Silver Nitrate ; as vegetable parasi- 
ticides in ringworm ; and as counter-irritants in subacute or 
chronic inflammation of joints, periosteum, lymphatic glands, 
the pleura and the lungs, for which purpose the Ointments of 
Lead Iodide and of Mercuric Iodide are also applied. In 
these instances the chief effect is doubtless stimulation : but 
a certain amount of the Iodine is absorbed, and acts speci- 
fically, as will be presently described. Iodine in solution is 
injected into cysts, goitres, hydroceles, etc., with much success. 

128 lODUM. 

Potassium Iodide applied to the unbroken skin is neithei 
irritant nor capable of being absorbed, unless it be de- 
composed by the sweat. It is readily taken up from 
exposed mucous membranes. How much specific value can 
be attached to the Liniment of Potassium Iodide with Soap 
is doubtful. 

Internally, the local action of free Iodine is also irritant, 
and the Tincture is successfully applied to the gums in peri- 
osteal toothache. Inhaled into the respiratory passages, it 
gives rise to cough, sneezing, severe pain over the frontal 
sinuses, distressing pains in the chest and dyspnoea. Com- 
pounds of Iodine with Creosote and various soothing volatile 
substances, such as Chloroform and Ether, are used as con- 
tinuous inhalations in the so-called " antiseptic " treatment 
of phthisis, bronchitis and other forms of chronic pulmonary 

In the stomach and bowels, although it is gradually con- 
verted into Sodium Iodide or lodate, the irritant effects of 
free Iodine are continued, with abdominal pain, sickness and 
diarrhoea as the result ; and therefore it is given internally in 
the form of an iodide. Small doses, however, of the Tincture 
(3 to 5 minims) in a fluid ounce of water, given every 
15 minutes, will occasionally check vomiting from a variety 
of causes. Potassium Iodide is absorbed in the stomach, and 
increases the flow of the gastric juice. 


Iodine is freely absorbed into the blood from the mucous 
surfaces, and the sodium Iodide quickly enters from the 
alimentary canal. In the blood the element is at first found 
combined with sodium ; but this salt appears to be decom- 
posed and the Iodine for a time set free, for some of the red 
corpuscles are broken down (if the amount of Iodine be large), 
and bloody effusions and bloody urine make their appearance. 
Such results are to be carefully avoided in practice ; and as 
far as we know, less degrees of them cannot be usefully 
applied to therapeutical purposes, unless the tendency to 
coagulation be somewhat increased by it. 


The Iodide of sodium and albuminous compounds pass 
from the blood into the tissues with remarkable rapidity, and 
may be found in all of them, especially the excreting organs 
and lymphatic glands, whilst they appear very scantily in the 
nervous centres. According to Binz, the Iodine is liberated 

toDUM. ti^ 

in the tissues. Almost as quickly it again leaves the tissues ; 
and in thus passing rapidly through the protoplasm of the 
body, and sharing in its metabolism by combining (probably 
very loosely) with the albuminous molecules, Iodine no doubt 
accelerates tissue changes. A more recent theory, based on 
the fact that administration of Iodides has caused thyroidism, 
is that the Iodine increases the activity of the thyroid gland 
secretion, and thus indirectly causes an increased destruc- 
tive metabolism and the absorption of various glandular 
swellings. However this may be, the following are the 
principal directions in which Iodine affects nutrition, and the 
applications of the same : — 

(1) The lymphatic glands are reduced in size by Iodine, 
which is extensively used for scrofulous and other chronic 
enlargements of the glands, whether applied locally as Iodine, 
or administered internally as the Iodides. 

(2) Ceittim poisons which have intimately associated them- 
selves with the albuminous structures, are disengaged from 
these combinations by Iodine. Lead and Mercury may be 
swept out of the tissues with the assistance of Potassium 
Iodide, administered for plumbism and hydrargyrism respec- 

(3) The principal application, however, of iodine is in the 
treatment of syphilis. Either the virus of this disease is 
thus eliminated from the system, or Iodine hastens the life 
and disappearance of the small-celled growth by which 
syphilis is characterised. It is specially valuable in the 
tertiary forms of syphilis, when Mercury cannot always bo 
given with advantage ; and nodes and other superficial enlarge- 
ments, gummata in the viscera, and certain forms of skin 
disease may be very successfully treated with the Potassium 
salt. The same precautions must be observed with respect 
to the general health, and especially the preservation of 
digestion, in a course of Iodine, as are laid down under the 
head of Mercury (page 106). See page 141, lodljnn, etc. 

(4) In subacute and chronic inflammations of various 
kinds, such as exudations or effusions in connection with the 
joints and serous cavities, and some forms of pulmonary 
consolidation, Potassium Iodide may promote absorption by 
stimulating the local nutrition or possibly the protoplasm of 
the vessel-walls. The local application of Iodine " paint " is 
combined in such cases. 

(5) Scrofula is benefited by Iodine, especially when it 
affects the lymphatic glands, enlargements of which are 
treated with the Strong Solution or the Ointment of Lead 
Iodide ; with interstitial injections (rarely) ; internally with 

Ferrous Iodide, or Iodine mineral waters, such as the watei 
of Woodhall. On the contrary, phthisis is rarely benefited 
by Iodides, unless there be a syphilitic taint present. 

(6) In chronic rheumatism where debility is not a promi- 
nent symptom, in gonorrhoeal rheumatism, and in the arthritis 
of syphilis, the Iodides may be beneficial. 

Binz holds that free Iodine and its readily decomposable 
compounds are narcotic, paralysing the cerebral centres by 
direct action on the nervous structures, and finally proving 
fatal through the respiratory centre. The heart, vessels, and 
body temperature are unaffected by Iodine ; and the depres- 
sing effect on these of large doses of Potassium Iodide la 
believed to be caused by the Potassium. At the same time, 
this salt is of great value in certain morbid conditions of the 
heart and arteries, particularly those associated with high 
blood-pressure. The remarkably useful effect of Potassium 
Iodide in relieving or remedying aneurysm, angina pectoris 
and arterio-sclerosis has been ascribed to a reduction in the 
blood-pressure, to the diminished viscosity of the blood, 
and to the specific effects of the drug on chronic inflammatory 
changes (often syphilitic) in the arterial walls. 


Iodine is rapidly excreted, appearing in the urine, the 
mucous secretions generally (specially in those of the air- 
passages), the perspiration, saliva, bile and milk. Part of the 
sodium salt which reaches the excreting organs is thrown out 
unchanged, but part is decomposed and the Iodine again set 
free to exert its local action remotely. 

The diuretic effect of Potassium Iodide is not marked 
unless large doses be given, and probably depends upon the 
alkali, not on the Iodine. The latter may, however, have an 
action upon the nutrition of the kidney, and the Iodide may 
therefore be used in some forms of chronic Bright's disease, 
combined with other remedies. 

The excretion of Iodine by the mucous membrane of the 
respiratory tract is of most interest to the therapeutist. In 
certain subjects, and probably when Potassium Io<lide con- 
tains free Iodine as an impurity, its exhibition produces a 
series of unpleasant symptoms known as " iodism," consisting 
of coryza, the watery discharge from the nose being some- 
times profuse ; sneezing ; severe pain of a bursting character 
over the frontal sinuses, commonly called "headache;" 
swelling and redness of the gums, bard and soft palates 
and fauces ; foulness of the tongua, and increase of the mucus 
of the mouth; cough and frotiiy expectoration, and a sense 

BROMUM. Bromine. Br. 79-92. 

In connection with Bromine will be discussed 
Diluted Hydrobromic Acid and the three oflBcial 
Bromides of Ammonium, Potassium and Sodium. 

BromVm. 131 

of heat and rawness in the trachea and chest. The 
phenomena of irritation of the respiratory mucosa by the 
out-going Iodine are therefore identical with those produced 
by the immediate action of Iodine by inhalation, but in a 
minor degree. In bronchial catarrh, when the secretion is 1 
deficient, the mucous membrane of the bronchi swollen and / 
dry, and cough useless and painful, Potassium Iodide is a i 
valuable expectorant, quickly inducing a flow of thin mucus, ( 
by establishing secretion, or by liquefying tenacious mucus ; 
which may be plugging or irritating the bronchi. It is, \ 
further, a powerful indirect antispasmodic, given with great 
benefit in asthma and emphysema. Ethyl Iodide (not 
oflicial) inhaled as vapour may rapidly reUeve the spasm of 
asthma. Potassium Iodide is sometimes given in other 
respiratory diseases, e.g. pneumonia, if the consolidation 
threaten to persist. 

In escaping by the skin the liberated Iodine produces in 
certain individuals peculiar eruptions : papular, acneiform, 
vesicular or pustular, rarely purpuric. Potassium Iodide 
has been given internally for certain skin diseases, and has 
recently been recommended in large doses as a specific for 


1. Ferri lodidnm. — Syrupus Ferri lodidi combines tlie 
actions of the two important elements, and is especially 
indicated and extensively employed when Iodine has to be 
administered for a length of time to anasmic subjects. It is 
a favourite remedy for strumous children. 

2. Hydrargyri lodiduni Uuhruiii possesses chiefly the 
action of the Mercuric salts, and is used accordingly. See 
JSydra/rgyrum, page 105. 

3. Sidjihwi'ls lodidiuti is now used externally only, and is 
believed to produce the combined effects of the two drugs. 

Acidum lodieum and Calcium Igdate (noyi'Ojicial) are 
antiseptic and deodorant. 

t$i Bromum. 

1. Potassii Bromidum. — Potassmm Bromide. 

Source. — Obtained from Bromine, a strong solution of 
Potassium Hydroxide, and Charcoal, by a similar process to 
that by which the Potassium Iodide is made. See page 126. 

Characters. — Colourless cubical crystals, without cdour, of 
a pungent saline taste. Solubility. — 1 in 2 of water ; 1 in 2 
of alcohol 90 per cent. Impurities. — Those of the iodide ; 
thiocyanates. Dose, 5 to 30 gr. 

From Potassium Bromide is made : 

Acidum Hydrobromicum Dilutum. — Diluted Hy- 
drobromic Acid. An aqueous solution containing 
10 per cent, by weight of Hydrogen Bromide, HBr. 

Source. — May be obtained by distilling Potassium 
Bromide with concentrated Phosphoric Acid. 

Characters. — A colourless liquid, inodorous, with 
a strongly acid taste and acid reaction. Sp. gr., 1077. 
It yields Bromine when heated with MnOg and H2SO4. 
Impurities. — Arsenium, barium, chlorides, phosphates, 
sulphates, sulphites. Dose, 15 to 60 min. 

From Diluted Hydrohromic Acid is made : 

Anunonii Bromidum. — Ammonium Bromide. 

Source.— la formed by neutralising Hydro- 
hromic Acid with solution of Ammonia. HBr + 
NH4HO = NH^Br + H2O. 

Characters. — Small colourless crystals, which 
become slightly yellow by exposure to the air, and 
have a pungent saline taste. Solubility. — Readily 
in water; less soluble in alcohol 90 per cent. 
Sublimes by heat. Impurities. — Lead, iron, 
iodides, bromates, nitrates. Dose, 5 to 30 gr. 

2. Sodii Bi'O III id 11 in.— Sodium Bromide. NaBr. 

Source. — May be prepared as Potassium Bromide, sub- 
stituting Sodium Hydroxide for Potassium Hydroxide, 

Characters. — Small white cubic crystals, somewhat deli- 
quescent, inodorous, with saline taste. Solubility. — 1 in less 
than 2 of water ; 1 in 16 of alcohol 90 per cent. Impuritiett 
aa of Fotassiam Bromide. Dose, 5 to 30 gr. 

Bromum. 133 



Bromine gives a yellow colour with starch paste ; a browu 
solution in CS3. Bromides give a yellowish-white precipitate 
with AgNOj ; sparingly soluble in NH4HO. 


Externally Bromine is a powerful irritant and escharotlc. 
Its local use is confined to the treatment of cancer of the 
cervix uteri (1 in 5 parts of rectified spirit). The Bromides 
have no such irritant action unless in highly concentrated 
solution. They are not absorbed from the unbroken skin. 

Internally, the local action of free Bromine resembles 
that of Chlorine, the vapour being intensely irritant, and, 
indeed, irrespirable. It is never used in this way. The 
Bromides, applied in strong solution to the throat, or taken 
continuously for a time in full doses, are said to reduce the 
sensibility of the fauces, so that the reflex movements of the 
parts, such as swallowing, vomiting and cough, are not easily 
excited. They have therefore been employed previous to 
examinations or operations on the larynx, but Cocaine has 
now quite displaced them for this purpose. The Bromides 
have but little effect of an irritant kind on the stomach or 
bowels, so that large doses (20 grains thrice a day for years) 
may be readily borne. Particular care should be taken, 
however, to preserve digestion and regularity of the bowels 
in cases where Bromides are continuously prescribed. 


Bromide of Potassium, the salt most commonly employed, 
is rapidly absorbed from all the mucous surfaces, enters the 
blood unchanged, but is probably at once converted into the 
sodium salt by double decomposition with sodium chloride. 
For a moment Bromine may be set free in the blood, but no 
special action or therapeutic application can be referred to 
this circumstance. 


The Bromides appear to pass through the body as sodium 
Bromide. On the different organs they produce definite 
specific actions, which, speaking broadly, are of a depreasivQ$ 

134 Bromum. 

The nervous system is specially affected. Loss of reflex 
excitability in connection with all the sentient surfaces of the 
body follows the administration of full medicinal doses. This 
result is due partly to depression of the peripheral (sensory) 
nervous filaments, but chiefly to reduced activity of the 
nervous centres in the brain and cord. At the same time the 
motor nerves are also soothed, and the mtiscular power (which 
we may conveniently consider along with the nervous), is« 
much weakened. The phenomena of this general nervo- 
muscular depression are as follows, beginning with the highest 
centres :— 

The Bromides lessen cerebral activity, readiness to react 
to emotional stimuli, and sensibility and irritability of mind 
generally, thus inducing a condition of brain favourable to 
the advent of sleep. They are thus indirect hypnotics, not 
acting like Opium and Chloral Hydrate, but so reducing the 
patient's sensibility of his surroundings, bodily condition or 
circumstances, as to prevent distraction and allow natural 
sleep to supervene. It is uncertain whether the Bromides act 
upon the nerve cells directly, or upon the cerebral blood- 
vessels. The soothing and hypnotic effects of the Bromides 
are very extensively employed in restlessness and sleeplessness 
from mental strain, whether emotional or intellectual, in the 
acute specific fevers when similar symptoms are urgent, in 
acute alcoholism, and in mania. In the last three conditions 
a certain amount of Chloral Hydrate or Opium may be ad- 
vantage© t sly combined with the Bromides. The most im- 
portant application of the soothing action of the Bromides is 
in epilepsy, which is now almost exclusively treated with 
these salts, unless they be contra-indicated. Hysteria, 
infantile convulsions, whooping cough, general "nervous- 
ness," hypochondriasis, gastric and intestinal disorders of 
reflex origin, sea-sickness, and the irritable, excitable condi- 
tion so common in women with uterine irregularities, are also 
relieved by Bromides, although not with the success obtained 
in epilepsy. Sec page 141, JiTomipin, Sahromin, etc. 

The great vital centres of the medulla are depressed by 
Bromides. Respiration becomes weakened and slower, whence 
possibly part of the value of the drug in whooping cough. 
The heart is not influenced by ordinary doses of Bromides ; 
the depression observed occasionally after Potassium Bromide 
is due to the Potassium ion. Bromides are of much service, 
however, in nervous disorders of the heart, especially in 
hysterical, dyspeptic and alcoholic subjects. The direct 
effect of these drugs on the vessels is unsetlled ; as a whole 
the tension i.s reduced. 

Bromum. 135 

The spinal centres and spinal nerves and the muscles 
are all depressed by the Bromides, the former so much so 
tliat the convulsions of Strychnine poisoning cannot be in- 
duced, and the two drugs are so far physiological antagonists. 
In such a case, and in tetanus, the Bromides might be given, 
but they are neither rapid nor powerful enough to be 
trusted to. » 

The temperature is lowered by Bromides, but not to an 
extent of much practical value. 

The ovarian and uterine functions are quieted, and 
menorrhagia is relieved, by these drugs. 


The Bromides appear in the secretions within a few 
minutes after their administration, being eliminated by the 
kidneys chiefly, by the salivary glands, mammae, skin and all 
mucous surfaces. In passing through the excreting organs, 
the Bromides break up and Bromine is set free, which exerts a 
second stimulant effect on the parts. The urinary consti- 
tuents are irregularly disturbed ; but not in a manner that 
can be turned to therapeutical account. Infants at the breast 
may be affected by Bromine in the milk. The skin is 
markedly disturbed, a characteristic acne-like eruption 
appearing, or other forms of cutaneous disease, which are 
familiar in epileptics consuming large quantities of the drug. 
Cough is occasionally set up, and conjunctivitis may also 
Dccur. The interest to the practical therapeutist of these 
remote effects of Bromine is two-fold. First, they are some- 
what protracted, elimination being less rapid than absorption 
and the drug accumulating in the system, so that a patient 
can be kept under its influence continuously. Secondly, in 
cases where the drug has to be steadily taken for an indefinite 
time, the unpleasant effects on the skin may sometimes be 
prevented by combining the Bromide with Arsenic. 

Hydrobromic Acid possesses many of the properties of the 
Bromides, but is much less useful than Potassium Bromide. 
It is said to prevent the cerebral symptoms produced by 
Quinine, which it readily dissolves, and the after-effects of 
Morphine, if given with these drugs. 

136 Sulphur, 

Sub-Group 2. 

SULPHUR. Sulphur. S. 32 07. 

Under this head will be discussed not only Sul- 
phur, but the official Sulphides, the form in which the 
element is chiefly active physiologically. Sulphur is 
found native as virgin sulphur and as sulphides of 
metals. It is the source of all the preparations, with 
the exception of Calx Sulphurata. 

1. Sulphur Sublimatum.— Sublimed Sulphur 

Flowers of Sulphur. 

Smirce. — Prepared more or less directly from native 
sulphur or sulphides. 

Characters. — A fine, greenish-yellow gritty powder, with- 
out taste or odour; neutral. Entirely volatilised by heat. 
Solubility. — Insoluble in water ; soluble in carbon bisulphide, 
fixed oils, and turpentine, with heat. Impurities. — Sul- 
phurous and Sulphuric Acids ; Arsenium Sulphide. Dose^ 
20 to 60 gr. 


a. Confectio Sulphuris. — Sublimed Sulphur, 100 ; 
Acid Potassium Tartrate, 25 ; Tragacanth, 1 ; Syrupy 
50; Tincture of Orange, 12*5; Glycerin, 375, Dosa, 
60 to 120 gr. 

b. Unguentum Sulphuris.— 1 ; Benzoated Lard, 9 

From Sulphur Sublimatum are made : 

c. Sulphur FrsBcipitatum. — Precipitated Sulphur. 
Milk of Sulphur. 

Source. — Made by (1) boiling Sublimed Sulphur 
and Lime in Water ; (2) precipitating the filtrate with 
diluted Hydrochloric Acid, washing and dr3ring. (1) 
12S + SCaHaOa = 2CaS6 + CaSjOs + SHjO. (2) 
2CaS6 + CaSaOj +6HC1 = SCaCl^ + 6S2 + SHjO. 

Characters. — A greyish -yellow soft powder. Im- 
purities. — Calcium Sulphate, H3SO4 being used instead 
of HCl ; detected by grittiness, and microscopically as 
crystals. HjS ; detected by odour. Dose, 20 to 60 gr. 

Tbochiscus Sulphubis.— 5 ; Acid Potassium 
Tartrate, 1 ; Refined Sugar, 8 ; Gum Acacia, 1 ; 
Tincture of Orange, I ; Mucilage of Gum Acacia, i. 

Sulphur, 137 

d. Fotassa Sulphurata. — "Liver of Sulphur." A 
mixture of Salts of Potassium of which the chief are 
Potassium Sulphides. 

>Sowrc<?.— Made by fusing Sublimed Sulphur with 
Potassium Carbonate. 

Characters. — Solid greenish fragments, liver-brown 
when recently broken ; alkaline ; acrid to the taste ; 
readily forming with water a yellow solution smelling 
of HjS, which is evolved on addition of HCl. About 
50 per cent, of the Sulphurated Potash should be 
soluble in alcohol 90 per cent. 

e. Sulphuris lodidum.— Sulphur Iodide. SI. 
Source. — Made by fusing 1 of Sublimed Sulphur 

with 4 of Iodine. 

Characters. — Greyish-black crystalline pieces, 
smelling strongly of Iodine. Solubility. — 1 in 60 of 
glycerin ; insoluble in cold water. 


Unqubntum Sulphuris Iodidi. — 1; 

Glycerin, 1 ; Benzoated Lard, 23. 

Sublimed Sulphur is also contained in Pulvis 
Glycyrrhizae Compositus (1 in 12) ; and is used in prepar- 
ing Emplastrum Hydrargyri, Emplastrum Ammoniaci 
cum Hydrargyro, and Antimonium Sulphuratum. 

it. Calx Sulpliurata.— Sulphurated Lime. A mix- 
ture containing not much less than 50 per cent, of Calcium 
Pnlphide, with Calcium Sulphate and Carbon. 

So^irce. — May be made by heating a mixture of native 
Calcium Sulphate and Carbon. 

Characters. — A greyish- white powder, smelling of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen. JDose, J to 1 gr. (in pill.) 


Sulphur burns with a blue flame. Most Sulphides evolve 
HaS with HCl. 

Externally applied, Sulphur has but little local action 
of itself, but by contact with the acid products of the skin is 
partly converted into sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphides, 
which are energetic substances. Whether, therefore, it be 
rubbed on as the Ointment, worn in flannel, distributed over 

138 Sulphur. 

the surface by fumigation, or given as a natural or artlficicil 
bath of "sulphur waters," it is not Sulphur, but its hy- 
drogen compound, which possesses local therapeutical pro- 

Sulphuretted hydrogen, when brought in contact with the 
skin in any of the forms just mentioned, is a vascular stimu- 
lant and nervous sedative. It is probably on this account 
that Sulphur has long been regarded as useful for relieving the 
pains of chronic rheumatism, and in certain kinds of skin 
disease, such as acne. The solution of the gas (in the form 
of baths) is also absorbed by the skin, and is extolled in chronic 
poisoning with lead and mercury, in syphilis, and in chronic 
enlargements of joints. The rationale of these effects will 
be presently discussed. 

Sulphur and Sulphurated Potash and Lime destroy the 
Acarus scabiei, and are used in the treatment of itch. 
Sulphur Iodide is a local stimulant. See lodum, page 127. 

Internally, Sulphur has been locally applied to the throat 
in diphtheria, but with uncertain results. In the stomach it 
remains unaltered ; and it passes as such into the intestines, 
where a small portion becomes converted into Sulphides and 
acts as a purgative, by causing irritation and increasing 
peristalsis, especially that of the colon. Milk of Sulphur, 
the Confection, the Lozenge, and the Compound Powder 
of Liquorice are simple laxatives, producing an easy 
soft stool, with little or no pain. Sulphur Waters, drunk 
freely at Harrogate and Strathpeffer in Great Britain, at Aix- 
la-Chapelle, Challes, Aix-les-Bains and the Pyrenees on the 
Continent of Europe, and at the Blue Lick, Alpena, Sharon 
and other springs in the United States, have a similar but 
more powerful effect, producing considerable disturbance of 
the bowels, and depressing the portal circulation. Sulphur 
and Sulphur Waters are extensively used as purgatives in 
congestion of the rectum and liver, haemorrhoids, and other 
diseases of the great bowel ; and the waters and baths 
combined are powerful evacuants in plethora, hepatic en- 
gorgement, gravel, and disorders originating in connection 
with them. 

Sulphur in some measure escapes unabsorbed in the 
fasces, partly unclianged, partly as sulphides of hydrogen 
and the alkalis which it has encountered in the bowel, the 
activity of purgation varying indirectly with the extent of 


The amount of Sulphur which enters the blood in the 

Sulphur. 139 

form of sulphides of hydrogen and the alkalis, under the use 
of Sulphur or Sulphur Waters, produces no obvious effect 
upon it. When inhalecl into the circulation, sulphuretted 
hydrogen is a powerful blood-poisonj acting on both the red 
corpuscles and the plasma* It reduces the oxy- to sulpho- 
hfRmoglobin, and decomposes the carbonates and phosphates 
of the latter, with the production of sulphides, sulphites and 
sulphates ; but this subject is not of therapeutical interest. 


The hydrogen and alkaline sulphides pass into the tissues 
from the blood, and act chiefly upon the central nervous 
system. When in large quantity, they induce rapid failure 
of the nervous centres, especially those of respiration and 
circulation, the subject dying rather of asphyxia than from 
the poisonous influence on the blood just described. It is 
possible that the headache and nervous depression which 
attend the use of Sulphur Waters in some persons are minor 
degrees of these effects. It is possible also that Sulphur and 
its compounds, possessing these powerful influences on the 
blood and tissues (which appear to be of the nature of arrest 
of oxydation), may modify nutrition to some extent even in 
medicinal doses. In chronic rheumatism, syphilis, gout and 
skin diseases they have been much prescribed from time 
immemorial, especially at watering-places. Sulphurated 
Lime has been found useful in scrofulous disease of bones, 
and in influencing suppuration. 


It is under this head that we find the principal sug- 
gestions for the therapeutical employment of Sulphur. The 
sulphides which we have traced through the blood and 
tissues are variously excreted. By the kidneys Sulphur 
passes out as sulphates, and it is said that one-half of a dose 
of Sulphur Pra3cipitatum can be thus recovered from the 
urine, but only one-fifth of Sulphur Sublimatum. If it be in 
excess, part is excreted as sulphides. No special use is made 
of these facts. By the skin it escapes as sulphides, giving 
the characteristic foul odour to the perspiration, and some- 
what increasing its amount. Sulphur is used as a mild 
cutaneous stimulant and diaphoretic, and has always been 
regarded as a valuable internal remedy for many skin 
diseases, such as acne, chronic eczema, psoriasis and 
syphilitic eruptions. Drinking the waters and taking the 

140 Car BO, 

baths at Sulphur springs probably act in this remote local 
way. Calx Sulphurata is specially useful in boils. The 
sulphides are also excreted by the bronchi and lungs, giving 
their odour to the breath ; and Sulphur was once much used 
as an expectorant, especially in chronic bronchitis with 
abundant expectoration and gouty or rheumatic associations. 
The valuable effect of Sulphur waters, taken internally 
and used as baths, in cases of chronic rheumatism, gout, 
skin disease, plethora, etc., is principally, if not entirely, to 
be accounted for by the immediate and remote local actions 
of the Sulphides on the bowels and portal system, and on the 
kidneys, skin and bronchi, respectively. 

The actions and uses of burned Sulphur as a disinfectant 
depend on the Sulphurous anhydride which is evolved. They 
are described at page 151. 

Sub-Group 3. 

OARBO. Carbon. C. 12 00. 

Carbon as such is ofl&cial in the form of Wood 

Carbo Liigni. — Wood Charcoal. 

Source.— "Ihe carbonaceous residue of wood charred by 
exposure to a red heat without access of air. 

Cliaracters. — A black powder, without taste or odour, free 
from gritty matter. When burned at a high temperature 
with free access of air it leaves not more than 7 5 per cent. 
of aah. Dose, 60 to 120 gr. 

From Charcoal is made : 
Carbonis Bisulphidum. — Carbon Bisulphide. CSj. 
Source. — May be prepared by the combination of 
Carbon and Sulphur at a high temperature, the product 
being subsequently condensed and purified. 

Characters. — A clear, colourless, highly refractive 
liquid; odour characteristic. Sp. gr., 1-2G8. Soluble 
in alcohol, ether, chloroform, and fixed and volatile 
oils ; very slightly in "water. Highly inflammable ; 
rapidly evaporating at ordinary temperatures. Ivt- 
fwritie*. — S and H^v 

Car BO. 141 


Externally. — Charcoal absorbs and condenses many 
gaseous bodies and vapours, as oxygen, carbonic acid, etc. ; 
and attracts and oxydises the colouring, odoriferous and 
sapid principles of many liquid substances, for example, 
litmus, bitters, wines and decomposing fluids. It has been 
used as a valuable decoloriser, and as a deodorant and 
oxydising agent to absorb foul emanations. 

Internally. — Charcoal is locally used as a dentifrice. 
When taken into the stomach in sufficient bulk, either pure or 
in the form of biscuits, it absorbs any gas and acrid products 
of indigestion which may cause distension and distress, 
and is used as a carminative in some forms of flatulent 
dyspepsia. Animal Charcoal was recommended by Sir Alfred 
Garrod as an antidote in poisoning with opium, nux vomica, 
aconite and other organic poisons, the alkaloids of which, 
as well as toxines, it attracts in the stomach and renders 
inert. In tlie intestines it may pos.^bly reduce flatulence, 
disinfect the fajces, and thus diminish the reflex peristaltic 
movements and relieve diarrhoea. Charcoal is entirely 
evacuated by the bowel and is not absorbed. 

Carbon Bisulphide is used as a solvent in pharmacy. 


Iodine : Iodipin, Iodine and Sesame Oil ; Sajodin, 

an organic compound with Calcium (dose, 7| gr.) ; lodalbin 
and lodoglidin, protein compounds, have been used as sub- 
stitutes for iodides in the treatment of tertiary syphilis, 
arterio-sclerosis, rheumatism, etc. They are said to be more 
.slowly absorbed and eliminated, thus remaining longer in the 
tissues ; and are believed to cause no iodism. lodolysin and 
Tiodine, compounds of Iodine with Thiosinamin, are used to 
soften strictures, and for arterio-sclerosis. See pages 129-130. 

Bromine : Bromipin, Sabeomin, Bromosin and 
Bromocoll are occasionally employed as substitutes for 
Bromides in epilepsy, etc , since their elimination is slower and 
they cause no bromism ; but as full doses of Bromides are 
essential in epilepsy, they are probably not so useful as the 
inorganic salts. Bromoform {dose, | to 2 min.), Brometone 
{dose, 5 gr.). Neuronal and Bromural are powerful sedatives 
and hypnotics. See page 134. 



The official Acids may be classified as follows : — 

1. Inorganic Acids. — Sulphuric, Nitric, Hy- 
drochloric, Nitro-hydrochloric, Phosphoric, Boric, 
Chromic, Hydrobromic and Sulphurous. Of these, 
Hydrobromic Acid is described under Brmnum^ 
page 132. Arsenious "Acid" is an anhydride, not 
a true acid. See page 109. 

2. Organic Acids. — Acetic, Citric, Tartaric, 
Lactic, Hydrocyanic Diluted, Carbolic, Benzoic, Gallic 
and Tannic, Oleic and Salicylic. Of the Organic 
Acids, the first four only will be discussed here ; the 
actions and uses of the other substances being but 
little connected with their properties as acids. 


Tartaric UM. 

These substances are conveniently considered 
together. They all possess distinctly acid properties ; 
that is, they neutralise alkalis and turn blue litmus 

Acidum Snlplinricum.— Sulphuric Acid. H^SO^, 
Hydrogen Sulphate, 98 per cent, by weight, in Water. 

iSpwr«f.<*-Obtained by the combustion of Solphur or 


pyrites, and the oxydation by nitrous fumes, and hydration 
by aqueous vapour, of the resulting sulphurous anhydride. 

Characters. — A colourless, corrosive, oily-looking, intensely 
acid liquid. Sp. gr. 1-843. Soluble Sulphates give a heavy 
white insoluble precipitate with BaClj. Impurities. — Nitric 
and other acids ; selenium, ammonium, iron, copper, lead, 
arsenium and carbonaceous matter. 


1. Acidum Sulphuricmn Dilutum. — Diluted Sul. 
phuric Acid. 1 to fully 11 of Distilled Water. Contains 
13-65 per cent, of H2SO4. Sp. gr. 1-094. Bo&e, 5 to 
20 min. 

From Acidum Sulphuricum Dilutum is prepared : 
Infusum Rosas Acidum. — 1 to 80. See page 284. 

2. Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum.— Aromatic 

Sulphuric Acid. "Elixir of Vitriol." Prepared by 
mixing Sulphuric Acid, 3 ; Alcohol (90 per cent.), 29*5 ; 
Spirit of Cinnamon, -5 ; Tincture of Ginger, 10. Con- 
tains 13-8 per cent, of H2SO4. Sp. gr. -922 to -926. 
Dose, 5 to 20 min. 

From Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum is prepared : 
Infusum Cinchonas Acidum. — 1 to 80. See 
page 311. 

8. Many Sulphates and other preparations. 

Acidum Nitricum,— Nitric Acid. HNOa, Hydrogen 
Nitrate, 70 per cent, by weight, in Water. 

Source. — Prepared by the interaction of Potassium or 
Sodium Nitrate with Sulphuric Acid. 

Characters. — A clear, colourless, intensely acid liquid 
emitting corrosive fumes. Sp. gr. 1-42. If a solution of a 
Nitrate be added to H2SO4 at the bottom of a test-tube, and 
solution of FeS04 carefully added after cooling, a black- 
brown ring will be formed at the line of junction of the first 
two fluids. Impurities. — Sulphates, bromates, iodates ; 
chlorides ; lead, copper, arsenium, iron. 


1. Acidum Nitricum Dilutum. — Diluted Nitric 
Acid. 1 to fully 4 of Distilled Water. Contains 
17-44 per cent, of HNO». Sp. gr. i-lOl. Dose, 5 to 20 

144 AciDUM Phosphoricum Concentratum. 

2. Acidum Nitro-hydrochloricum Dilutum. — 

Diluted Nitro-hydrochloric Acid. 3 ; with Hydro- 
chloric Acid, 4 ; and Distilled Water, 25. To be made 
fourteen days before using. It contains free chlorine, 
and hydrochloric, nitric and nitrous acids, dissolved 
in water. Sp. gr. 1*07. Bose, 5 to 20 min. 

3. Many Nitrates and other preparations. 

Acidum Hydrocliloricum.— Hydrochloric Acid. 
Hydrogen Chloride, HCl, 31-79 per cent, by weight, dissolved 
in Water. 

Scurce. — Obtained by the interaction of Sulphuric Acid 
and Sodium Chloride, and solution of the fumes in Water. 

Cliaracters. — A colourless, strongly acid liquid, emitting 
white pungent fumes. Sp. gr. 1-160. Chlorides give a white 
curdy precipitate with AgNOg, soluble in NH4HO ; insoluble 
iu HNO3. Impurities. — Sulphuric and sulphurous acids, 
arsenium, lead, copper, iron, aluminium, bromides and 
iodides ; free chlorine. 


1. Acidum Hydrochloricum Dilutum. — Diluted 
Hydrochloric Acid. 1 to fully 23 of Distilled Water. 
Contains 1058 per cent, of HCl. Sp. gr 1-052. Dose, 
5 to 20 min. 

2. Acidum Nitro-hydrochloricum Dilutum. — See 
Acidum Nitricum, page 143, 

3. Glycerinum Pepsini. — See Pepsinum, page 431. 

4. Many Chlorides and other preparations. 

Acidtiiii Pliosplioriciiiii Conreiitratiiiii.— 

Concentrated Phosphoric Acid. Hydrogen Orthophosphate, 
HjP04, GG-3 per cent, by weight, dissolved in water. 

Source. — May be made by treating with Nitric Acid and 
Water the residue left after burning Phosphorus in air. 

Characters. — A colourless syrupy liquid, with an acid 
taste and reaction. Sp. gr. 1-5. Phosphates give a yellow 
precipitate with AgNOs, soluble in NH4HO and in HNOs. 
Impurities. — Arsenium, lead, copper and other metals ; silica ; 
sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, phosphorous and pyro- and 
meta - phosphoric acids. Incompatibles. — Calcium salts ; 
sodium carbonate. 

Acidum Phosphoricum Dilutum. — Diluted Phos- 
phoric Acid. 1 to 56 of Distilled Water. Contains 
13-8 per cent, of H,P04. Sp. gr. 108. Dose, 5 to 20 min. 


Concentrated FJiospTiorio Acid is used in preparing 
Syrupus Calcii Lactophosphatis, Syrupus Ferri 
Phosphatis, Syrupus Ferri Phosphatis cum Quinina 
et Strychnina, and Acidum Hydrobromicum Dilutum. 

Aciduni Aceticiim. — Acetic Acid. Hydrogen 
Acetate, CH3COOH, 33 per cent, by weight, in Water. 

Source. — Prepared from Wood by destructive distillation 
or by the oxydation of Ethylic Alcohol. 

Characters. — A clear, colourless liquid, with a pungent 
odour and strong acid reaction. Sp. gr. 1-044. Acetates 
evolve odour of acetic acid on addition of H2SO4. ImpiiHties. 
— Lead, copper, arsenium ; nitric, formic, sulphuric, hydro- 
chloric and sulphurous acids. 


1. Acidum Aceticum Dilutum. — Diluted Acetic 
Acid. 1 to 7 of Distilled Water. Contains 4-27 per 
cent, of Hydrogen Acetate. Sp. gr. 1006. Dose, 30 to 
120 min. 

Diluted Acetic Acid is used in preparing : 

Acetum Ipecacuanhse, Acetum Scillae and 
Liquor Morphinte Acetatis. 

2. Oxymel. — 5 ; Water, 5 ; Clarified Honey lique- 
fied, 40. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr. 

3. Oxymel Scillae. — See Scilla, page 412. 

4. Many Acetates. 

Acidum Aceticum Glaciate. — Glacial Acetic 
Acid. Hydrogen Acetate, CH3COOH, 99 per cent.,with Water. 

Characters.— A clear, colourless acid liquid, with a very 
pungent odour. Crystallises below 60° F. Sp. gr. 1058. 
Impurities. — As of Acetic Acid. 

Glacial Acetic Acid is used in preparing : 

Acetum Cantharidis, Liquor Ferri Acetatis, and 
Linimentum Terebinthinae Aceticum. 

Acetum (non-offieiaV). — Vinegar. Contains 5-41 per cent, 
of Hydrogen Acetate, CH3COOH. 

Source. — Prepared from a mixture of malt and unmalted 
grain by the acetous fermentation. It should contain no free 
Sulphuric Acid. 

146 AciDUM Tartaricvm. 

CJmracters. — A brown-coloured acid liquid, with a charac- 
teristic odour. Sp. gr. 1-017 to 1*025. J/;i/>?m^y.— Sulphuric 
acid, detected by adding Lead Acetate. I)08e, 1 fl.dr. to 

1 fl.oz. 

Acicluni Citrieuiii.— Citric Acid. Hydrogen Citrate. 

Source. — Obtained from the juice of the fruit of various 
species of Citrus. 

Charaoterg. — Large colourless piisms of the trimetric 
system, with an acid taste. Solubility. — 4 in 3 of cold, 

2 in 1 of boiling water ; 2 in 3 of j alcohol 90 % ; slightly 
soluble in Ether. Soluble Citrates give a white precipitate 
when boiled with Lime- Water ; no precipitate with KC2H3O0. 
35 gr, in 1 fl.oz. of water make a solution resembling lemon 
juice in strength and acidity; 20 gr. neutralise 28-o gr. of 
Potassii Bicarbonas, 24 gr. of Sodii Bicarbonaa, or 15 gr. of 
Ammonii Carbonas. Impurities. — Lead, copper, iron, cal- 
cium, sulphuric acid, mineral matters ; tartaric acid, detected 
by precipitate with potassium acetate. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 

Oifric Acid is contaitied in or used in 2>Teparing : 

Liquor Ammonii Citratis, Lithii Citras Effervescens, 
Succus Limonis, Syrupus Limonis, Sodii Phosphas 
Effervescens, Sodii Sulphas Effervescens, Magnesii Sul- 
phas Effervescens ; all these contain free Citric Acid. 
Also Potassii Citras, Ferri et Ammonii Citras, and Ferri 
et Quininae Citras. 

Aciduni Tartaricuiu. — Tartaric Acid. Dextro- 

rotatory Hydrogen Tartrate, C4H,0j or | 


Source. — Prepared from Acid Potassium Tartrate. 

Characters. — Colourless monoclinic prisms, with a strongly 
acid taste. Solubility. — Readily soluble in less than its own 
weight of water, and in less than 3 of alcohol 90 per cent. An 
excess gives with KCjHjO, a white crystalline precipitate. 
Soluble Tartrates give a white precipitate with excess of Lime- 
Water. 20 gr. neutralise 26| gr. of Potassii Bicarbonas, 
22^ gr. of Sodii Bicarbonas, or 14 gr. of Ammonii Carbonas. 
Impurities. — Copper, arsenium, iron, calcium, potassium, 
sodium, lead ; oxalic acid, mineral matter. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 

Tartaric Acid is used in preparing : 

The various Effervescing Salts, and Pilu la Qaininsa 

Carbonic Acid. 147 

Carbonic Acid.— Although not official as such, Car- 
bonic Acid Gas is extensively used in medicine, being obtained 
from Bicarbonates and Carbonates, commonly of Sodium, 
Potassium, or Ammonium, by decomposition with Citric 
or Tartaric Acid. The process is known as effervescence, 
and the reaction may be thus represented : SKHCOg + 
HgCeHgO, (Citric Acid) = K3C6H5O7 + SCOa + SH^O. 
Carbonic Acid Snow is used for the cure by freezing 
of naevi, lupus, warts and rodent ulcers ; the scars produced 
are pale and soft. 



Externally. — Acids are irritants, and some of them are 
very powerful corrosives. The strong acids are used as 
caustics : Nitric Acid to destroy chancres ; Acetic Acid, 
warts ; Sulphuric Acid, some forms of malignant growths. 
Veiy dilute watery solutions, sponged on the skin in fever, 
cool the surface by evaporation, and thus act as refrigerants ; 
whilst watery solutions of Sulphuric Acid used in this way 
appear to constringe the tissues, and diminish the sweating of 
phthisis. Carbonic Acid baths have a stimulant action on 
the skin ; and are employed at Nauheim, or as artificially 
prepared, in the treatment of some kinds of cardiac disease. 

Internally. — In the dilute form, acids act directly upon the 
contents of the alimentary canal, and are used as antidotes in 
the treatment of poisoning by alkalis. In every instance the free 
acids quickly unite with bases in the digestive tract, and form 
neutral salts. In the mouth they are stimulants and siala- 
gogues : they rouse the appetite, and aid digestion by increas- 
ing the flow of saliva, and thus indirectly, as well as reflexly, 
the secretion of gastric juice. Acids also relieve thirst ; 
Citric, Tartaric and Acetic Acids, Carbonic Acid in efferves- 
cence, and the mineral acids largely diluted with water, being 
chiefly used for this purpose in fever, as well as acid wines, 
drinks and fruits in great variety. In the stomach Hydro- 
chloric Acid directly augments the acidity of the gastric 
juice, and is given in dyspepsia, during or after meals, as a 
digestive adjuvant. Carbonic Acid, introduced in efferves- 
cing wines and waters, has a grateful stimulant action upon 
the gastric nerves; and in the forms of champagne and 
effervescing mixtures is a most valuable remedy in the treat- 
ment of sickness with exhaustion. Reaching the duodenum, 
acids increase the acidity of the chyme and stimulate the 
liver, pancreaa and intestinal muscles and glands. Diluted 

148 Acids, 

Nitric and Nitro-hydrochloric Acids, given at the end of meals, 
are therefore used as cholagogues in intestinal dyspepsia with 
hepatic torpidity, especially tropical cases. Sulphuric Acid, 
as the Diluted or the Aromatic Acid, is a powerful intestinal 
astringent, much employed in diarrhoea. 


Acids render the blood less alkaline (but never acid, even 
in poisonous doses), by combining with part of the alkali of 
the liquor sanguinis. No special use is made of this property. 
Phosphoric Acid increases the phosphates in the red cor- 
puscles, and is thus hsematinic. The vegetable acids, when 
given as salts of the alkalis, have an important deoxydising 
effect on the blood. For example, Potassium Citrate becomes 
converted in the blood into Potassium Carbonate, Carbonic 
Acid and water ; a portion, however, of the Citric Acid 
always remaining unoxydised (see Potassium, p. 39), thus: 
2(C3H4'OH(COOK)3) + O18 (in blood) = 3(K2C03) + 5H2O 
+ 9CO2. Citrates, Tartrates and Acetates of Potassium, 
Sodium, Ammonium, etc., as such or in the effervescing form, 
may therefore be used to set free in the blood the carbonates 
of the alkalis, which cannot be so conveniently or so safely 
given in large doses by the stomach. The vegetable acids 
have been used in the treatment of scurvy, but with doubtful 
success ; and in rheumatism, with equally questionable results 
beyond their action on the mouth, skin and kidneys. 


In the tissues and organs, acids diminish the normal 
conversion of ammonia into urea, whilst each exhibits specific 
actions of its own. Sulphuric Acid as a possible astringent 
may be used in hsemorrhage. Nitric and Nitro-hydnwhiorio 
Acids were once considered to be cholagogue, when given in- 
ternally, or as a footbath (8 fl. oz. to one gallon of water) or a 
compress wrung out of the solution and worn over the hepatic 
region, and thus to reduce tropical enlargements of the liver. 
Hydrochloric Acid enters the tissues as clilorides ; and no 
further specific action or use is to be credited to the small doses 
which can be given of it. Phosphoric Acid also possesses no 
further influence on the tissues than that of increasing pro 
tam,to the amount of phosphates, and possibly the growth of 
bone ; and its value in constitutional diseases is probably 
due to its action on the red corpuscles, and to the bases with 
which it is combined {sec page l.")l). The tonic influence 
of acids is most probably refcrablo to their stimulating 


effect upon the digestive, biliary and metabolic functions. 
As we have seen, Acetic, Citric and Tartaric Acids never 
reach the tissues, being decomposed in the blood, unless they 
be given in large doses. 


The acids, having chiefly entered into combination as 
neutral salts, or having been decomposed in the blood, pro- 
duce remarkably little local action when they are escaping 
from the body in the secretions. Thus SulpJmric Acid is 
excreted chiefly by the kidneys, increasing very slightly the 
normal amount of sulphates ; part probably escapes by the 
bowels as sodium and magnesium sulphates ; part possibly by 
the skin, this acid being an anhidrotic in night-sweating. 
Phosphoric a,TLd Hydrochloric Acids behave similarly. A Uric 
Acid is believed to stimulate the formation of ammonia, and 
thus actually to diminish slightly the acidity of the urine. 
Salts of Acetic, Tartaric and Citric Acids are excreted as 
carbonates ; given in excess these acids escape unchanged 
by the kidneys and skin. Another point to be noted about all 
these acids, therefore, is that they do not increase the free 
acidity of the urine in any considerable or useful degree. 
It must be observed, however, that all the acids probably 
stimulate the kidneys and skin indirectly by increasing the 
total amount of salts excreted. 

Aciduin Boriciiin. — Boric Acid. HsBOj. Boracic 

Source. — Made by the interaction of Sulphuric Acid and 
Borax ; and by the purification of native Boric Acid. 

Characters. — Colourless pearly, lamellar crystals, unctuous 
to the touch, odourless, with a slightly acid and bitter taste. 
A weak acid. Solubility. — 1 in 30 of cold, 1 in 3 of boiling, 
water ; 1 in 4 of glycerin ; 1 in 30 of alcohol 90 per cent. A 
solution in alcohol burns with a green flame. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 


1. Glycerinum Acidi Boric!.— 6; Glycerin, to 
make 20 ; heated together to 302° F. 

2. Ungaentum Acidi Borici. — 1 ; Paraffin 
Ointment, white, 9. 


Borax. — Borax. Biborate of Sodium. Sodium PyrobcK 
rate. NaaB^Or.lOHjO. 

Source. — Native. Also made by neutralising native Boric 
Acid with Sodium Carbonate ; or by boiling native Calcium 
Borate with a solution of Sodium Carbonate. 

Characters. — Transparent colourless crystals, sometimes 
slightly effloresced, weakly alkaline. Solubility. — 1 in 25 of 
cold, 2 in 1 of boiling, water ; 1 in 1 of glycerin ; insoluble in 
alcohol 90 per cent. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 


1. Glycerinum Boracis.— 1 ; Glycerin, 6 ; 

2. Mel Boracis.— 2; Glycerin, 1; Clarified 
Honey, 16 ; mixed. 


Externally, Boric Acid destroys low organisms, a solution 
of 1 in 800 preventing the development of anthrax bacilli. 
It is thus a valuable antiseptic and disinfectant. On the 
tissues it produces little or no irritation, and is therefore 
peculiarly adapted for use as a surgical dressing and for 
ophthalmic and aural practice. Boric Acid lint, lotions, warm 
fomentations made from a boiling saturated solution, and the 
Ointment are now in very frequent use as applications to 
burns, wounds and ulcers ; and a weak solution of the Acid (2 
to 3 per cent.) with Glycerin is employed to wash out the 
bladder. Boric Acid is also the favourite daily disinfectant 
for the rectum in cases where nutrient enemata have to be 
given for a length of time. As its action does not extend 
beyond the surface to which it is applied, Boric Acid is never 
used for dressing cavities. In the form of a powder, the 
Ointment, or the Glycerin, it relieves itching, particularly 
pruritus vulva? et ani, and as a dusting-powder it prevents the 
foetor of perspiration. 

Internally, Boric Acid is a gastro-intestinal irritant in 
large doses. It is rapidly absorbed into the blood, and reach- 
ing the tissues appears to possess a sedative action on the 
nervous system, as Borax occasionally proves useful in 
epilepsy after other measures, including Bromides, have 

Boric Acid is eliminated in most of the secretions, parti- 
cularly by the kidneys, where it acidulates and disinfects the 


tirlne, and is therefore given in inflammatory affections of the 
genito-urinary tract, alone or in combination with Benzoic 

The action of Borax is very similar to that of the Acid. As 
the Glycerinum or Mel, it is a mild but efficient disinfectant 
in aphthous states of the mouth ; and as a lotion in some 
kinds of parasitic and itching skin disease. 

Aciduni Sulphurosum.— Sulphurous Acid. An 
aqueous solution containing 6'4 per cent, of Hydrogen Sul- 
phite, H2SO3, corresponding to 5 per cent, by weight of 
Sulphurous Anhydride, SOg. 

Source. — Made by boiling Sulphuric Acid with Carbon, 
Mercury or Copper, and dissolving the gas in Water ; or by 
burning Sulphur in air or oxygen. 

Cha/racters. — A colourless liquid, with a pungent sulphurous 
odour. Sp. gr. 1-025. Sulphites destroy the colour of solu- 
tions of KMnOi ; and evolve SO2 with H2SO4. Impurities. — 
Sulphuric acid ; mineral matters ; excess of water, detected 
by volumetric starch and iodine test. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

From Acidum Suljjhurosum is made : 

Sodii Sulphis.— Sodium Sulphite. NaaSOg, THgO. 

Source. — Obtained by the interaction of Sul- 
phurous Acid and Sodium Carbonate. 

Characters. — Colourless, transparent, monoclinic, 
efflorescent prisms ; inodorous ; with a sulphurous and 
saline taste ; neutral or feebly alkaline. Solubility. — 
Readily in water, very sparingly in alcohol 90 per cent. 
Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 


Sulphurous Acid is a powerful deoxydising agent. Seizing 
on oxygen and water, it decomposes organic bodies, and at 
the same time produces upon them the irritant local effects 
of sulphuric aeid, into which it is converted. It thus destroys 
low forms of living matter, including the organisms asso- 
ciated with fermentation, decomposition and certain diseases, 
1 part in 2000 of water being sufficient to kill some kinds of 
bacteria, and much weaker solutions to prevent their develop- 
ment. Sulphurous Acid is therefore applied to ringworm and 

1$2 AciDUM CnROMtCtTM. 

to foul wounds ; and some kinds of sore throat are relieved by 
a spray of the official Acid. Morbid fermentation in the 
stomach, attended by the growth of organisms, such as 
torula and sarcina, may be quickly arrested by the official 
Acid; but the Sodium salt is a more convenient form for 
internal use, being decomposed by the acid of the gastric 
juice. Given in full doses, Sulphites become converted into 
sulphates, and act as purgatives. 


Sulphites were once supposed to enter the blood and 
tissues, and to arrest morbid fermentation or fever processes 
within them. The evidence, however, is to the effect that 
Sulphites are not absorbed as such, but as sulphates, and are 
excreted as such by the kidneys and bowels. The benefit 
derived from them in fevers is therefore probably due to the 
laxative and diuretic effects of the higher salt. 

Dry Sulphurous Anhydride, although not official, is very 
extensively used for fumigating infected rooms and clothing, 
being probably the most powerful, most certain and most 
convenient of all disinfectants. Sulphur is burned on a shovel 
or plate, the outlets from the room having been carefully 
closed, excepting the door through which retreat is made. 

Acidiiiii dirooiicum. — Chromic Anhydride. CrO,. 
" Chromic Acid." 

Source. — Produced by the interaction of Sulphuric Acid 
and Potassium Bichromate. 

Cliaraeters. — Crimson needles, very deliquescent ; in- 
odorous ; corrosive to the skin. Soluble very readily in 
water and in ether. May explode with glycerin, ether, or 
alcohol 90 per cent. Mixed with cold alcohol, aldehyde is 
evolved, and a green residue of chromium oxide remains. 
Impurity/. — Sulphuric Acid. 

Liquor Acidi Chromici. — 1 to 3 of Water. Contains 
29-5 per cent. HjCrO*. Sp. gr. 1185. 

Chromic Acid is a powerfully oxydising body. It thus 


destroys the organisms and products of decomposition, and is 
an active deodorant and disinfectant, which may be used 
(J gr. to one fluid ounce of water) to wash foul or infected 
parts. An 8 per cent, solution is efficacious in sweating feet. 
Chromic Acid is also a strong caustic ; and may be applied as 
a paste with water or as the Solution, to condylomata, warts 
and syphilitic sores ; or in weak solution (1 in 40) to ulcers of 
the tongue and mouth, and in pharyngeal and larjmgeal 
affections. Care must be taken to limit its action to the 
diseased part, as it has a great power of penetrating the 

Acidum Nitrosum.— Nitrous Acid. HNOj. {Not 
official as meh.') 

This acid is not itself used in medicine, but the Nitrites 
are active and valuable drugs. Those in use are Sodium 
Nitrite, Amyl Nitrite, and Ethyl Nitrite, as well as Spirit of 
Nitrous Ether. The Sodium salt will be noticed here; the 
others under their own heads at pages 188 and 179. 

Sodii Nitris.— Sodium Nitrite. NaNOa. 

Source. — Obtained by fusing Sodium Nitrate with 
metallic Lead. 2NaN03 + 2Pb = 2NaN02 + 2PbO. 

Characters. — A white crystalline, deliquescent 
powder. Very soluble in water ; the solution neutral 
or slightly alkaline. Dose, 1 to 2 gr. 


Sodium Nitrite acts upon the blood, the heart and the 
vessels like Amyl Nitrite, only less suddenly and powerfully 
and for a longer period of time. {See page 188.) Its de- 
pressant action on the muscular system is more marked 
than that of the Amyl compound ; but it causes less head- 
ache and flushing, although the nitrous acid liberated in the 
stomach may cause irritation. It is used in cardiac disease 
characterised by recurrent attacks of pain. 

Acidum JLacticum.— Lactic Acid. A liquid con- 
taining 75 per cent, of Hydrogen Lactate, CHj-CHOHCOOH, 
with 25 per cent, of Water. 

fliwro^.— May be produced by tbe fermentation of Lacto6e> 

154 AciDUM Lacticum. 

Cha/racterg. — A colourless, hygroscopic, syrupy liquid, in- 
odorous, with very sour taste and acid reaction. Sp. gr. 121. 
Miscible in all proportions with water, alcohol 90 per cent,, 
and ether; nearly insoluble in chloroform. Tmjpurities. — 
Mineral and other acids, sugars, gum, glycerin, organic and 
inorganic matters, and metals. 

Aciduni LactiaiLm is employed in the preparation (^ Sjmip^us 
Calcii Lactophosphatis, 


Lactic Acid is of much physiological interest as a normal 
constituent of the gastric juice, and a product of muscular 
metabolism. Its medicinal action cannot, however, be turned 
to much therapeutical use. The Acid has been used with 
very uncertain results as a spray in croup and diphtheria, 
to dissolve the membrane, and to promote repair in tuber- 
culous ulceration of the pharynx and larynx — 50 to 100 per 
cent, aqueous solutions — with more benefit. Internally, it 
may be given as a digestive adjuvant after meals in dys- 
pepsia. Within recTent years a fresh stimulus lias been given 
to the treatment of putrefactive disorders of the intestine 
with milk soured by the Lactic Acid bacillus (13. Caucasicum). 

Aci<1iiin Foriniciiiii. — Formic Acid. H.COOH. 
QN'ot official.) Dose, 2-10 min. Formic Acid relieves fatigue, 
being a muscular stimulant. Sodium Formate has been given 
in rheumatism, gout and paralysis agitans. 

Acitliiiii Cilyceropliosphoririini. — Glycero- 
phosphoric Acid. C3H5(OH)20.PO.(()iI)2. {^ot official.^ 
— The ' I'otassiitm, Sodium, Calcium, Mngncai^im, Iron and 
Quinine snlts of this acid, and a more complex natural com- 
pound, Lecitldn (dose, 3-8 gr.), are much used in the treat- 
ment of nervous debility and in convalescence. 

A<!ic1lilil Osiiii<'liill. — Osmic Acid. OSO4. (Not 
oficial.) From 2 to 10 minims of 1 per cent, solutions have 
been injected into nerves to relieve neuralgia — a painful 
method of treatment. 

Acidiiiii I'ifririim.— Picric Acid. CeHa OH(NOj)3. 

(^Not official.) One per cent, solntions nnd ointments are 
employed in the treatment of burns, itching affections of the 
skin, eczema and chilblains. 




Aqua Destillata.— HgO. Pure Water, prepared by 
distillation from good natural potable water. 

Distilled Water is used in preparing medicines of every 


Externally, natural Water acts chiefly as a means of 
applying heat or cold to the surface of the body, being 
readily obtained at any temperature that may be desired. 
To produce this effect. Water may be applied in the form of 
baths of all kinds : cold, cool, temperate, tepid, warm, hot, 
vapour- or variously medicated ; also by sponging, douching, 
fomenting, etc. These subjects are noticed in the fourth part 
of the work (see page 610). Possessing these properties, 
Water is used externally for cleansing purposes ; for either 
raising or lowering the temperature of the body ; relieving 
pain, insomnia and delirium; removing spasms or convul- 
sions ; diminishing the circulation in deep parts by super- 
ficial " derivation," as in congestion of the brain ; etc. 
Water is also used, in a purely local way, as a wash or 
dressing to wounds ; as the basis of warm fomentations in 
inflammations ; and as a hsemostatic (30° to 50° F., and 
110° to 120° F.). See page 552. 

Internally, Water is constantly being taken in the form 
of food and drink. It relieves thirst ; improves digestion and 
intestinal action when drunk in moderation and at proper 
times ; and in a physical way may reduce the local or general 
temperature, e.g. as ice slowly sucked in sore throat and 
febrile conditions. Hot Water is a gastric sedative. Warm 
Water is an emetic. 


Water is quickly incorporated with the circulating plasma. 
Injections of normal saline ("9 per cent. NaCl in sterilised 
Water) raise the blood pressure, and prevent or remove collapse. 


Water plays an essential part in tissue life and in th9 

156 Aqi7a Destillata. 

activity of all the organs. A copious supply increases nutrt 
tion up to a certain point, especially the deposit of fat, and 
is extensively employed in hydrotherapeutics. 


Water is excreted by the kidneys, skin, lungs, bowels — 
indeed, necessarily in every secretion. Increase of Water in 
the urine is most readily induced when the skin is kept cool ; 
and it carries with it an excess of urea, phosphoric acid and 
sodium chloride. Water is thus a diuretic, and in one sense 
the most natural measure of the kind ; it is indicated in the 
form either of Distilled Water (as such or aerated) or of the 
waters of certain spas, when we desire simply to irrigate or 
flush the uriniferous tubules and urinary passages, and wash 
from them the products of disease, such as blood, leucocytes, 
cellular dehris, sediments and small calculi {see pages 
594-596). Possibly some kinds of renal and other calculi may 
be dissolved by the steady consumption of Distilled Water, 
which carries away minute traces of the stones, whilst it 
prevents fresh accretion on the surface. 

As a diaphoretic Water acts, on the one hand, when hot, 
or, on the other hand, when sipped cold in association with 
external heat. It is the basis of most of our domestic 
measures for relieving feverishness by inducing perspiration, 
such as warm drinks of all kinds and spirituous compounds. 

Liquor IIydrog:eiiii Peroxidi.— Solution of Hy- 
drogen Peroxide. An aqueous solution of Hydrogen Peroxide 

Source. — Prepared by the interaction of Water, Barium 
Peroxide and a dilute mineral acid, at a temperature below 
60° F. 

CJiaracterg. — A colourless odourless liquid, with a slightly 
acid taste ; it renders the saliva frothy. Decomposed by heat 
Into H3O + O. Impurities, etc. — Barium, mineral matters ; 
should yield 9-11 volumes of oxygen. Dose, ^ to 2 fl.dr. 


Hydrogen Peroxide is a powerful oxydising agent, pos- 
sessing decolorising and disinfectant properties. It is 
chiefly used to cleanse the skin, as a local disinfectant to 
septic surfaces, and as a general disinfectant in the sick-room. 
It also has been recommended for internal administration in 
a variety of affections, but w^th uncertain results. 




1, Alcohol Absoliituni.— Absolute Alcohol. Ethyl 
Hydroxide. CgHgOH, with not more than 1 per cent, by 
weight of water. 

Source. — Obtained by the removal of water from less 
strong Ethylic Alcohol, and subsequent distillation. 

Characters. — Colourless, very volatile and hygroscopic at 
common temperatures. Sp. gr. -7940 to '7969. Gives a green 
colour with K2Cr04, CrOg and H2SO4, a sweetish odour being 
evolved. Impurities. — Resins or oils ; detected by turbidity 
on dilution. Excess of water, giving blue colour with anhy- 
drous copper sulphate ; fixed matter ; fusel oil and its allies, 
amylic alcohol, aldehyde ; tannic acid, and other organic 

Alcohol Absolutum is used in preparing Liquor 
Ethyl Nitritis and Liquor Sodii Ethylatis. 

2. Spiritus RcctJIieatus. — Alcohol 90 per cent. 
Rectified Spirit. A liquid containing 90 parts by volume of 
Ethyl Hydroxide, CgHgOH, and 10 parts by volume of Water. 

Source. — Obtained by distillation of fermented saccharine 
liquids. CBHjaOg (Grape Sugar) = 2C2HgOH + 2CO2. 

Characters. — Colourless, transparent, very mobile, with a 
pleasant odour and strong spirituous burning taste. Sp. gr. 
0834. Bums with a smokeless blue flame. Impurities. — 
Water ; tested volumetrically ; amylic alcohol, beyond a 
trace, detected by excessive reduction of AgNOg ; aldehyde ; 
rpsins or oils, giving turbidity on dilution with water ; fixed 
matters ; and tannic acid. 


a. Alcohol (70 per cent.). — Made by mixing 
100 fl.oz. of Alcohol 90 per cent, with 31'05 fl.oi. of 
DistiUed Water. Sp. gr. 08900. 

158 Alcohol. 

0. Alcohol (60 per cent.)- — Made by mixing 
100 fl.oz. of Alcohol (90 per cent.) with 53-65 fl.oz. of 
Distilled Water. Sp. gr. 0-9135. 

c. Alcohol (45 per cent.). — Made by mixing 
100 fl.oz. of Alcohol (90 per cent.) with 105-34 fl.oz. 
of Distilled Water. Sp. gr. 0-9436. 

d. Alcohol (20 per cent.). — Made by mixing 
100 fl.oz. of Alcohol (90 per cent.) with 355-8 fl.oz. 
of Distilled Water. Sp. gr. 0-9760. 

Rectified Spirit and the Diluted AlcolwU are uaed 
in preparing Chloroform, many Tinctures, Spirits, 
Liniments and other preparations. 

3. Spiritus Vini Oallici. — Brandy. A spirituous 
liquid distilled from wine and matured by age. 

Characters and Compositioji. — A spirit of a light sherry 
colour, and peculiar flavour. Contains not less than 365 per 
cent, by weight, or 435 per cent, by volume, of Mhyl lly- 
droxide, with some ethylic ether combined with acetic and 
other ethers, and traces of volatile oils. 


Mistura Spiritus Vini Gallici. — Mixture of Brandy. 
" Egg Flip." Brandy and Cinnamon Water, of each 
4 fl.oz. ; two Yolks of Eggs ; defined Sugar, ^ oz. Uose, 
1 to 2 fl.oz. 

4. Viiitiin Xerieuili.— Sherry. A Spanish Wine. 

Characters and Composition. — Pale yellowish-brown. Con- 
tains not less than 16 per cent, by volume of Mhyl Hydroxide ; 
colourwig matter^ ethers, acid potassium tartrate, malates, 
sicga/r, etc. ImpvHty .—^dXicylic acid. 

Sherry is used in preparing : 

the following Vina : Autimoniale, Colchici, 
Ferri, Ipecacuanhae. 

Vinum Aurantii is made by fermentation of a 
saccharine solution ; Vinum Ferri Citratis and 
Vinum Quininae are made from Vinum Aurantii. 

Amount of Alcohol by volume in various important substanici 
containing it. 

Alcohol Absolutum, 99 per cent. 
Alcohol (U.S. P.), 94-9 per cent. 

Alcohol. 159 

Spiritus Rectificatus, 90 per cent. 

Alcohol Dilutum (U.S.P.), 489 per cent. 

Spiritus Vini Gallic! (Brandy), about 43-5 per cent. 

Spiritus F.rnmenti (Whisky), about 44 to 45 per cent. 

Rum 1 

Gin - I about 51 to 59 per cent. 

Strong Liqueurs ) 

Port, Sherry, and Madeira, about 16 to 22 per cent. 

Vinum Rubrum (U.S. P.), 85 to 15 per cent. 

Vinum Album (IJ.S.P.), about 8-5 to 15 per cent. 

Champagne, about 10 to 13 per cent. 

Vinum Aurantii, 10 to 12 per cent. 

Hock and Burgundy, about 9 to 12 per cent. 

Claret, 8 to 12 per cent. 

Ale and Porter, about 3, 5, or more per cent. 

Cider, 5 to 9 per cent. 

Kumiss (made from milk), about 1 to 3 per cent. 


Externally, Alcohol is an antiseptic and disinfectant, 
employed as a constituent of lotions for ulcers and wounds. 
In the form of Brandy it is rubbed into the skin to prevent 
bed-sores, by hardening and disinfecting the epidermis. 
Applied in lotion to the skin, with free evaporation allowed. 
Alcohol is a powerful refrigerant, withdrawing heat from the 
body by its evaporation, blanching the parts by vascular con- 
striction, and producing a sense of cold. In this form it is 
used to prevent or allay inflammations of superficial parts, 
such as the subcutaneous tissues, joints and muscles ; and to 
relieve pain, especially headache, due to vascular dilatation 
and throbbing. Alcoholic lotions sponged on the skin also 
diminish the activity of the sweat glands, and may be used 
in excessive perspiration as an anhidrotic. On the contrary, 
if the vapour be confined and allowed to a6t upon the tissues 
underneath, or if the Alcohol be rubbed into the part, it pene- 
trates'and hardens the epithelium, and irritates the nerves 
and vessels of the cutaneous structures, causing redness, 
heat and pain, followed by local anaesthesia.' Alcoholic lini- 
ments containing soaps, essential oils, and other stimulants 
ie.(j. Linimentum Camphoras and Linimentum Camphoraa 
Ammoniatum), are applied with friction to increase the nutri- 
tion of parts which are the seat of chronic inflammation, 
induration, adhesions, stiffness and pain, such as the fibrous 

i6o Alcohol. 

structures and muscles in chronic rheumatism, periostitis and 
paralysis ; or to produce a rubefacient efiEect on a large area of 
skin, e.g. of the chest, in bronchitis. Injections of Alcohol are 
used in neuralgia. Alcohol is absorbed by the unbroken skin. 

Internally, the local action of Alcohol begins in the mouth 
with its characteristic taste, and a hot, painful, stimulating 
effect on the tongue and mucous membrane. If it be retained 
in contact with them, the epithelium becomes condensed and 
whitened, and the parts beneath are anaesthetised. Some forms 
of toothache can thus be quickly and completely relieved, 
the Spirit also acting as a disinfectant in the pulp cavity. 
"Wines and other wholesome alcoholic liquids, consumed 
during meals, have an action of the first importance on the 
nerves of the tongue, palate and nose. By virtue of their 
taste, flavour and bouquet they give a relish to food, increase 
the appetite, and stimulate the flow of saliva and the 
functions of the stomach. 

In the stomach the action of Alcohol is complex, and of 
great importance. (1) Alcohol mixes with the contents of the 
stomach ; is partly decomposed into aldehyde and acetic 
acid ; and precipitates some of the pepsin, and some of the 
peptones, proteoses and proteids : so far it depresses digestion. 
(2) It stimulates the mucous membrane, dilating and filling 
the vessels with blood ; excites and markedly increases the 
flow of gastric juice ; sharpens the appetite ; and renders the 
movements of the viscus more energetic : in these respects it 
greatly assists digestion. The total effect of a moderate 
dose of Alcohol is decidedly to favour gastric digestion, 
especially in cases where the nerves, vessels and glands lack 
vigour, as in old age and in the chronic dyspepsia of persons 
weakened by acute illness, town life and anxious sedentary em- 
ployments. Herein consists the value of a small amount of 
wine or wholesome ale taken with meat meals by such subjects. 
The danger lies in excess, which readily destroys the activity 
of the juice, contracts the blood-vessels, and sets up a secre- 
tion of alkaline mucus which greatly interferes with digestion, 
a common cause of acute and chronic dyspepsia. 

(3) The action of Alcohol on the gastric wall produces 
extensive effects of a rejlex kind. The heart is stimulated by 
moderate doses, producing a pleasurable rise of blood-pressure 
and a sense of power. The vessels dilate universally, filling 
the active organs with blood, which further increases their 
activity, the brain being specially excited and the skin flushed 
and warmed subjectively. If the quantity be large, these 
salutary effects of Alcohol as a diffusible stimulant may pass 
into depression ; and the sudden ingestion of a large amount 

Alcohol. i6i 

of spirit may prove rapidly fatal by shock. The reflex effects 
of alcoholic stimulants, if properly applied, add to their value 
at meal-times, by increasing the enjoyment of eating, and 
thus the digestive power. Certain forms of pain in the 
stomach and bowels are rapidly relieved by the local action of 
Brandy, which also helps to expel flatus and check diarrhoea ; 
and pain, spasms, irregular or feeble action of the heart, cold 
feelings of the surface, and low conditions of the brain, are 
all quickly removed by the same reflex means before the 
Alcohol could be absorbed in quantity into the blood. 


Alcohol enters the blood unchanged, or partly as aldehyde, 
and is distributed by it to the tissues and organs, a small part 
only becoming lost in it as acetic and carbonic acid. The 
actions of Alcohol on the corpuscles are still obscure, but it 
probably binds the oxygen more firmly to the hsemoglobin, so 
that oxygenation of the tissues occurs less freely, and there- 
fore less extensively. The effect of this upon metabolism 
will now be described. 


Alcohol is rapidly taken up by the varioxis organs, chiefly 
unchanged. If given in moderate quantity, it is (1) oxydised 
in its passage through the tissues into carbonic acid and 
water like other carbohydrates, that is, it is a food, or source 
of heat and vital energy. At the same time it produces two 
other equally important effects ; for (2) it reduces the activity 
of metabolism or the oxydation of the tissues ; and (3) it 
lirst stimulates and afterwards depresses the circulatory and 
nervous systems, quite independently of its action on tissue 
change. These three effects of Alcohol must be discussed 

(1) Alcoliol as a food. — It may now be accepted as proved 
that, when taken in sufficiently small quantities. Alcohol is 
oxydised in the tissues ; and that it only passes out of the 
body unchanged, through the lungs, kidneys, etc., when so 
freely given that excretion occurs before oxydation has had 
time to take place. This decomposition of Alcohol must 
necessarily develop vital force and heat, like the oxydation of 
sugar, fat and albumen. Alcohol belongs to that class of 
foods which do not become an integral part of the living 
cells, as does much of the albumen, salts, etc., but remain in 
the plasma which bathes the cells, are oxydised there, and 
constitute their pabulum, the materials which supply the 

1 63 Alcohol. 

active elements with much of their energy. Thus it happens 
that Alcohol can for a time sustain life when no food (so- 
called) is taken, as in confirmed drunkards and in some cases 
of severe illness. Professor Binz, of Bonn, who has studied 
this question with great industry and success, has calculated 
how much energy is contained in a gramme of Alcohol, and 
finds that two ounces of Absolute Alcohol yield about the 
same amount of warmth to the body as is supplied by an 
ounce and a half of Cod-liver Oil. The iises of Alcohol 
as a food will be presently described along with its other 

(2) Alcohol as a nutritive depressant. — Whilst it is itself 
thus oxydised in the tissues, Alcohol unquestionably interferes 
with the metabolism or oxydation of other substances, espe- 
cially (it would appear) saving or sparing the wear and tear 
of the " tissue proteids," or formed protoplasm of the cells. 
This has been determined from three facts observed in 
animals supplied with moderate doses of Alcohol : first, that 
less oxygen is absorbed ; secondly, that the temperature falls, 
and the albuminous tissues, whilst they do not waste, tend to 
degenerate into fat, so that the body as a whole grows fat 
and gross ; thirdly, and chiefly, that the amount of urea, uric 
acid, carbonic acid and salts excreted is decidedly diminished. 
These are settled facts ; the explanation of them is more 
difiicult. The interference of Alcohol with the oxygenating 
function of the red corpuscle is one obvious cause of impaired 
metabolism ; another is the extreme readiness of the Alcohol 
when it reaches the tissues to seize upon the oxygen which is 
there, thus robbing as it were the fixed elements of their 
necessary share, and arresting their decomposition at the 
middle stage of fat. This remarkable property of Alcohol of 
saving tissue waste is one of the foundations of its employ- 
ment in fever, to be presently discussed. 

(3) Alcohol as a stimulant and narcotic. — Tlie circulation 
in every part of the body is stimulated by a moderate dose of 
Alcohol. The increase in the force and frequency of the 
heart, and the dilatation of the peripheral blood-vessels, 
which together constitute this increased circulatory activity, 
are both so far reflex effects from the mucous membrane of 
the stomach, as we have already seen ; but they are also in 
part direct, the Alcohol affecting the nervo-muscular struc- 
tures of the heart, the cardiac centre, possibly the vaso-dilator 
centres in the medulla and cord, and certainly the nervo- 
muscular tissue of the middle coat of the vessels. To these 
causes of circulatory excitement must be added the voluntary 
muscular movements, which are much exaggreratod under the 

Alcohol. 163 

influence of Alcohol. When Alcohol is taken in large quan- 
tities, its stimulant effect on the circulation passes into 
depression, both reflex and direct ; and death may result, in 
part at least, from cardiac failure. 

Upon the nervous system the first effect of Alcohol in 
moderate quantity is also one of stimulation. The nervous 
centres are increased in vigour from the highest to the 
lowest, and in the same order of sequence. The imagination 
becomes brilliant, the feelings are exalted, the intellect is 
cleared, the senses become more acute, the feeling of bodily 
strength and ability is raised, and some of the appetites are 
temporarily excited. The centres of speech, and of muscular 
movements generally, are specially stimulated, giving rise to 
animated talk and lively gesticulations; and, therewith, a 
sense of Hen etre, referable to the combined nervous and 
circulatory excitement, spreads over the system. 

If the dose of Alcohol be larger, these phenomena of 
stimulation are at first more pronounced, but very soon give 
place to depression, which spreads, like the excitement, from 
the highest to the lowest centres of the brain and cord. The 
intellectual, emotional, and voluntary faculties become first 
inco-ordinated, then dull, and finally completely arrested ; 
the muscles are first ataxic and next paralysed, so that after 
an unsteady, staggering gait the erect posture is impossible ; 
and the consequent depression of the respiratory and circu- 
latory centres leads to stertorous breathing, circulatory 
failure, and even death. The effects of Alcohol upon the 
nervous centres are referable partly to dilatation of the blood- 
vessels of the brain and cord, but certainly also to a direct 
action of the drug upon the nerve cells. 

The action of Alcohol on the other bodily functions is 
chiefly, if not entirely, indirect. Thus, the muscles are 
affected solely through the nervous centres and nerves. 
Itespiration is first increased, then slowed and weakened, 
partly through the special centre, but manifestly also, to a 
great extent, through the muscles and the circulation. Death 
occurs partly by asphyxia. The bodily temperature is, on 
the whole, lowered by Alcohol : (1) by increased circulation 
tlu-ough the dilated peripheral vessels ; (2) by increased 
perspiration; (3) by diminished metabolism; and (4) after 
large non-medicinal doses, by general depression. The sense 
of warmth is, on the contrary, increased by the flushing of 
the skin with blood ; a condition which promotes bodily heat 
and comfort in a warm or moderately cool atmosphere, but 
causes rapid refrigeration, general vital depression and pos- 
sibly death in low states of the external temperature. 

164 • Alcohol, 


The uses to which the complex specific actions of Alcohol 
may be turned are many, and of great importance. 

Alcohol is employed in fever, and other acute wasting 
diseases, such as delirium tremens and acute mania. The 
therapeutical indications in these conditions are to prevent 
or to make good the great waste of tissues associated with the 
disease ; to sustain the heart and nervous system, which 
threaten to fail, as the frequent pulse and the delirium testify ; 
and to promote the loss of heat, which is being formed in 
excess, as evidenced by the thermometer, the dry brown 
tongue, the sleeplessness and the general restlessness of the 
patient. We have seen that these ends are all fulfilled to a 
certain extent by Alcohol. When the symptoms just men- 
tioned appear, Brandy or other form of alcohol, and Wines of 
the strongest varieties, are given in a definite amount per 
diem, according to the height of the fever, the state of the 
pulse and cardiac sounds, the general strength, the ability to 
consume food, and the previous habits and age of the patient. 
[t must be distinctly understood, however, that Alcohol is by 
no means essential in every case of fever ; the very opposite 
being the fact. In delirium tremens (acute alcoholism), 
where food, in the ordinary sense of the word, can often be 
given with the greatest difficulty only, the very substance 
which, as a stimulant, has caused the disease may be judici- 
ously continued as a form of nourishment for a time. 

In chronic diseases attended with great debility, want of 
appetite, and possibly sickness, as well as fever, such as pul- 
monary phthisis. Alcohol will also find its place as a true 
food and antipyretic. 

As a stimulant the principal use of Alcohol is in connec- 
tion with the heart. This, as we have just seen, is an 
important part of its action in fever. Of all remedies in 
threatening death by cardiac failure (syncope, fainting, 
hjeraorrhage, shock), Spirits are the best, being at once 
available, convenient, rapid in their action, and almost invari- 
ably successful if recovery be possible. For this purpose. 
Brandy, Whisky, etc., should be given either pure or only 
slightly diluted, by the stomach or bowel, or under the skin. 
Hardly less valuable is Alcohol, given continuously in small 
regular doses, in chronic disease of the heart, when natural 
hypertrophy fails and dilatation ensues. Wine, Rectified 
Spirit, or various Tinctures may be prescribed in such cases. 

In nervmis depression Alcohol must be ordered with the 
greatest hesitation. In melancholia, or in despondency be- 
gotten by grief, anxiety, suspense, over-work, excess, and 

Alcohol, 165 

especially by indulgence in Alcohol itself, this drng aflEords 
only too ready relief, as also in neuralgia, hysteria and allied 
disorders, and sleeplessness ; and the recommendation of it 
by the practitioner may be the perfectly innocent beginning 
of the alcoholic habit, or be abused by the patient and 
employed as a pretext for continued intemperance. In such 
cases the best rule is to order a definite amount of some weak 
alcoholic drink, such as Ale or Claret, at meal-times only; 
but even this recommendation is by no means always safe. 
Severe pain, such as neuralgia, is often successfully relieved 
on the same principle. Some forms of sleeplessness are 
readily overcome by warm alcoholic draughts at bed-time, or 
malt liquors : but here again great discrimination is requisite 
in ordering the remedy. 


Alcohol given in medicinal doses is almost entirely oxydised 
in the system, as we have seen, less than 3 per cent, passing 
out unchanged, chiefly by the lungs, less by the kidneys, and 
least by the skin. This amount, however, includes ethereal 
and other complex bodies associated with Alcohol in Wines 
and Spirits ; by far the greater part of the Alcohol proper is 
excreted as carbonic acid and water. 

The diuretic effect of Spirits, Wines, and especially Gin 
and Beer, is well known, and may sometimes be employed in 
medicine. The diaphoretic effect of Alcohol and its applica- 
tions have been sufficiently discussed under fever (p. 1G4). 

Circumstances modifying the actions and Uses of Alcohol. — 

The different alcoholic fluids act very differently, according 
to their strength ; their other constituents, already enu- 
merated ; the presence of carbonic acid in them (sparkling 
drinks), which increases the rapidity of their action on the 
stomach and possibly of their absorption ; the degree to which 
chey are diluted with water ; and the condition of the stomach 
as regards the presence of food. The age of the patient, the 
soundness of his kidneys and other eliminating organs, his 
habits as regards Alcohol, and the amount of exercise which 
he can take, must also be carefully estimated in ordering the 
remedy. Necessarily the nature of the disease for which 
the Alcohol is ordered chiefly determines its form and 
amount. In conditions of waste and exhaustion, especially 
febrile states and after operations, large quantities (even 
1 pint of Brandy per diem) can sometimes be tolerated, 
apparently from rapid oxydation of the Alcohol in the sjs- 
tern. Alcohol may be inhaled with Oxygen passed through it. 

66 Chloroformum. 


Chloroforinuiii.— Chloroform. Chloroform or Tri- 
chloromethane, CHCI3, to which has been added sufficient 
Absolute Alcohol to produce a liquid having a sp. gr. not less 
than 1*490 and not more than 1*495. 

Source. — Made by (1, 2, and 3) distilling Alcohol with 
Chlorinated Lime and Slaked Lime (oxydising and chlori- 
nating the alcohol) ; thereafter (4) purifying by washing 
with Water and with Sulphuric Acid ; agitating with Slaked 
Lime and Calcium Chloride, and redistilling ; and lastly 
adding Absolute Alcohol. (1) 2C2HgO + Og = 2C2H4O 
(aldehyde) + 2H2O. (2) C2H4O -f 3CI2 = C.^HClsO (chloral) 
+ 3HC1. (3) 2C2HCI3O + Ca(H0)3 = 2CHCI3 + Ca2CH02 
calcium formate. (4) The sulphuric acid chars and removes 
hydrocarbons, without affecting the Chloroform ; the lime 
frees it from acid, the calcium chloride from moisture. 

Characters. — A limpid, colourless, heavy, volatile liquid, of 
an agreeable ethereal odour and pungent sweet taste. Solu- 
hility. — 10 in 7 of alcohol ; freely in ether, olive oil, and tur- 
pentine ; 1 in 200 of water, in which it sinks in heavy drops. 1-490 to 1*495. Boils between 140° and 143*6° F. Burns 
with a greenish flame. Impurities.— Hydroc&Thons; giving 
green colour with H2SO4. Non-volatile compounds, including 
chlorides ; giving residue and unpleasant odour after evapor- 
ation, etc. Carbonjl chloride, COCI2, due to decomposition 
through exposure to air and sunlight ; detected by adding Ba. 
solution, when a white film forms at its junction with the 
Chloroform ; and clinically by the constant irritating cough 
produced by inhalation. Carbonyl is destroyed by adding 
slaked lime to the Chloroform. Acids. Free Chlorine. DosSt 
1 to 5 min. by the mouth. 


1. Aqua Chloroformi — 1, well shaken in 40C of 

2. Linimentum Chloroformi.— 1, to 1 of Liniment 
of Camphor. 

3. Spiritus Chloroformi — Spirit of Chloroform. 
Chloric Ether. 1 to 19 of Alcohol 90 per cent. Dose, 
5 to 20 min. for repeated administration ; 30 to 40 min. 
lor a single dose. 


4. Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinse Composita. 

—Made by dissolving 10 of Morphine Hydrochloride 
in a mixture of TS of Oil of Peppermint, 450 of Alcohol 
90 per cent., 75 of Chloroform, 25 of Tincture of 
Capsicum, 100 of Tincture of Indian Hemp, and 250 of 
Glycerin ; adding 50 of Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid ; 
and increasing the volume to 1000 by further addition 
of Alcohol. — 10 min. contain f min. of Chloroform, 
yVgr. of Morphine Hydrochloride. and| min. of Diluted 
Hydrocyanic Acid. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 


Externally applied, and allowed to evaporate. Chloroform 
causes a sense of coldness, and depresses the terminations of 
the sensory nerves of the part, thus reducing sensibility or 
removing pain. On the contrary, if the vapour be confined or 
the Chloroform rubbed into the skin, it acts as an irritant, 
causing redness and even vesication, with a sense of heat and 
pain, followed by anaesthesia of the part. A similar effect is 
produced on all exposed mucous membranes. As a local 
anaesthetic, Chloroform may be applied on lint, covered 
closely with a wine-glass, e.g. in temporal headache ; or in the 
form of the Liniment or of various combinations with Bella- 
donna and other anodynes which are used for the relief of 
lumbago, neuralgia, etc. The student must understand, how- 
ever, that the local ancesthetic effect of Chloroform bears a 
very inferior relation to its rapid and powerful action as a 
general anaesthetic to be presently described. 

When given internally by the mouth, Chloroform produces 
an intensely hot, sweet taste, which renders it useful in phar- 
macy to cover the nauseous, bitter and astringent characters of 
many drugs. It may also be used to relieve toothache. Like 
Alcohol, it causes reflex salivation, and in this way, as well as 
by a carminative action on the stomach, the Spiritus and Aqua 
are useful adjuvants to stomachic and tonic mixtures, re- 
lieving pain, vomiting and flatulency. In full doses it may 
give rise to vomiting, as is frequently seen after anaesthesia, 
but this effect is often referable to carbonyl chloride, a 
product of decomposition. The Compound Tincture of 
Chloroform and Morphine is a substitute for " Chlorodyne," 
a popular sedative and intestinal astringent. A few drops of 
Chloroform inhaled from a sponge or piece of lint (quite 
apart from its action and use as a general anaesthetic). 

1 6 S Chloropormum. 

rapidly soothe the respiratory nerves, and may be employed 
to arrest spasm of the glottis, asthma, and spasmodic or dry 
useless dough attending irritation of the air-passages. 


Chloroform enters the circulation by the respiratory 
organs, stomach and unbroken skin, as well as subcutaneously. 
Chiefly as Chloroform, partly as various products, it mixes 
with tlie blood ; but its action on the circulating blood is still 
obscure. It is carried mainly by the red corpuscles. 


Chloroform reaches the tissues very rapidly, especially if 
administered in the form of vapour freely mixed with air, as 
it always is when given as a general anaesthetic. Its most 
important action is exerted upon the central nervous system, 
and demands detailed description. Whilst this description of 
the subject of anaesthetics will have particular reference to 
Chloroform, it will also apply in a general way to other agents 
of the same class, especially Ether ; important differences 
being noticed under each drug. The phenomena of general 
anassthesia will first be noted ; secondly, an analysis will be 
made of these ; thirdly, the uses of Chloroform will be 
enumerated ; and fourthly, the methods of administering the 
anaesthetic, and certain necessary precautions, will be briefly 

1. Phenomena of Chloroform Anaesthesia.— <r. First stage. 
The first effect of the inhalation of Chloroform on the nervous 
system is powerful stimulation, but almost from the com- 
mencement this is accompanied by a certain amount of dis- 
order. The very first inspiration seems to rouse the cerebrum 
to increased activity, an effect due to the direct action of the 
anaesthetic on the nerve cells of tlie convolutions, partly, per- 
haps, to vascular disturbance. The highest centres are first 
and chiefly excited, so that the imagination and feelings 
immediately become exalted ; always, however, with some 
confusion. For a moment the senses may be quickened, but 
they are speedily disordered and depressed ; vision, hearing 
and touch become dulled, and a strange feeling of lightness, 
freedom, tingling and numbness pervades the surface and 
the extremities. All *hese sensations are strictly central, 
probably convolutional, in origin. 

b. Second stage. — The Chloroform next rouses the muscu- 
lar centreSy and various gesticulations, spasms or struggling 
movements may ensue. The vicdnlla ohUmgata is next 
affected, the centres of circulation and respiration being 

Chloroformum. 169 

Btimulated, so that the pulse and respiration become more 
frequent (although the latter is more shallow), the face is 
flushed, the blood-pressure raised. At this point the skin 
becomes moist ; a red rash in irregular patches may appear 
on the neck and chest ; and the pupils may dilate slightly. 
These phenomena vary greatly in different instances, with 
the constitution and condition of the nervous centres, the 
temperament and habits of the individual; laughing or 
crying or noisy struggling being the prominent feature in 
many cases. 

c. Third stage. — The third effect of Chloroform on tlie 
nerve centres is depression. The same parts continue to be 
affected by the drug ; but their functions, instead of being 
increased or simply disordered, are first diminished and at 
last perfectly arrested. Consciousness now ceases, with the 
appearance of heavy sleep. Perception and sensation are 
annulled ; the patient sees nothing, hears nothing, feels no 
pain. For the same reason, reflex excitability is first 
diminished and then lost ; irritation of any part by tickling 
or pinching induces no movements of the limbs ; at last, even 
touching the cornea causes no reflex rolling of the eye-ball 
nor winking of the lids. 

As the anaesthesia deepens, the automatic and reflex 
excitability of the cord and vieduUa is also diminished, and 
the phenomena that ensue involve all the parts supplied by 
these centres. Muscular tone is lost, and the voluntary 
muscles become paralysed and relaxed. The pupil is con- 
tracted, dilating on stimulation of afferent nerves. The heart 
and respiratory organs are no longer excited, but their centres 
in the medulla being now depressed, their action is laboured : 
the pulse falls in frequency and in force ; the heart is directly 
weakened, becomes atonic, and dilates ; and the respiratory 
movements become slow, heavy, and attended with noise or 

Now is the time for the surgeon to operate, general 
anaesthesia being complete, whilst depression of the vital 
functions is still within safe limits. The effects may be 
expected to begin to pass off in a few minutes if the 
administration be stopped ; and although the amount of 
Chloroform required to complete the third stage varies 
greatly with the subject and other circumstances, it may be 
said that from 1 to 4 fluid drachms will probably have been 
given up to this point. 

Beyond the third stage or degree, just described, Chlo- 
roform anaesthesia is highly dangerous, the further action 
of the drug being attended by complete loss of all reflex 

1 70 Chloroformum, 

excitability of the cord and medulla. The sphincters relax, 
the pupils are widely dilated and fixed, the globes prominent. 
The respiratory centre is no longer irritable, and the move- 
ments of the chest become weaker, irregular and sighing, and 
finally cease. The cardiac centre and myocardium fail ; the 
heart beats irregularly and feebly, and at last stops in dias- 
tole, both from central and from direct nervo-muscular 
depression. The blood-vessels dilate, the pressure falls to 
zero, the circulation has come to a standstill. The direct 
effects of Chloroform on the respiratory centre are complicated 
by venosity of the blood, and by interference with the afferent 
impulses from the air passages and lungs. Death may occur 
through the heart, the respiration, or both. 

2. Analysis of the phenomena of Chloroform anaesthesia. 
— Chloroform anaesthesia affords us an excellent opportunity 
of studying the actions of a drug upon the various centres of 
the nervous system, from the highest downwards. The first 
parts to be stimulated are the cerebral centres with mental 
functions and control of the special senses and consciousness ; 
and these are the first to be depressed and finally annulled. 
The lower cerebral and the spinal centres are affected less 
and somewhat later, so that a certain degree of excitement 
of these accompanies the first cerebral depression ; and the 
spinal centres being no longer controlled by the cerebral, 
irregular excessive movements of the limbs ensue. As the 
depression deepens in the spinal centres, the muscles are 
paralysed. Lastly, the lowest centres of all, in the medulla 
and cord, those of organic life — of the heart, vessels, respi- 
ratory organs and sphincters — and the heart itself yield to 
the action of Chloroform. Although affected from the first, 
the functions of these vital centres are not seriously im- 
paired until the higher parts have become completely over- 
powered ; then death threatens. It is on account of the safe 
order of invasion of the different centres by Chloroform, that 
it has been selected as a proper .agent for temporarily arrest- 
ing consciousness ; we shall find that many other powerful 
drugs equally depress the nervous system, but in a direction 
exactly the reverse. 

The peripheral nerves are affected last of all in general 
anncsthesia ; and it must be repeated that the loss of 
sensibility to the knife is due to a central, not a peripheral, 

The muscles are fiflally affected directly, as well as through 
the nervous system. The pupil is dilated in the first stage, 
probably by stimulation of the sympathetic ; contnicted in 
the second, and dilated in the third stage, by stimulation and 

Chloroformum, 1 7 1 

paralysis respectively of the third nerve or its cerebral centre. 
The other involuntary muscles are less obviously paralysed, 
and the parturient uterus contracts freely in complete 
anaesthesia, with some loss, however, of vigour and regularity. 

3. Specific uses of Chloroform. — The circumstances in 
which Chloroform anaesthesia may be employed are the 
following : — (1) In operations attended with pain. These 
need not be particularised. (2) In operations where muscular 
action or spasm has to be overcome : reduction of herniae, dis- 
locations and fractures; catheterism. (3) In diagnostic 
manipulations : exploration of the abdomen externally and 
per rectum. (4) In diseases attended with excessive pain, 
especially biliary and renal calculus. (5) In parturition, in 
certain subjects and conditions, the degree of anaesthesia 
induced being generally slight until the moment of birth. 
(6) In spasmodic diseases, such as tetanus, hydrophobia, 
uraemia, puerperal convulsions, the status epilepticus, severe 
chorea and hiccup, 

4. Method of administration, and principal precautions 
to be observed in Chloroform anaesthesia. — This is a purely 
practical subject, to be learned by experience and not in 
theory only. The student has frequent opportunities of 
witnessing the administration of anaesthetics by skilled 
persons, and is now systematically trained in it ; and he must 
closely and carefully observe every effect of the Chloroform 
upon the patient. He will do well to interpret every pheno- 
menon as it arises, such as mental and muscular excitement, 
the character of the breathing, the colour of the countenance, 
and (if possible) the state of the pulse, into exact physio- 
logical terms, as explained above ; as, for example, stimulation 
of the convolutions and cord, interference with the respira- 
tory centre, etc. He will thus come to appreciate accurately 
the condition of the patient at any moment, and be prepared 
to administer anaesthetics for himself. A number of thoroughly 
practical points will then have to be learned : the selection of 
suitable cases for anaesthesia; the preparation of the patient; 
the choice of the anjEsthetio and of an inhaler ; the position 
of the patient ; the method of watching the face, eyes, pulse, 
and respiration ; the detection of unfavourable symptoms, 
and their immediate treatment; and, finally, the after-treat- 
ment of the case. All these and other matters connected 
with the administration of anaesthetics can be but briefly 
referred to in the following paragraphs : 

a. Selection of cases. — Chloroform must be given with great 
caution to the aged and infirm. To children, to persons subject 
to attacks of faintness or known to suffer from fatty degenera- 

172 Chloroformum. 

tion or dilatation of the heart, to very fat and very anaemic 
persons, to epileptics, to chronic drunkards, to subjects of ex- 
tensive disease of the lungs or respiratory passages the A.C.E. 
Mixture, C.E. Mixture, or other Chloroform Mixture should 
be given. Alcoholics take Ether better than Chloroform. 
Valvular disease of the heart with compensation suggests 
special care, but is not a contra-indication. Operations on 
the mouth, nose or throat, with possible bleeding into the 
glottis, demand special precautions : deep anesthesia is not 
desirable — the cough reflex should not be abolished. Preli- 
minary tracheotomy may be necessary. It must never be 
forgotten, however, that when an operation is absolutely 
necessary, it can always be more safely performed with 
than without anaesthetics ; and that before the days of Ether 
or Chloroform many persons died during operation from 
fear, faintness and shock, the danger of which is removed or 
greatly diminished by anaesthetics. 

h. Preparation of the patient. — Insensibility is produced 
more rapidly when the stomach is empty. No food should 
be given for at least four hours before the operation, which 
should, if possible, be performed early in the morning : 
patients take an anaesthetic then better than at any other 
period of the day. If the patient feel faint, a small quantity 
of brandy and water may be given before operation. Artifi- 
cial teeth must be removed, especially small plates, but whole 
plates may be retained with advantage. The respiration 
and pulse should be carefully noted before commencing 

c. Selection of the amxcsthctio : purity of the same. — The 
anaesthetic agents in general use at the present time are 
Nitrous Oxide, Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen, Ethyl Chloride, 
Ether, Chloroform, A.C.E. Mixture (Alcohol 1, Chloroform 2, 
Ether 3), and other mixtures containing Chloroform and 
Ether. Of these. Nitrous Oxide and Ether are unquestion- 
ably to be preferred unless there be some special reason to 
the contrary. The purity of the drug is best ensured by 
purchasing it from well-established makers, and not attempt- 
ing to test it for oneself ; and the same manufacture should 
always be used, if possible. It may be advisable to com- 
mence with one anaasthetic, and then, as circumstances alter 
during the operation, to change it for another. 

d. Selection of the apparatus. — This will depend on cir- 
cumstances and on the skill and experience of the adminis- 
trator. Whilst elaborate inhalers are used in hospitals, it is 
satisfactory to know that the simplest apparatus may be 
equally safe, such as a handkerchief or piece of lint or flannel 

Chloropvrmum. 173 

stretched over a wire frame ; care being taken that the Chloro- 
form vapour is mixed very freely with air. A few capsules 
of Amyl Nitrite, Solution of Strychnine, a pair of straight tongue 
forceps, and a tracheotomy case should be ready at hand. 

e. Position of the patient. — The administrator must accom- 
modate himself to the convenience of the operator, whose eye 
and hand must never be interfered with. If possible, the 
patient's head is so placed on the edge of a pillow that the 
saliva may flow from the mouth instead of into the stomach, 
and that the tongue may remain forward and not fall back 
and produce dyspnoea. The patient's chest and abdomen 
must not be compressed by clothes, instruments, bowls oc the 
arms of the assistants, nor confined by bandages. The most 
comfortable position for the patient is on the side, with one 
hand and fore-arm beneath the pillow ; and as a rule it is 
better to induce insensibility in this position, and afterwards 
arrange the patient for the surgeon, than to anaesthetise him 
in the constrained attitude often required in operations. 

/. Administration. — The confidence of the patient should 
first be gained by a few minutes' conversation, whilst he is 
reassured as to the result and instructed how to breathe. 
When inhalation has commenced, the administrator must not, 
even for a single instant, cease to watch the face, respiration, 
and pulse. The degree of insensibility necessary for different 
cases varies greatly, the least being required for uterine, the 
most for rectal operations. The loss of the corneal reflex and 
stertorous breathing are generally employed as tests of insen- 
sibility, but no single sign can be relied upon. The smallest 
possible quantity of the drug should always be given. 

g. Complications and unfavourable symptoms. — Vomiting is 
generally preceded by pallor of the face or a few deep inspira- 
tions. When it threatens, care must be taken, by affording a 
free vent, that nothing is drawn into the larynx ; the head 
should be thrown more over to the side, and the mouth 
opened by pressure on the symphysis, or by inserting a 
Mason's gag between the teeth. Should vomited matter be 
inhaled into the respiratory passages and asphyxia threaten, 
laryngotomy must be performed immediately. 

Lividity of the face and prolonged deep stertor should be 
checked by temporarily discontinuing the anaesthetic, pro- 
viding a free air-way, and permitting the patient to breathe 
more fresh air. The position of the head is to be changed 
until respiration is more easy, and the mouth may have to be 
opened to its fullest extent, which induces a deep inspiration, 
the following expiratory effort often clearing the larynx and 
fauces of tenacious mucus which has been obstructing the 

1 7 4 Chloroformvm. 

free entrance of air ; but, failing this, it may be necessary to 
swab out the mucus from the pharynx. 

Pallor of the face is to be met by lowering the head and 
shoulders and brisk friction of the gums with a rough towel ; 
if severe, by dropping the head over the end of the table. If 
this fail, the vapour of Amyl Nitrite should be given. 

Shallow breathing, especially if intermittent, should be 
watched anxiously : and if it increase, artificial respiration 
should be resorted to at once, on no account waiting for the 
respiration to cease. 

h. After-treatment. — Absolute quiet and keeping the eyes 
closed often prevent sickness after operation. If Ether have 
been administered, the whole surface of the body having been 
carefully covered to prevent chill, the room should be cleared 
of the vapour as quickly as possible. Food should not be given 
within three hours after the operation, and not even then unless 
the patient desire it ; and for the first twelve hours should be 
entirely cold, and consist chiefly of soups and jellies, milk 
being avoided. A teaspoonful of burned brandy will often 
relieve the after-sickness when all other measures have failed. 


Chloroform is excreted in part, as such, by the kidneys, 
lungs, mammary glands and skin ; part is lost in the system. 
No use is made of its remote effects, although small doses 
given by the mouth are said to increase all the secretions. 

Either. — Ether. "Sulphuric Ether." A volatile hquid, 
containing at least 92 per cent, by volume of Ethyl Oxide, 

/S'f??<r^(9.— Made by (1 and 2) distilling 50 fl.oz. of Ethylic 
Alcohol, added in a continuous stream, with 10 fl.oz. of 
Sulphuric Acid ; (3) agitating with Slaked Lime and Calcium 
Chloride in Water, and redistilling. (1) CaHgO + HjSO^ - 
C2H6SO4 (sulpho-vinic acid) + HjO. (2) CaHgSO^ + CgHgO 
= (C2H5)20 + H2SO4. The process of etherification is thus 
continuous, sulphuric acid being re-formed and acting on a 
fresh quantity of alcohol. Heavy Oil of Wine is also formed in 
the first part of the process, along with Ether and Water. 
This substance is either a mixture of Ethyl Sulphate 
(CaH^aSO^, Ethyl Sulphite (C2H3)2S03, and a polymeric form 
of Ethylene (C2H4) ; or a sulpho-vinate of a hydrocarbon 
radical. It smells somewhat like peppermint ; is not soluble 
in water, but readily in alcohol and ether. Process (3) 
removes alcohol, water and the oil of wine. 

Characters. — A colourless, very volatile liquid, with a 
peculiar strong odour and hot taste. It is entirely dissipated 
in vapour when exposed to the air, forming an explosive 
mixture ; boils below 105° F, ; and is very inflammable, 
burning with a white flame. Sp. gr. 0-735. Mlscible in all 
proportions with Alcohol 90 per cent., Chloroform, and fixed 
and volatile oils. Impiirities. — Excess of Ethylic Alcohol ; 
oil of wine, giving odour on evaporation. Free Acid. Ethyl 
peroxide (€2115)202, giving tests of H0O2. Dose, 10 to 30 min. 
repeated ; 40 to 60 min. for single dose (by inhalation, 4 to 
6 dr. to several fl.oz.). 


1. iEther Puiificatus. — Purified Ether. Ether from 
which most of the Ethylic Alcohol has been removed. 

Source, — Made by washing with Distilled Water, 
and subsequent distillation in the presence of Calcium 
Chloride and recently-prepared Lime to remove most 
of the Water. 

Characters. — Sp. gr. not exceeding 0-722 and not 
below 0-720. Impurities. — Alcohol, water, methylic 
ether, ethyl and hydrogen peroxides. 

2. Spiritus iEtheris. — Ether, 1 ; Alcohol 90 per 
cent., 2. Sp. gr. 0-806 to 0-811. Lose, 20 to 40 min. 
repeated ; 60 to 90 min. for a single dose. 

From Spiritus ^theris is prepared : 

Tinctura Lobelias .^therea. See Lobelia, 
page 330. 

3. Spiritus iEtheris Compositus, — Compound 
Spirit of Ether. Hoffmann's Anodyne. 

Source. — Made by (1) distilling 900 of Sulphuric 
Acid with 1,000 of Alcohol 90 per cent., after the liquids 
have been mixed for twenty-four hours. (2) Shaking 
the upper layer of the distillate with 37-5 of Distilled 
Water, and a sufficiency of Sodium Bicarbonate to 
neutralise any acid ; removing the supernatant liquor ; 
and pouring the resulting Oil of Wine into a mixture 
of 137-5 of Ether and 950 of Alcohol 90 per cent. 
Dose. — 20 to 40 min. repeated ; or 60 to 90 min. for a 
single dose. 

Characters. — A colourless, mobile liquid, with 
characteristic ethereal odour and taste. Sp. gr. 0-808 
to 0-812. 

176 ^THER, 

Ether is also used in making Collodium, Collo- 
dium Flexile, Tinctura Lobeliae ^therea ; and in 
many pharmaceutical processes. 


Externally. — When allowed to evaporate, Ether is a 
powerful refrigerant and local anaesthetic, ahstracting heat 
and depressing the nerves of the part. It is used in the form 
of Richardson's spray to relieve the intense local pain of 
neuralgia, and more frequently to prevent pain in minor sur- 
gical operations, the parts being completely frozen in the 
course of a few seconds by a spray of Purified Ether from a 
proper apparatus. If the vapour be confined, or the Ether 
rubbed into the skin, a rubefacient or vesicant effect is pro- 
duced, as with Chloroform. 

Internally. — Ether has a powerfully burning disagreeable 
taste, and causes local irritation and reflex salivation in the 
mouth like Cbloroform. Reaching the stomach, either in 
the pure form, or as the simple or Compound Spirit, it acts as 
a local stimulant to the blood-vessels, nerves and muscular 
coat, and is therefore used as a carminative, relieving pain 
and sickness and expelling flatulence, especially in nervous 
subjects. At the same time, it acts reflexly from the gastric 
mucosa upon the bowels, heart and respiratory organs, as a 
powerful systemic stimulant. It is a very useful ingredient 
of anti-spasmodic draughts, as will be presently described. 
Given with Cod-liver Oil, it renders it more palatable to some 
patients, and more digestible, possibly by emulsifying it and 
also by stimulating the 


Ether is absorbed into the blood with remarkable rapidity, 
and probably acts here like Chloroform. 

Tlie specific actions of Ether and its employment as an 
anaesthetic so closely agree with those of Chloroform, that the 
reader is referred to the description of them under the latter 
drug (page 168), Only the important differences between the 
two substances require to be mentioned here. These are : 

1. Ether must be administered nearly pure, say 70 per 
cent, of the vapour with 30 per cent, of air ; whilst but 
2 to 4 per cent, of Chloroform is given, with 98 or 9G per cent, 
of air. 

yETHER. 177 

2. With Ether the stage of stimulation is more protracted ; 
there is more struggling, unless it be preceded by Nitrous 
Oxide, and the stage of anaesthesia is shorter and the degree 
less profound. Ether is therefore said to be safer, but less 
convenient, than Chloroform. 

3. Ether depresses the heart and vessels less than Chloro- 
form, the heart continuing to beat after respiration has been 
arrested by an excessive dose. The respiratory centre is also 
less depressed. For these reasons, also, Ether is called a 
safer anaesthetic. Chloroform is ten times more poisonous. 

4. Ether has a much less pleasant odour than Chloroform. 

5. The after-effects of Ether, in the form of sickness and 
bronchial catarrh, are more common and more severe than 
those of Chloroform. 

In choosing between Ether and Chloroform, preference 
must be given to the safer anaesthetic, and at the present day 
Ether is very extensively used in England and America. 
In certain circumstances Chloroform is preferable, as in 
operations about the mouth. Ether causing a profuse secretion 
of ropy mucus ; in operations where a light or cautery might 
come in contact with the Ether vapour and cause an ex- 
plosion; in operations which must be hastily undertaken 
and completed ; and in parturition, where profound anfesthesia 
is unnecessary. Infants bear Chloroform better, and their 
delicate respiratory passages are less irritated by it than by 
the pungent vapour of Ether ; but it is not to be regarded as 
a specially safe anaesthetic for children. 

Given by the mouth in small doses, Ether increases the 
activity of the circulation and nervous system — in part, as we 
have seen, by reflex action from the gastric wall, in part 
specifically ; and is used as a powerful and rapidly diffusible 
stimulant and antispasmodic. As the Spirit, as Hoffman's 
Anodyne, or hypodermically, it is given in cardiac failure, 
angina pectoris, palpitation and depression, being even more 
rapid in its effects than Alcohol, but more evanescent and of 
course less available in emergencies. Its antispasmodic 
powers make it useful in hysterical and epileptic threatenings; 
and in spasmodic cough and asthma it is one of the most 
valuable remedies during the seizure. 


Ether is excreted like Chloroform, and to a certain extent 
increases all the secretions, but is not employed with this end 
in view. 

1 78 Nitrous Oxide Gas. 

IVitroiis Oxide Gas;— NjO. " Laughing Gas." (JSoi 
official.^ Although not a Carbon compound, Nitrous Oxide 
Gas will be discussed here, being closely allied therapeutically 
to Ether and Chloroform. 

Source.- -'M.diAe by heating Ammonium Nitrate to 350° 
or 450° F., and washing the gas. NH4NO3 = N3O + 2H2O. 

Characters. — A colourless inodorous gas. It is provided 
for use condensed into a liquid, in strong iron bottles, whence 
it is allowed to escape into a caoutchouc bag. 


Nitrous Oxide Gas, administered from an inhaler, air 
being rigidly excluded, rapidly enters the circulation ; is 
absorbed by the plasma; converts the arterial into venous 
blood in the course of about sixty seconds ; and thus pro- 
duces partial asphyxia. This partial asphyxia has nothing 
to do with the anassthetic properties of NgO, but is merely 
due to the method of administration. But Nitrous Oxide 
has also true anaesthetic properties, because when Oxygen is 
administered in conjunction with it, anaesthesia results, 
with total absence of all signs of asphyxia : the patient 
retains a natural colour; there is no stertor, cyanosis 
or muscular twitchings ; and he might be mistaken by an 
onlooker for a person in natural slumber. 


Nitrous Oxide Gas, when given pure, not only renders the 
blood venous, but simultaneously enters the nervous centres, 
upon wliich it acts, first as a stimulant, and speedily as an 
anaesthetic. Thus the gas produces a series of phenomena 
which can be resolved into the parallel effects of venosity of 
the blood or asphyxia, and a specific influence on the nerve 
cells of the convolutions. After a few seconds' excitement, 
the subject of anaesthesia by Nitrous Oxide begins to breathe 
laboriously ; the mind becomes rapidly obscured ; and, by the 
end of sixty seconds or more, consciousness is lost, the face 
becomes somewhat livid, respiration becomes stertorous, the 
pulse is feeble at the wrist, and muscular twitchings occur. 
If the inhalation be now interrupted, perfect recovery of 
consciousness and of natural breathing occurs in thirty to 
sixty seconds, with disappearance of all the urgent symptoms. 
It is clear that asphyxia is carried into the second stage, that 

Liquor Sodii Ethylatis. 179 

of respiratory excitement, but not beyond, neither the move- 
ments of the chest nor the action of the heart being arrested. 
But even if these untoward results should occur, resuscitation 
is easy by means of artificial respiration ; it is said even after 
five minutes in the case of rabbits. 

Nitrous Oxide Gas is used to produce anaesthesia during 
operations of one minute or less, especially by dental surgeons 
for the extraction of teeth, destruction of the nerve, etc. 
Operations requiring several minutes' anaesthesia can be per- 
formed by employing an intermittent administration of 
gas and air. The momenc for operating is best indicated by 
stertorous breathing and twitching of the muscles. Persons 
with diseased vessels, such as the subjects of chronic Bright's 
disease, ought not to take this anaesthetic, which produces 
(like all asphyxiating agents) a great and sudden rise of the 
arterial pressure, liable to cause rupture within the brain. 
Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen should be substituted in such 
cases. Nitrous Oxide administration is being rapidly super- 
seded by Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen (2 to 9 per cent.) ; the 
latter mixture of gases being infinitely preferable in the vast 
majority of cases, and enabling anaesthesia to be greatly 

Liiquor Sodii Ethylatis.— Solution of Sodium 

Source. — Made by dissolving 1 of Sodium in 20 of Absolute 

Characters. — A colourless syrupy liquid, becoming brown 
by keeping. Sp. gr. 0-867. Contains 18 per cent, of the solid 
substance CjHgONa. 


Solution of Sodium Ethylate is a powerful caustic, used to 
destroy small accessible tumours, such as naevi. 

Liquor Ethyl Nitritis,— Solution op Ethyl Ni- 
TRITE. A mixture of 95 parts by volume of Absolute Alcohol 
with 5 parts by volume of Gljcerin, containing when freshly 
made 3 per cent, by weight, and even when long kept not less 
than 2\ per cent, by weight of Ethyl Nitrite. 

Sov/ree. — Ethyl Nitrite is obtained by the interaction of 

i8o Spiritvs .Ether is Nitrosi. 

Alcohol 90 per cent., Sodium Nitrite, and Diluted Sulphuric 
Acid, at a low temperature. 

Characters. — A limpid, colourless liquid, of characteristic 
apple-like odour and taste. Highly inflammable. Sp. gr. 
0823 to 0826. When it is poured on an acidified strong 
solution of ferrous sulphate contained in a test-tube, a deep 
olive-brown coloration is produced at the surface of contact 
of the two liquids, widening as the tube is gently shaken. 
Impurities. — Acid ; aldehyde ; deficiency in ethyl nitrite. 

Dose, 20 to 60 min. (mixed with water immediately before 


Ethyl Nitrite possesses actions similar to those of Amyl 
Nitrite, dilating the arterioles and increasing the frequency 
and force of cardiac systole ; hut its effects are less rapid 
and more persistent. The Liquor has been introduced as a 
more trustworthy preparation of Ethyl Nitrite than Spiritus 
JEtheris Nitrosi, and is given in the same class of cases as the 
other Nitrites (jsee page 188). 

Spiritus iEthcris Nitrosi,— Spirit op Nitrous 
Ether. Sweet Spirit of Nitre. An alcoholic solution, con- 
taining Ethyl Nitrite, Aldehyde, and other substances. 

Source. — Made by distilling a mixture of 1000 of Alcohol 
90 per cent., 125 of Nitric Acid, 100 of Sulphuric Acid, and 
100 of Copper ; dissolving the distillate in 1000 of the Alcoliol, 
and repeating the process of distillation with 25 of Nitric 
Acid, and the addition of 1000 of the Alcohol. Production ol 
Ethyl mtrite and Aldcliyde : 3C2H5OH -f 2HNO3 -f H2SO^ + 
Cu=2C2H5N02 (Ethyl Nitrite) ■\- CjH^O (Aldehyde) -f 4HjO 
-f CUSO4. For the method of preparing Acetic Ether see 
page 1(S3. 

Characters. — A limpid liquid, with a very faint yellowish 
tinge ; mobile ; of a peculiar penetrating apple-like odour, 
and a characteristic sweetish, cooling, sharp taste. Slightly 
acid. Inflammable. Sp. gr. 0-838 to 0842. Incompatihles. — 
Potassium iodide, ferrous sulphate, tincture of guaiacum, 
gallic and tannic acids. Emulsions are curdled by its 
addition. Impurities. — Excess of aldehyde ; excess of acid ; 
deficiency in ethyl nitrite. Dose, 20 to 40 min. repeated ; 
60 to 90 min. in one dose. 



In the stomach Spirit of Nitrous Ether is a diffusible 
stimulant and carminative, doubtless from the amount of 
alcohol which it contains (see page 161). 


The Nitrite of Ethyl appears to produce the same effect on 
the red corpuscles as other Nitrites, especially diminishing 
oxygenation. See Amyl Nitris, page 188. 


Although a mild anaesthetic. Sweet Spirit of Nitre 
chiefly acts upon the circulation, like Amyl Nitrite. It relaxes 
the peripheral vessels and accelerates the heart; but much 
less quickly, less completely, and more persistently than the 
Amyl compound. Thus it lowers arterial tension, and causes 
the phenomena described at page 189, only in a much less 
degree. By relaxing the renal vessels it is diuretic, the water 
being increased ; by dilating the cutaneous vessels, as well as 
by stimulating perspiration, it increases the loss of heat from 
the skin. Nitrous Ether is chiefly used as an antipyretic in 
febrile affections, where it diminishes the heat production by 
acting on the blood, and increases the loss of heat through 
the skin and kidneys. As a diuretic it is useful when a 
free watery flow is desired, to wash out the tubules and 
passages and relax spasm in the renal vessels, as in some 
cases of Bright's disease with increased arterial tension. 
Probably for the same reason it fails as a diuretic in cardiac 
dropsy, where the veins demand relief, and the arterial 
pressure is already too low. Being a dilator of the renal 
vessels, it must not be used in acute inflammatory states of 
the kidneys. Spirit of Nitrous Ether may also relieve angina 
pectoris, and cardiac pain dependent on a failing and dilating 
heart in chronic Bright's disease. Like other Nitrites, it may 
benefit dysmenorrhoea and asthma. 

Aldehyde, one of the constituents of Spiritus ^Etheris 
Nitrosi, and a colourless mobile liquid with an acrid suffo- 
cating odour, has a powerfully stimulant action on the 
cerebrum, followed by anaesthesia with respiratory de- 


Sweet Spirit of Nitre or its constituents are chiefly ex- 
creted by the kidneys and lungs. Its diuretic inMuence has 
just been described. 

1 82 Ur ETHAN. 

Faraldehydum.— Pahaldehtde. CgHuOs. 

Source. — A product of the polymerisation of aldehyde by 
various acids and salts. 

Characters. — A clear, colourless liquid ; odour character- 
istic, ethereal ; taste acrid, afterwards cool. Congeals below 
50° F. ; sp. gr. -998. Soluhility.—\ in 10 of water at 60" F., 
less in hot water ; the solution is neutral. Miscible in all pro- 
portions with alcohol 90 per cent, and ether. Dose, 30 to 
120 min. (in Almond Mixture or with Tincture of Quillaia). 


Paraldehyde possesses important physiological actions on 
the cerebrum and respiratory organs. It rapidly enters the 
system, and acts as a pure hypnotic. This effect is fairly 
certain, and the sleep produced is quiet and refreshing, 
whilst it is accompanied by little or no depression of tlie 
heart. Paraldehyde is used to procure sleep, particularly in 
the insane, or where other hypnotics might be unsafe, as in 
cardiac and respiratory diseases. Its excretion by the lungs 
makes it a valuable drug in bronchial asthma. Unfor- 
tunately, it has a very unpleasant taste, and imparts a 
disagreeable ethylic odour to the breath. It may be given 
per rectum. 

lJvetUnn.—(Not o/Heial.) Ethyl Carbamate. COCNHj) 
(OC2H5). — White inodorous ciyttals, with a pleasant taste 
like nitre ; readily soluble in water. Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; 
120 gr. or more have been given with t^afety. 


Urethan is a h3rpnotic, and is said to be a respiratory 
stimulant, less depressing to the circulation than Chloral 
Hydrate, and more pleasant and active than Paraldehyde. It 
is excreted in the urine as urea. It is, however, an uncertain 

ilGtlicrAcetieus.— Acetic Ether. An etherealliquid 
consisting of Ethyl Acetate, CHj-COO (C3H5), with unim- 
portant aiflounts of Ethylic Alcohol and other substances. 

Source. — Made by (I) distilling Ethylic Alcohol with dried 

Chloral Hydras. 183 

Sodium Acetate and Sulphuric Acid ; (2) digesting the dis- 
tillate with dried Potassium Carbonate ; and (3) separating, 
by distillation, the portion that boils between 1G5° and 172^F. 
CJIs.HO + NaCaHaOa + H2S04=:CH3COO (CgHg) + NaHSO^ 

Characters. — A colourless liquid, with an agreeable 
ethereal, somewhat acetous odour, and refreshing taste. 
Sp. gr. 0-900 to 0-905. Neutral. Soluble freely in Alcohol 
90 per cent,, ether, or chloroform, and in about 10 parts of 
cold water. Dose, 20 to 40 min. repeated ; 60 to 90 min. for 
a single dose. 

Acetic Ether is used in vialcing Liquor Epispasticus (p. 440). 


Acetic Ether is a stimulant and antispasmodic, much like 
Ether itself, but forms more agreeable combinations with 
other carminatives on account of its pleasant odour and 

Chloral Hydras.— Chloral Hydrate. Trichlor- 
ethylidene Glycol. CCI3CH (0H)2. 

Source. — Made from Chloral by the addition of Water. 
Chloral, an oily liquid, is itself made by saturating Ethylic 
Alcohol with dry Chlorine gas, and purifying. 

Characters. — Colourless monoclinic plates, non-deliques- 
cent, with a peculiar pungent but not acrid odour, and a 
pungent and rather bitter taste. Readily fused by gentle 
heat, recrystallising on cooling at about 120° F. Solubility. — 1 
in less than 1 of distilled -water, alcohol 90 per cent., or ether ; 
1 in 4 of chloroform. The aqueous solution is neutral or 
slightly acid. Forms a fluid when rubbed with an equal 
weight of camphor. lucovipatibles. — All alkalis, which de- 
compose it, liberating chloroform («de p. 184). Ivijmrities.— 
Free chlorides ; chloral alcoholate ; other organic substances. 
Dose, 5 to 20 gr. (in solution). 


Syrupus Chloral.— Syrup of Chloral. 10 gr. of 
Chloral Hydrate in 1 fl.dr of a mixture of Water and 
Syrup. Dose, ^ to 2 fl.dr. 

1 84 Chloral Hydras. 

actions and uses. 


Externally. — Applied in weak solution (5 gr. to 1 fl. ounce 
of water), Chloral Hydrate is antiseptic. Concentrated solu- 
tions are irritant, causing vesication and possibly trouble- 
some sores. In this form it is but little used externally. The 
compound with Camphor is a valuable anodjme. 

Intem/illy . — The Chloral and Camphor compound quickly 
relieves some kinds of toothache. In the stomach Chloral 
Hydrate is irritant unless freely diluted. It has no specially 
sedative effect on the stomach or bowels like Opium. 


Chloral Hydrate enters the blood as such ; and it probably 
leaves it for the tissues without decomposition, although 
Liebreich, who introduced it into the materia medica, con- 
tended that it is broken up into chloroform and formic acid 
in the presence of the sodium salts of the plasma : CCl^'CH 
(0H)2 + NaH0 = CHCl3 -f NaCHOj + HjO. The blood 
undergoes no appreciable change. 


The actions of Chloral Hydrate upon the system so nearly 
resemble those of Chloroform, and the chemical relations of 
the two substances are so close, that Liebreich's theory is at 
first sight extremely plausible. Chloral Hydrate chiefly 
affects the nervous system, although one of the principal 
dangers connected with its use depends on its direct action 
on the heart. Given in moderate doses (20 gr.), Chloral 
Hydrate, after a very brief period of excitement, quickly 
induces drowsiness, which is followed by several hours' sound 
sleep, natural in its character and refreshing in its effect ; as 
a rule, without consequent confusion, headache, or drowsiness 
in healthy individuals. Larger doses produce deeper and 
more prolonged sleep, and an appearance of narcosis, the 
subject being difficult to rouse even by sharp stimulation. 
It has been suggested that Chloral Hydrate (like other related 
bodies) acts as a pure and powerful hypnotic by forming 
loose compounds with the fatty constituents of the brain 
cells and thus temporarily paralysing them. >In larger doses 
it affects the lower nervous centres. The motor centres 
are depressed, whence arise diminished reflex excitability and 
relaxation of the muscles. The three great medullary centres 

Chloral Hydras. 185 

are decidedly depressed : respiration becomes slow, irregular, 
and shallow : the heart is weakened (but chiefly in another 
manner, as we shall presently find) ; and the vaso-motor 
centre is lowered in activity, so that the vessels dilate 
generally. The peripheral sensory nerves are not specially 
affected. Neither are the motor nerves, nor the muscles, 
directly depressed. 

Upon these several effects of Chloral Hydrate depend at 
once its value medicinally, and the drawbacks or even dangers 
which occasionally attend its employment. It is the most 
rapid, and probably the most powerful, whilst the most pure, 
of all the hypnotics. Opium not excepted. It is therefore 
extensively used to produce sleep and soothe the cerebral 
hemispheres in conditions of excitement ; in insomnia from 
over-work, distress, maniacal excitement or despondency ; 
and in the early stages of fevers or febrile diseases, whilst 
the heart is still strong. It is especially valuable in delirium 
tremens. In the sleeplessness which attends or is caused by 
peripheral pain, Chloral Hydrate fails, for an obvious reason ; 
or if sleep be secured by a powerful dose, the patient wakes 
to suffering as before. It is totally unfitted to relieve the 
severe pain of neuralgia. 

Chloral Hydrate has also been given in the delirium of the 
more advanced stages of fevers ; to relieve the distress, 
dyspnoea and insomnia of cardiac and renal disease ; and in 
the cough, spasm and breathlessness attending phthisis, 
bronchitis, and other respiratory affections. The dangers of 
the drug in these conditions have been shown by the fatal 
results which occasionally have followed its employment; 
and the cause of them is obvious. Besides its depressing effect 
on the medulla. Chloral Hydrate in full doses acts as an 
intrinsic cardiac poison, slowing and enfeebling the heart by 
diminishing the irritability of its ganglia, and finally arresting 
it in ventricular diastole. At the same time the blood 
pressure falls by peripheral paralysis of the vessel walls, as 
well as from the interference with the vaso-motor centre, the 
heart and the respiration already described ; so that alto- 
gether the circulation tends to become arrested. Thus the 
relief to be obtained from Chloral Hydrate in the delirium of 
fever where the heart is threatening to fail, and in structural 
disease of the heart, lungs or kidneys, is but temporary and 
purchased at serious cost ; for these purposes the drug cannot 
be recommended, unless it be given in very moderate doses 
and guarded by a stimulant like Digitalis. 

The action of Chloral Hydrate in reducing the excitability 
of the grey matter of the cord and higher motor ganglia, has 

1 86 Chloral Hydras. 

suggested its use in tetanus, strychnine poisoning, puerperal 
convulsions, hydrophobia, sea-sickness and whooping cough. 
It has also been given as a hypnotic in some cases of chorea. 
The exact effect of Chloral Hydrate on metabolism is un- 
known. It reduces temperature, chiefly by increased loss of 
heat from the dilated peripheral vessels, but also by diminish- 
ing production in the weakened muscles, etc. It may there- 
fore be given with advantage as an antipyretic hypnotic at 
the commencement of fevers in strong subjects, its depressant 
action on the heart being carefully watched. It has been highly 
recommended in cholera. 


Chloral Hydrate is excreted by the kidneys partly un- 
changed, but chiefly as urochloralic acid, producing slight 
diuresis and spurious glycosuria. Probably part escapes by the 
skin also, as a variety of eruptions may attend its prolonged use. 


It will be well to state here succinctly the advantages and 
disadvantages of Chloral Hydrate as compared with Morphine 
(Opium). Chloral Hydrate has the following adranta^es : It 
acts quickly as a hypnotic, even more quickly than Morphine 
subcutaneously ; and more certainly, even when Morphine has 
failed. After-effects, such as headache, depression and sick- 
ness, are less common from Chloral Hydrate. It does not 
derange the stomach, if freely diluted ; nor cause constipa- 
tion, even when given for a long time. It is more safely given, 
in proper doses, to children. 

On the other hand. Chloral Hydrate has these disadvan- 
tages : It does not relieve pain, and is thus greatly inferior to 
Opium in most cases as a hypnotic, and useless as an anodyne. 
It does not, like Opium, satisfactorily prevent or relieve dis- 
tress, reflex dyspnoea, and cough due to cardiac and pulmonary 
disease. It causes excitement instead of quiet in many cases 
of mania, hysteria and confirmed alcoholism. 

Chloral Hydrate must be given in relatively small dos^s to 
children and delicate persons ; and very rarely, as we have 
seen, to the subjects of structural disease of the heart, lungs 
and kidneys, or patients suffering from gout. If it excite in- 
stead of soothing the insane or the confirmed drunkard, it 
should not be persevered with ; nor if it increase instead of 
relieving sleeplessness in certain individuals, as it does occa- 
sionally, apparently from idiosyncrasy. Lastly, Chloral 

Butyl-Chloral Hydras. 187 

Hydrate must be prescribed with great hesitation to persons 
who suffer from constitutional debility of the nervous system, 
expressing itself in despondency, excitability, hysteria and 
innumerable other forms. Such subjects very readily acquire 
the " Chloral habit " ; that is, they consume on their own 
account regular and ever-increasing quantities of the drug, 
until the nervous system and general nutrition fail, the mind 
is demoralised, and the victims ultimately perish like the 
drunkard and opium-eater. 

Butyl-Cliloral Hydras. — Butyl-Chloral Ht- 
DRATE. Trichlorbutylidene Glycol. CH3'CHCl-CCl2-CH(OH)2. 
" Croton-Chloral Hydrate." 

Srturce. — Made from liquid Butyl-Chloral by the addition 
of Water. Butyl-Chloral is itself made by passing dry 
chlorine gas through aldehyde ; and separating by fractional 

Characters. — Pearly-white trimetric laminae, with a pun- 
gent but not acrid odour, somewhat like that of Chloral 
Hydrate, and an acrid nauseous taste. Solubility. — 1 in 50 of 
water; 1 in 1 of glycerin, or of alcohol 90 per cent.; slowly 
dissolves in 20 parts of Chloroform. The aqueous solution is 
neutral or but slightly acid. Incompatihles. — As of Chloral 
Hydrate. Impurity. — Chloral Hydrate. Lose, 5 to 20 gr. 


In every important respect the actions of Butyl-Chloral 
Hydrate are nearly allied to those of Chloral Hydrate, and it 
will therefore suffice to indicate the points wherein the two 
drugs differ. 

Butyl- Chloral Hydrate as a hypnotic is less rapid, less 
certain and less powerful than the other, which is generally to 
be preferred for this purpose. It is believed that the com- 
pound is less depressant to the heart, and therefore that it 
may be given in insomnia with cardiac weakness where 
Chloral Hydrate would be inadmissible. We must accept this 
recommendation with great caution. It has been credited 
with a specific anaesthetic action on the fifth cranial nerve 
supplying the face and part of the scalp, but this assumption 
has been shown to be incorrect. The drug relieves some cases 
of tic-douloureux and facial neuralgia very quickly ; in some 
cases it fails. It has been given in other forms of pain in the 

1 88 Amyl Nitris. 

face, such as toothache Gocally) ; in neuralgia of the limbs ; 
and in dysmenorrhoea. 

Amyl Nitris.— Amyl Nitrite. A liquid consisting 
chiefly of Iso-amyl-nitrite, C5HJ1NO2, but containing also 
other nitrites of the homologous series. 

Source. — Produced by the interaction of nitrous acid and 
amylic alcohol which has been distilled between 262° and 
270° F. 

Characters. — An ethereal liquid, of a yellowish colour, 
fragrant odour, and the faintest acid reaction. Sp. gr. -878 to 
•880. Volatilises between 194° and 212° F. SoluUlitj/.—'ReKAWy 
in alcohol 90 per cent. ; almost insoluble in water. Impurities. 
— Amyl-nitrate, amyl-alcohol, excess of aldehydes and water. 

Dose. — The vapour of 2 to 5 min. (as inhalation from a 
crushed capsule ; or ^ to 1 min. internally, dissolved in 
rectified spirit, 1 to 12). 


Applied directly to peripheral nerves, Amyl Nitrite de- 
presses or paralyses them. It is never so employed in man. 
Internalhj, the drug is seldom given by the mouth, except 
in cholera. 


Amyl Nitrite is usually administered by inhalation, a few 
minims being kept ready for use in a glass capsule (enveloped 
in cotton wool), which may be broken between the fingers and 
thumb when required. The vapour instantly enters the cir- 
culation through the lungs, converts a certain amount of 
hasmoglobin into methasmoglobin, and thus interferes with 
the oxygenating functions of the red corpuscles ; the volume 
of oxygen absorbed (in animals) being quickly lowered, as 
well as the excretion of carbonic acid. The blood of animals 
killed by Amyl Nitrite is of a chocolate colour ; but the effect 
of an ordinary inhalation in man is very transitory. 


Amyl Nitrite almost instantaneously reaches the tissues 
(where the nitrous acid is possibly liberated), and produces 
striking phenomena. Two to five minims, inhaled as directed, 
ImmedLiLely produce a sense of fulness and throbbing in the 

Jmvl Njtris. 189 

head ; visible pulsation of the carotids ; flushing of the face, 
neck and trunk ; increased frequency and force (that is, pal- 
pitation) of the heart ; tingling over the surface generally ; 
dilatation of the pupils, and disturbances of vision ; giddiness 
and unsteady gait ; restlessness and anxiety of mind. These 
symptoms quickly disappear, possibly leaving slight head- 
ache. Larger doses aggravate all the phenomena, but never 
produce unconsciousness ; the result being mental confusion, 
intense bodily depression, coldness of the extremities and 
sweats, followed by severe headache, which may last for 
hours. Very rarely convulsions occur in man as in some of 
the lower animals. 

The specific action of Amyl Nitrite proves, on analysis, to 
be almost confined to the circulatory system, the other parts 
being chiefly involved secondarily. Two distinct effects are 
produced on the circulation. The peripheral vessels are 
dilated, by relaxation of their muscular coat ; the heart is 
greatly accelerated, with but little, if any, increase of its 
force. Some authorities hold that the cardiac acceleration is 
due to depression of the inhibitory centre in the medulla 
oblongata; others consider that it should be ascribed 
to a direct action on the heart. The vascular relaxa- 
tion is caused by the direct action of the nitrites in 
producing relaxation of the unstviped muscles of the arteries 
and veins. As a result, the blood pressure falls to a 
remarkable degree, that is, the resistance to the discharge of 
the left ventricle is correspondingly diminished ; whilst this 
discharge is accomplished much more frequently within a given 
time. In other words, the left ventricle, under the influence 
of Amyl Nitrite, has less work to accomplish, and liberates 
more force wherewith to accomplish it ; that is, is greatly 
relieved. These considerations led Lauder Brunton to 
employ the drug in those cases of the complex class of disease 
known as angina pectoris in which agonising pain in the 
breast and neighbourhood is due to distension of the left 
ventricle, from its inability to empty itself against the 
pressure in the aorta, and in which fatal paralysis of the 
heart or rupture of its walls is the result of the unequal 
effort. Clinical experience has fully confirmed the value of 
Amyl Nitrite, in cases where spasm of the arteries is damming 
the blood back upon the ventricle, for the channels are in- 
stantly opened and the ventricle rapidly emptied by the 
double effect of the drug. The pain of aneurysm of the aorta 
and various forms of cardiac disease and disorder, especially 
those dependent on high arterial pressure, as in Bright's 
disease, can often be relieved by Amyl Nitrite, but caution 


must be exercised in the first trial. Threatening death from 
cardiac paralysis in chloroform anassthesia, and sea-sicknesa 
in which the blood pressure is greatly disturbed, are some- 
times successfully treated with Amyl Nitrite. Some cases of 
epilepsy, accompanied by spasm of the cerebral vessels and 
facial pallor, and cases of megrim or sick headache due to 
similar spasm in the trigeminal area, are also benefited by 
this drug. 

The reflex irritability of the cord is reduced (in animals) 
by Amy] Nitrite, which has therefore been proposed as a 
remedy in poisoning by stiychnine. Kespiration is usually 
accelerated and deepened owing to the fall of pressure 
lessening the blood supply of the centre. The muscles of 
the bronchioles are relaxed ; hence the nitrites sometimes 
afford immediate relief in asthma, but the dyspncea may as 
quickly return. The body temperature falls, from obvious 


Amyl Nitrite probably escapes from the body by the urine, 
which is increased in amount and in acidity and may con- 
tain sugar. These effects are probably due to local disturb- 
ances of the circulation in the kidneys and liver respec- 
tively. Amyl Nitrite has been strongly recommended within 
recent years for the arrest of internal haemorrhages such as 
haemoptysis and uterine haemorrhages. 

!VJtrog:lyccriiiiiiii.— (iVb^ official in the uncomhined 
form.) Trinitboglycerin. Trinitrin. "Glonoin." 

Sotirce. — Made by dropping Glycerin into a mixture oi 
Sulphuric and Nitric Acids, kept cool by ice ; separating by 
pouring the product into water ; washing ; and evaporating. 

Characters. — A colourless oily liquid, odourless, with a 
sweet pungent taste. Sp. gr. 1-60. Slightly soluble in water ; 
freely in fats, oil, alcohol, and ether. Highly explosive. A 
Trinitrate of Glyceryl. Never used undiluted. 

1. Liquor Trinitrini. — Solution of Trinitrin. 
Solution of Nitroglycerin. Trinitroglycerin of com- 
merce, 1, by weight ; alcohol 90 per cent., 100. 1 gr. in 
110 minims. A clear colourless liquid ; neutral. Sp. ct 
0-840. Dose, J to 2 min. 

Erythrol Tetranitrate 191 

2. Tabellse Trinitrini. — Trinitrin Tablets. Tablets 
of Nitroglycerin. Tablets of Chocolate, each weigh- 
ing 5 grains, and containing -^\^ grain of the Tri- 
nitroglycerin of commerce. Dose, 1 or 2 tablets. 


This substance closely resembles in its action Amyl 
Nitrite (p. 188) ; but it is more powerful, and its effects are more 
persistent if less rapidly produced. Its activity seems due to 
nitrous acid formed by its decomposition in the body, two- 
thirds of Nitroglycerin being reduced by an alkali, yielding a 
nitrite. It is used for the same class of cases as Amyl Nitrite 
— angina pectoris, chronic cardiac disease, sea-sickness, and 
asthma and other spasmodic disorders, some patients being 
more benefited by the one drug, some by the other, and the 
slower and more persistent action of Trinitrin being properly 

Erytlu'Ol Tetiaiiitrate.— (iVb^ official.^ 

Smirce. — Formed by dissolving Erythrol in fuming nitric 

acid, and precipitating with sulphuric acid. 

Characters. — Colourless crystals, nearly insoluble in water ; 

explosive. Dose^ ^ to 2 gr. in tablets, with chocolate. 


Erythrol Tetranitrate acts like the nitrites, but its 
effects, whilst less powerful, are much more prolonged. It 
is used to relieve high arterial tension or vasomotor con- 
striction, as in nephritis and Kaynaud's disease. 

TovnxnMu,— {Not official). Formaldehyde. H.COH. 
A colourless, pungent, neutral or faintly alkaline, 35 to 40 
per cent, aqueous solution of Formic Aldehyde. 


Formalin, being freely miscible with water, is a powerful 
antiseptic, general disinfectant and deodorant. Variously 
diluted, it has been used locally in infective diseases, and as 
a spray and intravenous injection in tuberculosis. Formalin 
possesses remarkable hardening properties, and is much em- 
ployed as a preservative of museum specimens, the appearance 
of the preparations being unaltered in colour and shape. 

192 AciDUM Hydrocyanicvm Dilutum. 

Acidum Hydrocyaniciiin Dilutum.— Diluted 

Kydrocyanic Acid. " Diluted Prussic Acid." An aqueous 
solution containing 2 per cent, by weight of Hydrogen 
Cyanide, HCN. 

Source. — Prepared bv the interaction of Potassium Ferro- 
cyanide and diluted Sulphuric Acid. 2K4Fe(CN)g + 3H2S04 = 
6HCN + Fe2K2(CN)6 + 3K2SO4. 

Characters. — A colourless liquid, with a peculiar penetrat- 
ing odour. Sp. gr. 0997. Faintly acid. Treated in succes- 
sion with liquor potass^ and solutions of ferrous and of ferric 
sulphates, heated, and acidulated with HCl, it gives a green- 
coloured fluid, depositing Prussian blue. Treated with NH^HS, 
and ferric chloride added after evaporation to dryness, it 
gives a deep blood-red colour. Incompatihles. — Salts of silver, 
copper, iron ; red mercuric oxide and sulphides. Dose, 2 to 6 min 


Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinse Composita.— 

\ min. in 10 min. (1 in 20). See Chloroformnm. 
Hydrocyanic Acid is also contairwd in Aqua Laurocerasi 
(•1 per cent.). See also Amygdala Aviara^ page 285. 


Externally. — Applied for a time to the skin, Diluted Hydro- 
cyanic Acid causes numbness, directly depressing the sensory 
nerves. It is used, largely diluted, to relieve itching, but 
must not be employed where the surface is raw from scratch- 
ing, as it is readily absorbed from wounds. 

Internally, it produces a peculiar sensation on the mouth 
and throat, and acts as a sedative to the nerves of the 
stomach. It is in common use to relieve gastric pain and 
arrest vomiting in painful dyspepsia, ulcer, and reflex or 
other nervous disorders of the stomach, e.g. in phthisis and 
pregnancy. The specific actions of the drugs on the medulla 
oblongata, to be presently described, doubtless assist its 
local effect upon the gastric nerves in producing these results. 


Hydrocyanic Acid enters the blood very rapidly from all 
parts, especially the lungs ; and in poisonous doses produces 
an important cliange on the red corpuscles. It converts the 
blood of the veins first into a bright arterial colour, and then 

AciDUM Hydrocyanicum Dilutum. 193 

into a deep black, the former change due to arrest of the oxygen- 
absorbing function of the tissues, the latter from asphyxia. 
These effects of Hydrocyanic Acid on drawn blood must not 
be too readily supposed to occur in the circulating fluid within 
the body, where its actions in medicinal doses are chiefly 
local and specific. 


Hydrocyanic Acid rapidly enters the tissues, and acts 
chiefly upon the nervous structures. Considerable doses cause 
giddiness, faintness, nausea, a constricted feeling in the chest, 
headache, mental confusion, disturbed breathing, slowing of 
the pulse and muscular debility. Larger doses aggravate 
these symptoms, and produce great dyspnoea and other signs 
of asphyxia ; whilst in still larger quantity it is familiar as one 
of the swiftest and deadliest of poisons. Analysis proves that 
this drug, whilst depressing all nervous tissues, acts first and 
chiefly upon the respiratory centre, which is briefly excited 
and then depressed, leading to weak respirations with long 
pauses, dyspnoea, convulsions, and finally death by asphyxia. 
Simultaneously, the afferent branches of the respiratory 
nerves are depressed, especially if the acid be inhaled ; and 
reflex respiratory acts are arrested. The vaso-viotor centre is 
temporarily stimulated, and the blood pressure rises, but it 
falls again suddenly and greatly. The cardiac inhibitory 
centre is the most resistant of the three ; it is first stimulated, 
so that the action of the heart becomes less frequent and 
less powerful. Later the centre is depressed, but the cardiac 
muscle is now depressed also, and the heart continues slow an;l 
weak, although it still beats after the respiration and other 
functions have ceased. The convolutions are depressed, caus- 
ing stupor which ends in unconsciousness ; but this effect may 
be secondary to the disturbance of respiration. The cord is 
also lowered in activity. The peripheral sensory nerves are 
but little affected by the internal use of the drug, compared 
with its effect upon them locally. The motor nerves and muscles 
are depressed by repeated small doses of Diluted Hydrocyanic 
Acid, the influence extending downwards. 

The chief specific use of this drug is to allay dry, useless 
cough, by its action on the respiratory centre and the afferent 
nerves in phthisis, pertussis and asthma. In phthisis it also 
checks the tendency to cough and vomit induced by food. As 
a cardiac sedative it is employed in the palpitation, pain and 
distress brought on by dyspepsia, where again it fulfils a 
double indication. Its general sedative effect on the nervous 

194 Chlora la mide. 

system has suggested its use in epilepsy, chorea and tetanus, 
but with very doubtful benefit. 


The mode of excretion of Hydrocyanic Acid is stiU 
obscure. Probably it escapes in part, as it enters in part, by 
the lungs ; and some of it is excilited in the urine as sulpho- 

Cliloralamide.— (iVb^ official.) Chloral Formamide. 
A compound of Chloral Anhydride and Formamide. 

Characters. — Colourless, shining crystals ; inodorous ; taste 
faintly bitter. Solubility. — 1 in 20 of water ; 1 in 2 of 
alcohol. Aqueous solutions are decomposed at 120° F., and 
by alkalis. Dose, 15 to 45 gr. 


Chloralamide is a hypnotic — convenient, fairly certain and 
safe. It is therefore peculiarly valuable in the insomnia of 
cardiac disease and of certain nervous affections. It has also 
acted well in some cases of mania. Like most remedies for 
sleeplessness, its effects are very variable, even in the sam<.' 
patient. It appears not to lead to " habit." Chloralamide is 
not an anodyne. It may be given as a powder in broth or 
milk, in alcoholic solution, or in an enema. 

Acidum Carbolicum. — Phenol. OeHjOH. 

" Carbolic Acid." 

Source. — Obtained from coal-tar oil by fractional distil- 

Cha/racters. — Acicular crystals, colourless (or ^ith a 
pinkish tinge if exposed to moist air) ; hygroscopic ; with a 
peculiar odour, and sweetish pungent taste. Becomes and 
remains fluid on addition of 10 per cent, of water ; melts at 
not lower than 102° F. to a liquid of sp. gr. 1-060 to 1-066. 
Soluhility. — 1 in 12 parts of water; freely in glycerin, chloro- 
form, carbon bisulphide, benzol, ether, and alcohol 90 per 
cent. ; in fixed and volatile oils, and in solutions of alkalis. 
Does not immediately redden blue litmus paper. Coagulates 
albumen and collodion, and liquefies cjimphor. Neutral 
solution of ferric chloride strikes a deep purple colour, and 

AciDUM Carbolicum. 195 

■bromine water gives a white precipitate, with a cold aqueous 
solution. Solutions of Ammonia and Chlorinated Soda pro- 
duce a deep purple coloration. Imp^irity. — Aurin (Cj9Hj403), 
or rosolic acid (CaoH^fiOs), which gives the purplish-red colour 
to Carbolic Acid when exposed, by absorption of carbonic 
acid and oxygen ; cresol, giving turbidity with water. Dose, 
1 to 3 gf. in hot tea, 


1. Acidum Carbolicum Liquefactum. — Liquefied 
Phenol. " Liquefied Carbolic Acid." 

6'(mrc<3.— Prepared by adding 10 (by weight) of 
water to 100 (by weight) of Phenol. 

Characters. — A liquid, colourless at first, changing 
to pinkish ; having the taste and odour of Phenol. 
Sp. gr. 1-064 to 1-069 at 60° F. Dissolves 18 to 27 per 
cent, of water at 60° F., yielding a clear solution. 
Dose, 1 to 3 min. 

2. Glycerinum Acidi Carbolici. — Glycerin of 
Phenol. 1 to 5 of Glycerin, by solution. 

3. Suppositoria Acidi Carbolici. — Phenol Sup- 
positories. 1 gr. in each, with White Beeswax and Oil 
of Theobroma. 

4. Trochiscus Acidi Carbolici. — Phenol Lozenge. 
1 grain, with the Tolu Basis. 

5. Unguentum Acidi Carbolici. — Phenol Ointment. 
1 in 25, with Glycerin and Paraffin Ointment, White. 

From Acidum Carbolicum are made : 

6. Sodii Sulphocarbolas. — Sodium Sulphocar- 
bolate. Sodium Phenol-para-sulphonate. CgH40H-S03 

Source. — Obtained by dissolving Phenol in excess 
of Sulphuric Acid, and converting the phenolsulpbonic 
acid so formed into a sodium salt. 

Characters. — Colourless transparent rhombic 
prisms, nearly inodorous, with a saline and somewhat 
bitter taste. Solubility. — 1 in 6 of water ; 1 in 150 of 
alcohol 90 per cent. ; the solutions are neutral. Ignition 
sets free phenol. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 

7. Zinci Sulphocarbolas. — Zinc Sulphocarbolate 
Zinc Phenol-para-sulphonate. Zn(OHC6H4-S03)2,H20. 

Source. — Obtained by heating a mixture of Phenol 
and Sulphuric Acid, and saturating the product with 
Zinc Oxide. 

196 AciDUM Carboltcum. 

Characters. — Colourless transparent, tabular, 
efflorescent crystals. Solubility. — 1 in 2-5 of alcohol 
90 per cent, ; 1 in 2 of water. Impurities.— Othev metals ; 
acetates, chlorides and sulphates. 


Externally. — The principal actions and uses of Phenol in 
disease depend upon its influence on fermentation and 
decomposition, which are intimately associated with many 
pathological processes. When this influence is studied apart 
from the body, we find that most organised ferments (yeast, 
moulds and bacteria) are readily deprived of their charac- 
teristic powers by solutions of Phenol ; whilst chemical 
ferments {enzymes), such as pepsin and ptyalin, are much less 
readily affected. Although its effect on the spores of 
vegetable organisms is but small, a 5 per cent, solution being 
required to destroy them, its effect on fully developed micro- 
zymes is very great, a 1 per cent, aqueous solution certainly 
destroying the anthrax bacillus, and 1 part in 1000 being 
sufficient to prevent its growth. Phenol is thus an anti- 
zymotic (anti, against, zume, a ferment), and in the case of 
the zymosis of septic diseases, an antiseptic. At the same 
time the products of decomposition, which are generally 
infective and foul-smelling, are destroyed by the Phenol, 
which is therefore said to be disinfectant and deodoraBt. 
The Phenol acts as an antiseptic in two separate directions : 
it is, firstly, a specific protoplasmic poison; and, secondly, 
it causes precipitation of proteins, which destroys the 
organisms. Carbolic Acid, however, unlike metallic anti- 
septics and astringents, forms merely loose compounds with 
albumins, and thus can penetrate the tissues farther. Its 
caustic effects are ascribed to the same action. 

Phenol is extensively employed in the antiseptic method 
of the treatment of wounds, ever associated with the name of 
Lord Lister, who introduced it. A 5 per cent, solution in 
water serves to cleanse instruments, and to wash the skin of 
the part before operation. A 2\ per cent, aqueous solution is 
used to purify sponges and the hands of the operator, and 
as a lotion. Dissolved in olive oil 1 to 10, 1 to 20, 1 to 50 or 
still weaker, or as 1 part of Phenol with 7 parts of Castor Oil 
and 8 of Almond Oil, it is used for lubricating catheters, or 
as a special dressing ; but the value of these oily compounds 
is very doubtful, as thej have been found to have no influence 

AciDUM Carbolicum. 197 

on germs. Carbolic Acid Gauze consists of unbleached cotton 
gauze medicated with half its weight of a mixture of Phenol 
(1), Resin (4) ahd Paraffin (4). Liquefied Phenol is a con- 
venient form for general use. Zinc Sulphocarbolate is also 
used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. 

Coming to its physiological action proper on the human 
tissues, we find that Phenol is a local irritant to the skin, 
causing a momentary sense of burning followed by anses- 
thesia, and finally a caustic effect with formation of a hard 
white eschar. It may therefore be applied to poisoned 
wounds and foul ulcers ; and in dilute solutions (1 to 40) is a 
stimulating as well as disinfectant wash to wounds and 
discharging mucous surfaces or cavities, in the form of a 
lotion, injection, or gargle. It also relieves itching, especially 
in cases where a strong solution (1 in 20) can be applied, 
i.e. where the skin is not inflamed. It is used with success 
in ringworm, where it destroys the vegetable organisms. 

Apart from the body, Phenol is extensively used as a 
general disinfectant, to disinfect stools, flush drains, etc. 

Internally. — In the form of vapour. Phenol is stimulant 
and disinfectant, and is used in ulceration of the throat and 
lungs — phthisis, dilated bronchi, gangrene, etc. In the 
stomach and bowels it is a powerful irritant poison in large 
doses ; in moderate quantity, or as the Sulphocarbolates, it 
arrests termentation in gastric dilatation, obstinate vomiting, 
and some kinds of diarrhoea. Two other points may be noted 
in this connection : first, that Phenol unites with sulphates to 
form sulphocarbolates, which suggests the use of soluble 
sulphates as antidotes in poisoning by the drug ; second, that 
Phenol is a natural product of the action of the pancreatic 
ferment on proteids. 


Phenol is rapidly absorbed from the unbroken skin, 
mucosae, wounds, subcutaneous tissues, respiratory passages 
and stomach ; and for a considerable time can be found in 
the blood unchanged. Here it steadily disappears, by con- 
version into compounds from which it may be again derived ; 
uniting, for example, with sulphates, as already described. 
The blood is dark, and slow to coagulate, after poisoning by 


The actions of Phenol on the organs are of little interest to 
the therapeutist. It is found in them chiefly as phenol- 
yielding compounds ; and its effects in large doses are chiefly 
those of a sedative poison. The heart first falls and then 

igS Salol, 

rises in frequency, from disturbance of the cardiac centre 
The blood-pressure rises at first, returns to the normal, and 
falls after a fatal dose. Dyspnoea ensues, also central in 
origin ; and coma supervenes. In the lower unimals con- 
vulsions occur through the cord ; then paralysis and collapse. 
The voluntary muscles are not affected by Phenol, but the 
pupil is contracted. Sensibility is not reduced by internal 
administration of the drug. The temperature falls slightly 
after medicinal doses, but may rise in cases of dangerous 
absorption from dressings. Phenol and the Sulphocarbolatea 
have been given internally in fevers, and with success in 
some cases of ulcerative endocarditis. Phenol may tem- 
porarily relieve diabetes mellitus. 


Phenol and its products rapidly leave the body, chiefly by 
the urine. But little of it can be recovered unchanged, for 
(1) part is lost in the system, being probably converted into 
oxalates and carbonates ; (2) part appears as sulphocarbolic 
acid in combination ; (.S) a considerable amount is oxydised 
into hydroquinone and pyrocatechin. These unite with 
glycuronic acid and sulphuric acid, being excreted as 
glycuronates and ethereal sulphates. These may oxydise 
further and cause an olive-green, brown or grey discolora- 
tion of the urine. It is important to note that this change in 
the urine bears no definite relation to the amount of Phenol 
in the blood, nor to the danger of poisoning. Fainting and 
collapse, with or without rise of temperature, are the prin- 
cipal symptoms of its excessive absorption from a wound or 
through the skin. Disappearance of the sulphates from the 
urine, easily ascertained by ordinary tests, is a sure indica- 
tion of danger. Albuminuria is sometimes induced. 

Phenol also leaves the body by the saliva, which is 
increased ; and it stimulates the flow of sweat, although it ia 
not found in it. 

Salol.— Salol. Phenyl Salicylate. CeH40HCOOC8H5. 

Scnirce. — Prepared by the interaction of Salicylic Acid and 
Phenol, or of their Sodium Salts with Phosphoryl Chloride or 
Carbonyl Chloride. 

Characters. — Colourless crystals, with faint aromatic 
odour and very little taste. Soluhility. — 1 in 10 of cold 
alcohol 90 per cent, (solution neutral) ; 3 in 1 of ether or 

Salol. 199 

chloroform ; and in fixed and volatile oils ; insoluble in 
water. Impurities.— Yvee salicylic acid, sulphates and 

Dose. — 5 to 15 gr. (in milk or in cachets). 


Salol combines in most respects the actions of phenol and 
salicylic acid. See page 196, and page 388. 


Externally applied, Salol is disinfectant, but is little em- 

Internally, it is not decomposed in the stomach ; and for 
this reason it is an active disinfectant in the intestine, where 
it is broken up by the pancreatic ferments into Salicylic Acid 
and Phenol. Salol is extensively used in enteric catarrh, 
appendicitis, typhoid fever, and other diseases of the bowels 
attended with inflammation, ulceration, and foulness of their 
products and of the intestinal contents. 


The constituents of Salol pass through the blood into the 
tissues and organs, where they produce their specific effects 
respectively. The drug is a powerful antipyretic, which 
sometimes proves useful in acute rheumatism and rheumatic 
affections of different forms, such as pharyngitis, when Salicin 
and Sodium Salicylate fail, as they occasionally do. It is also 
anodyne or analgesic, like Sodium Salicylate. In large doses 
Salol produces the same unpleasant effects on the organs as 
the other salicyl compounds, including deafness, tinnitus 
aurium, vomiting and depression. 


Salol is slowly excreted as sulphocarbolic acid and sali- 
cylic acid by the different eliminating organs. Escaping by 
the kidneys, it disinfects their secretion when ammoniacal, 
and also the mucous surfaces of the genito-urinary tract ; but 
it is apt to colour the urine green and black, and it must also 
be used with caution in renal disease, as it may produce acut^ 
hyperajmia of the kidneys. This drug may also give rise to 
profuse sweating and morbilliform eruptions. 


Resorcin.— (iVi)i official.) CgH^CHO)^.— Derived from 
Phenol or from benzene by various processes. 

Characters.— White tabular lustrous crystals, with a weak 
odour like Phenol, and a sweetish, pungent taste. Solubility. — 
1 in 1 of water ; 1 in 20 of olive oil ; 2 in 1 of alcohol. I)o»e, 
3 to 8 gr. 


Resorcin is antiseptic and disinfectant without being irri- 
tant in 2 to 10 per cent, solutions. It is used in some forms 
of chronic epithelial thickening, as ointments, pastes, eta 
Internally it is antipjrretic. 

Piperazinc— (iVoif official). Diethylene-diamine. 

C2H4-NH4,NH4-C2H4. An organic base prepared by the inter- 
action of sodium glycol on ethylene-diamine hydrochloride. 

Characters. — Small colourless deliquescent crystals, 
strongly alkaline, with faint odour and saline taste. Solu- 
bility. — About 4 in 7 of water. Dose, 4 to 10 gr. 


Piperazine is a powerful solvent of uric acid, outside the 
body, producing a comparatively soluble urate ; but in the 
body it does not increase the amount of the acid excreted. 
It has been given in uric acid gravel and calculus, without 
apparent success. In gout it is of doubtful value, as it does 
not influence urates either in the plasma or in the tissues. 

Olusidum.— Glusidb. Glucusimide. " Saccharin.'* 
Benzoyl Sulphonimide. CgH4<^ >NH. A sweet imide 

derivable from the toluene of coal tar. 

Characters. — A light white, minutely crystalline powder ; 
odourless; taete intensely sweet in dilute solutions. Solu- 
bility. — 1 in 400 of cold water, 1 in 24 of boiling water ; 1 in 25 
of alcohol 90 per cent. ; slightly in ether or chloroform ; very 
readily in diluted Solution of Ammonia; also in solution 
of sodium bicarbonate, evolving COj, and yielding " soluble 


gluside " or " soluble saccharin " on evaporation, which is very 
soluble in water. Impurities. — Sugar ; Sulphamido-benzoic 


Gluside is used as a sweetening agent to cover the taste 
of nauseous drugs, as well as in diabetes mellitus and hepatic 
disorders. It is not a food. 

Siilphonal. — Dimethyl - methane - diethylsul - 

PHONE. (CH3)2C(S02C2H5)2. 

Source. — May be obtained by oxydising Mercaptol (CHs)^ 
C(SCaH5)2, prepared from Acetone and Mercaptan. 

Characters. — Colourless prismatic crystals, odourless, nearly 
tasteless ; neutral. Solubility. — 1 in 450 of cold, 1 in 15 
of boiling, water ; 1 in 50 of cold alcohol 90 per cent. ; soluble 
in ether. Dose, 10 to 30 gr. 

Sulphonal is a hypnotic, producing lengthened and re- 
freshing sleep. As it is tasteless, and does not derange 
digestion, nor seriously depress the circulation or respiration, 
it may be safely ordered in diseases of the heart and lungs 
where Morphine and Chloral are contra-indicated. But it is 
somewhat slow and uncertain, and may cause prolonged drow- 
siness, giddiness and eruptions. It is a valuable hypnotic 
in insanity with excitement. As the dose often has to 
be increased, and the use of it prolonged, a Sulphonal habit 
may be established, with serious after-effects. Hsemato- 
porphyrinuria has followed its administration, with associated 
symptoms of physical debility or nervous paresis. A single 
large dose may be poisonous. It is best given as a fine 
powder in hot broths some hours before bedtime. 

Plienazonnni.— Phenazone. " Antipyrine." Phenyl- 
dimethy 1 -iso-pyrazolone. H3CC = C H 

I I 


Source. — Obtainable from phenyl-hydrazine by interaction 
with aceto-acetic ether and the subsequent interaction of the 
resulting phenyl-methyl-iso-pyrazolone with methyl iodide. 



Characters.— ColomlesA, scaly crystals ; odonrless ; taste 
bitter. Melts about 235-4° F. Solubility. — 1 in 1 of water ; 
1 in IJ of alcohol 90 per cent,, or of chloroform ; 1 in 40 of 
ether. Aqueous solution neutral. Incompatxbles. — Spiritus 
^theris Nitrosi (a bluish green colour being formed), and 
other nitrites ; the alkaloids of Cinchona. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 


Phenazone is a very powerful antipyretic and a general 
nervous sedative and anodyne. It quickly reduces the tem- 
perature in fever, the defervescence beginning within the first 
hour. It decidedly controls the pyrexia of most of the acute 
specific diseases and tuberculosis, at the same time relieving 
discomfort ; but it is not to be employed in a routine fashion. 
It is less useful in ague and rheumatism. Free perspiration, 
and occasionally sickness and erythematous eruptions, attend 
the use of Phenazone. Fatal collapse has been produced by 
excessive doses. As an anodyne, it often gives prompt and 
complete relief in megrim, neuralgia, locomotor ataxy, gout 
and rheumatism. If it disagree with the stomach, it may be 
given either subcutaneously as a 5 per cent, solution, or by 
the rectum. The addition of a few drops of spirit of pepper- 
mint disguises its taste. 

Acetaiiilidiim. — AcETANiLiDE. Phenyl-acetamide. 

CHgCONHCeHg. " Antifebrin." 

Source. — Obtainable by the interaction of Glacial Acetic 
Acid and aniline. 

Characters. — Colourless, glistening, lamellar crystals ; 
odourless ; taste slightly pungent ; melts at 236-5° F. Solu- 
lility. — 1 in 200 of cold, 1 in 18 of boiling, water; 1 in 4 of 
alcohol 90 per cent. ; freely in ether, chloroform and benzol. 
Impurities. — Free acid, acetone, phenazone and salts of 
aniline. Dose, 1 to 3 gr. (in wine or diluted spirit, or in 
cachet, or with Pulvis Tragacanthae Compositus). 


Acetanilide is an antipyretic — powerful, safe and conve' 
nient (except for its comparative insolubility in water). It 
quickly reduces pyrexia, but its effect is evanescent. It is 
also a nervous sedative, which has been given in neuralgia, 
megrim, tabes dorsal is and allied affections. 

Naphthol, 203 

PhenacctinHin.— Phenacetin. Para-acet-phene- 
tidin. CaHgO-CgH^-NHCOCHs. 

Source. — Produced by the interaction of Glacial Acetic 
Acid and para-phenetidin, a body obtained from para-nitro- 

Characters. — White glistening scaly crystals; odourless; 
tasteless, neutral. Solubility. — Very sparingly in cold, more 
freely in boiling, water ; 1 in 20 of alcohol 90 per cent. Melta 
at 275° F. Impurities. — Acetanilide and para-phenetidin. 
Dose, 5 to 10 gr. ; best given with Caffeine, 


Phenacetin is antip3n:etic, anodjnie and hjrpnotic, like 
Phenazone and Acetanilide. It is comparatively safe and 
lasting in its effects ; and has been used in many pyrexial 
diseases and neuralgic affections with some success, as well as 
in tabes dorsalis. 

IVnplitliol. — Beta-naphthol. Beta - mono - hydroxy- 
naphthalene. C10H7OH. 

Source. — Is usually prepared from naphthalene-sulphonic 

Characters. — White, or nearly white, crystalline laminae, or 
in powder, with an odour of phenol, and a sharp, pungent 
taste. Neutral. Solubility. — 1 in 1000 of cold, 1 in 75 of 
boiling, water ; in less than 2 of cold, very soluble in boiling, 
alcohol 90 per cent., ether, chloroform, or solution of sodium 
hydroxide ; also soluble in olive oil or benzol. Impurities. — 
Alpha-naphthol, mineral matter. Dose, 3 to 10 gr. 


Naphthol is a powerful antiseptic and disinfectant. It has 
been used as an external and internal disinfectant, much like 
Iodoform. Internally it is prescribed in cachets with Animal 
Charcoal, as an intestinal disinfectant, in typhoid fever, 
cholera, diarrhcsa aH(i dysentery. Its action on the contents 
of the bowel is purely local, most of the dose being recoverable 
from the faeces, wliile the traces which are absorbed are ex- 
creted also unchanged in the urine. Beta-naphthol is applied, 
as ointment or solution (5 to 15 per cent.), in some diseases 
of the skin such as hyperidrosis, scabies, and psoriasis, instead 

204 Creosotum 

of Tar, which it closely resembles in its action, whilst it pos- 
sesses the advantage of having a less unpleasant odour. 

Creosotum.— Creosote. /Sowrcc. — Obtained in the 
distillation of Wood Tar. 

Characters. — A colourless or yellowish, highly refractive 
liquid, with a strong empyreumatic odour and acrid taste ; 
neutral or faintly acid. Solubility. — 1 in 150 of cold, more so 
in hot, water ; freely in alcohol 90 per cent., ether, chloroform, 
glacial acetic acid and glycerin. Sp. gr. not below 1079. 
Distils between 392'^-428° F. Dextro-rotatory. Impurities. — 
Phenol ; detected by becoming solidified on cooling. Less 
volatile liquids. Incompatible. — Oxide of Silver. 

Composition. — Creosote is not a simple body, but a variable 
compound of guaiacol CyHsOj, creosol CgHjoOj, and other 
phenols. Guaiacol may amount to 20 per cent, in good speci - 
mens of Creosote. Chemically pure (as prepared synthetically 
from pyrocatechin) it occurs as colourless prismatic crystals, 
with a more agreeable odour and taste than Creosote ; melting 
at 83° to 91° F. ; and soluble in alcohol, ether, fats, oils and 
glycerin, and slightly in water.— Guaiacol Carbonate is a con- 
venient combination of this body, which constitutes 91-5 per 
cent, of it. It is a minutely crystalline white substance, 
with no taste and but slight odour ; insoluble in water, 
eolnble in alcohol ; given in doses of 3 to 10 gr. in cachet. 

Dose. — 1 to 5 min. (with mucilage, almond or cod-liver oil, 
or with milk). 


1. Mistura Creosoti. — Creosote Mixture. Creosote, 
1 ; Spirit of Juniper, 1 ; Syrup, 30; Distilled Water, 480. 
1 min. in 1 fl.oz. nearly. Dose, i to 1 fl.oz. 

2. UnguentTun Creosoti. — Creosote Ointment. 1 ; 
Hard Paraffin, 4 ; Soft Paraffin, White, 5. 


Externally, the actions of Creosote are, practically speak- 
ing, similar to those of Phenol {see page 196) ; but ita 
characters and the uncertainty of its composition and strength, 
as a complex product, interfere with its general employment 
as an antiseptic. The Ointment is employed in dry skin 
diseases. Guaiacol painted on the skin has a remarkable 
^tion in reducing the temperature in fever by several degree*, 

Pix Car BONIS Prmparata, 205 

with free perspiration but unfortunate depression of the 
heart. This efiEect of the drug is not employed therapeutically. 
Internally, as an inhalation (12 min. in 8 fl.oz. of boiling 
water) or given in capsule, Creosote is a disinfectant and 
deodorant in tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, gangrene and 
other diseases of the lungs attended with foul discharges. 
Guaiacol or its Carbonate has now come into general use 
for this purpose, instead of the crude drug ; and is intended 
as a specific in tuberculosis, for which it is given continuously 
over long periods of time. It is similarly used in osteo- 
arthritis. A combination of Creosote, Iodine, and various vola- 
tile substances such as Ether, Chloroform, and Alcohol, has 
become popular as a constant inhalation in phthisis. The 
Mistura Creosoti is intended chiefly as a remedy in vomiting 
due to pyloric obstruction, dilatation of the stomach and con- 
sequent fermentation. The special value of the drug in this 
class of cases depends on the fact that whilst it readily 
destroys low vegetable organisms, such as torulae and 
sarcinae, and arrests the fermentations with which they are 
associated, it does not interfere with the action of pepsin 
and the digestive process. It occasionally proves useful in 
vomiting from other causes, and in some forms of diarrhoea 
due to bacterial decomposition in the intestine. 

Pix Carbonis PrsEparata.— Prepared Coal Iab. 

Soiirce. — Prepared by placing commercial Coal Tar in a 
shallow vessel, and maintaining it at 120° F. for one hour, 
stirring frequently. 


Liquor Picis Carbonis. — Solution of Coal Tar. 
Made by adding Prepared Coal Tar to an alcoholic 
percolate of Quillaia Bark, digesting the mixture at 
120° F. for two days, occasionally stirring, cooling and 
decanting or filtering. 


The actions and uses of Coal Tar are similar to those of 
Wood Tar. See page 405. 

lodoformum,— Iodoform. Tri-iodomethane. CHI,! 
&wrcd.— Produced by the action of Iodine on Ethylio 

2q6 Iodoformum. 

Alcohol in the presence of solution of Potassium Carbonate. 
CaHfiO + 4I2 + 3K2CO3 = CHI3 + KCHO2 + 5KI + 2H„0 + 

dha/racters. — Small, shining, lemon-yellow hexagonal crys- 
tals, somewhat unctuous to the touch ; with a powerful and 
persistent saffron-like odour, and an unpleasant taste. Solu- 
hility. — Very slightly in cold water ; 1 in 80 of cold, 1 in 10 of 
boiling, alcohol 90 per cent, ; 1 in 5 of cold ether ; also in 
chloroform, carbon bisulphide, or fixed and volatile oils; 
sparingly in benzol. The solutions are neutral. It contains 
more than 90 per cent, of iodine. Impurities. — Soluble yellow 
colouring matters, picric acid, iodides, etc. 

Dose. — \ to 3 gr. 


1. Suppositoria lodofonni. — Iodoform Supposi- 
tories. 3 gr. in each, with 12 gr. of Oil of Theobroma. 

2. Unguentmn lodoformi. — Iodoform Ointment. 
I in 10, with Paraffin Ointment, yellow. 

{Not official.) Iodoform Wool. Absorbent Cotton 
Wool, containing 10 per cent, of Iodoform. — Iodoform 
Gauze, etc. 


Iodoform is an antiseptic and disinfectant, but destroys 
organisms less readily than Phenol. It is a very powerful 
deodorant. When applied to the human tissues, it produces 
little or no irritation ; indeed, it is a local an»sthetic. 

Iodoform is used to cleanse foul ulcers, especially of vene- 
real origin ; and may possibly have a special effect on strumous 
ulceration. It has also been extensively applied as an anti- 
septic dressing to healing wounds, the best forms being the 
drug reduced to powder for dredging on the part. Iodoform 
Wool and the Ointment. Sometimes Iodoform Gauze has 
been employed. A powder of Iodoform diluted with Quinine 
or Bismuth Oxynitrate is a valuable insufflation in ozaena and 
ulcers of the mouth and throat. 


Iodoform is occasionally absorbed from wounds, and 
causes an erythematous punctiform or eczema tous eruption, 
attended with serious constitutional disturbances, including 
sickness and fever, with restlessness and delirium in some 

Pa ra FFiNUM. 207 

subjects, drowsiness and collapse in others. Iodine is possibl v 
set free in the blood or tissues, and appears in the urine in 
part as sodium iodide. Iodoform has been used in an endless 
variety of diseases internally, e.(j. as an intra-venous injection 
in tuberculosis, but with questionable benefit. 

Paraffinuin Durum. — Hard Paraffin. A mixture of 
several of the harder members of the Paraffin series of hydro- 

Source. — Usually obtained by distillation from shale, 
separation of the liquid oils by refrigeration, and purification 
of the solid product. 

Cliaracters. — Colourless, semi-transparent, crystalline, in- 
odorous and tasteless, slightly greasy to the touch. Sp. gr. 
0-82 to 0-94. Solubility. — Insoluble in water ; slightly soluble 
in absolute alcohol ; almost entirely in ether. Melts at 130° 
to 135° F., and burns with a bright flame, leaving no 


Unguentum Paxaffini. — Hard Paraffin, 3 ; Soft 
Paraffin, 7. 

Unguentum Paraffini is used in. preparing 
many Ointments. 
Paraffinum Durum is used in preparing many Ointments. 

Paraffinum Iflollc— Soft Paraffin. "Vaselin." A 
semi-solid mixture containing soft members of the Paraffin 
series of hydrocarbons. 

Source. — Usually obtained by purifying the less volatile 
portions of petroleum. 

Characters. — White or Yellow, translucent, soft, unctuous 
to the touch ; free from acidity, alkalinity, or any unpleasant 
odour or flavour, even when warmed to 120° F. Sp. gr. at 
melting-point (96° to 102° F., or somewhat higher), 0840 to 
0870. Burns with a bright flame, leaving no residue. Solu- 
hillty. — Slightly in absolute alcohol ; freely in benzol, chloro- 
form and ether ; insoluble in water. Impurities. — Fixed 
oils, fats and resins. 

Paraffinum Molle is contained in many Ointments. 

Paraffinum Lioiuiduni.— Liquid Paraffin. 
Source. — Obtained from petroleum after the removal of 
the more volatile portions by distillation. 

2'o8 Urotropine. 

Characters. — A clear, oily, non-fluorescent liquid ; colour- 
less, odourless, and tasteless. Boiling-point not below 680° F. 
Sp. gr. 0885 to 0-890. Impurities. — Acids ; Sulphur com- 


Paraffin cannot become rancid or irritant to the skin, and 
being readily miscible with many active substances, is indi- 
cated instead of Lard as a valuable basis for ointments 
intended to produce a local effect, especially those of Mercury, 
Lead, and Zinc, as well as of non-metallic antiseptics and 
disinfectants. As it appears to be absorbed but very slightly 
by the skin, like fats, it is unfitted as a basis for the applica- 
tion of drugs when they are intended to enter the system and 
produce their specific action, such as some mercurials and 
alkaloids. The hard form is useful because of its high 
melting-point and consequent freedom from tendency to 
spread through the dressings. Liquid Paraffin is used as a 
solvent for Menthol, Cocaine and other drugs when applied 
in spray. Petroleum given internally appears not to be 
absorbed; but 60-120 gr, of Vaseline are laxative. 

Benzol.— Benzol. Source. — Light coal-tar oil 

6'A«ra.(;'^6'r5.— A colourless volatile liquid, free from opal- 
escence, with a strong characteristic odour. 

Composition. — A mixture of homologous hydrocarbons. It 
contains about 70 percent, of benzene, C^H,, and 20 to 30 per 
cent, of toluene, CgHg.OHa. 

In preparing Charta Sinapis and Liquor Caoutchouc. 

Hexamcthylcn - tctruiiiiiic. — (iVW ojicial.) 
(CH2)eN4. '• UitOTiiopiNE." Obtained by the action of 
Ammonia on Formic Aldehyde. 

Charaoters. — Colourless granular crystals, alkaline, readily 
soluble in water. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. (in caclifM 


Urotropine is excreted as formaldehyde in the urine, and 
acts as a powerful disinfectant in diseases of the kidneys and 
bladder associated with bacterial decomposition of urine. It 
is a valuable drug in pyelitis and cystitis, and in infection of 
the urine with typhoid bacilli. 

Trional. 209 

Trional. — [Not offlcial). Di-ethyl - Sulphone- 
CHo, n SO2 C2H5 


Characters.— In small shining crystals ; with a bitter, not 
unpleasant taste ; inodorous. Solubility.— 1 in 320 of water, 
freely in alcohol (90 per cent.). Bose, 5 to 30 gr. (in cachet 
or in warm milk or broth). 


Trional is a safe and efficient hypnotic, closely resembling 
its allied sulphone, Sulphonal, but less slow. It has been 
prescribed in mental diseases and in neurasthenic conditions, 
particularly in the insomnia associated with overwork. It is 
useless in painful states. Trional does not derange digestion. 

Veronal.— (iVo^ official). Di-ethyl-malonyl-ueea- 

Characters. — Small white crystals, odourless, taste slightly 
bitter. Soluble in 145 parts of water at 20® C. Lose, 3 to 
10 gr. in cacliet or dissolved in warm tea (not in milk). 


Veronal is a powerful hypnotic, producing within half an 
hour to an hour quiet, dreamless and refreshing sleep. It 
possesses the advantages of causing no disturbance of the 
visceral functions ; the heart, vessels, respiration, kidneys 
and body-temperature being said to remain primarily un- 
affected even by full and repeated doses. It has been 
found to be specially useful in the insomnia of neurasthenia, 
mental disorder, morphinism and alcoholism ; and to be 
safely employed in cardiac and renal diseases. It does not 
relieve pain. Dangerous poisonous effects are not rare. 

Aspirin.— (iVi?^ official.) Acidum Acetyl-Salicy- 

LICUM. Acetic ester of Salicylic Acid, CoH^ -<^q q O H ' 

Characters. — A white crystalline inodorous powder. 
Solvable in alcohol, ether, and glycerin ; almost insoluble in 
water. Dose, 10 to 15 gr. (in cachet). 

Aspirin passes almost undecomposed through the stomach, 
which is therefore but little irritated by it. Its molecular 

2 10 /Ethyl Ciiloridum, 

constituents begin to be liberated when it meets the alkaline 
fluids of the duodenum, where they are absorbed slowly, 
along with the part of the Aspirin which is still unchanged 
and which is then broken up in the blood and the tissue- 
lymph. Thus the drug enters the system by degrees, and, its 
products being slowly excreted, its antipyretic and specific 
actions, which closely resemble those of Salicylic Acid, are 
relatively more gradual and more prolonged (p. 389), whilst 
it does not depress the heart so readily. To secure these 
effects, it must not be prescribed along with alkalis. 
Aspirin is used as a substitute for the Salicylates andSalicin, 
particularly in articular or other forms of rheumatism, in 
gouty and some other kinds of arthritis, and in myalgia, 
neuritis, migraine and influenza. It appears to be more 
useful than Sodium Salicylate in relieving the pains of osteo- 
arthritis. Trifacial neuralgia sometimes yields to it. 

iEtliya Chloridum. — {Not official). Ethyl 
Chloride. CaHpCl. A colourless mobile liquid, with a 
sweetish burning taste. Solubility. — Sparingly in water, 
readily in alcohol. Sp. gr. -921. Its vapour is inflammable. 
The average dose for an adult is 5 c.c, and for a child 3 c.c, 
by inhalation. 


Ethyl Chloride is employed as a general anaesthetic 
for operations of short duration but where the anajsthesia 
required is longer than can be obtained by Nitrous Oxide, 
and also for cases in which the administration of Ether is 
undesirable. Two minutes' anaisthesia can generally be 
relied upon. It is also used in place of Nitrous Oxide 
previous to Ether and Chloroform administration ; and in 
the case of the latter it shortens the period of induction. 

Ethyl Chloride cannot compare with Nitrmis Oxide in 
safety, and headache and sickness are far more prevalent 
after its use ; so that Nitrous Oxide or Nitrous Oxide-aud- 
Oxygen is the routine anaisthetic for ordinary dent«,l ex- 
tractions, and Ethyl Chloride is reserved for difficult cases. 

CI tar in. — (Not official). Anuydromethylenk 
Sodium Citrate. 2 (CH,— COONa) (COCHj COO). 

C/iaractcrs. — A white crystalline powder, with a slightly 
alkaline not unpleasant taste. Soltkbility. — 1 in 1 of water; 
almost insoluble in alcohol and ether Z>r>jir.— 30 gr. several 
times a day. 

Citarin: 211 

Citarin, a product of the reaction of Formaldehyde upon 
sodium citrate, is split up in the blood, and liberates the 
formaldehyde, which unites with uric acid and forms a 
combination readily excreted in the urine. The sodium 
citrate is further antacid and diuretic (p. 149). The drug 
sometimes causes diarrhoea. Citarin is used in acute and 
chronic gout, and in uric acid gravel and calculus, apparently 
with some success. 

Ichthyol. — Ammonium Ichthosulphonate, prepared 
from a bituminous schist. A brown viscid liquid, soluble in 
water, glycerin, and fats ; partly in alcohol. In the forms of 
ointments and pastes (1 in 10) it acts as a stimulant anti- 
septic in eczema, acne and psoriasis, and in acute and chronic 
rheumatism ; also in injections (2 — 5 %) for gonorrhoea and 
vaginal discharges. In doses of 15 — 30 gr. it is given as an 
intestinal antiseptic, and for rheumatism and urticaria. 

Thiosiiianiin.— Allyl-thio-carbamide. CSCNHg) 
NHC3H5. White crystals, soluble in water (1 in 17), and 
in alcohol (1 in 2). Dose. — \ to 1^ gr. Thiosinamin and 
Fibrolysin (thiosinamin-sodium salicylate) are injected sub- 
cutaneously in 10 % solutions (15 min.) to cause absorption 
of fibroid scar tissues, strictures, and to reduce fibrous anky- 
losis of joints. 

Phenolplitlialein. — Purgen, Laxophen, etc. 
C20U14O4. A yellowish-white powder, soluble in water (1 in 
(JOO), and in alcohol (1 in 10). It is used largely, in doses of 
1 to 8 gr,, as a hydragogue purgative, producing a copious 
watery evacuation in 4 to (J hours. 

Theobromine l^odio-salicylas. — Diuretin. 
NaaCi4Hi2N405. A white powder, soluble in water (1 in 
1), ana in alcohol ; incompatible with acids. Dose. — 10 to 
20 gr. Diuretin and Agurin (Theobromine Sodio-Sodic 
Acetate, or Theocin-Sodium Acetate) are useful diuretics in 
cardiac dropsy and chronic Bright's disease. 

Stypticiii. — CoTARNiNE Hydrochloride. C12H15 
NO4, HCl. A yellow powder, an oxydation product of 
Narcotine (page 237), soluble in water and in alcohol. 
Dose, ^ to 1 gr. (internally or hypodermically). Stypticin 
and Styptol (Cotarnine phthalate) cause uterine contractions, 
and are used in metrorrhagia. 

2 12 HeDONAL. 

Hedonal. — Methyl- propyl- carbinol- urethane. 

CeHjaOgN. A white powder, slightly soluble in water, more 
so in alcohol. In doses of 15 to 30 gr. it is a safe and 
efficient hypnotic, which does not affect the circulation, 
respiration or temperature, and is used principally in 
insomnia with depression. 

Stovaine. — Benzoyl-ethyl-dimethyl-aminopropi- 
NOL Hydrochloride. CCCH3)(C2H5)CH2N(CH3)20C0-C6 
H5, HCl. White crystals. Solubility. — 1 in 13 of water, 1 in 

3 of alcohol. Dose. — \ to 1| gr. hypodermically. A powerful 
local anaesthetic, used for the conjunctiva, throat, etc. ; and 
also for intraspinal anesthesia by means of isotonic solutions. 

Novocain. — A hydrochloride of a derivative of para- 
amido-benzoic acid. CeH4(NH2) [C02*C2H4N-(C2H6)2] HCl. 
Colourless crystals. Solubility. — I in 1 of water; 1 in 30 of 
alcohol. In doses of 1 to 6 gr. hypodermically it is a 
powerful local anaesthetic, used for infiltration anaesthesia, 
intraspinal ansesthesia, etc. 

P y r a lu i d o 11 c .—Dimethyl - amino - antipyrin. 
C13H17N3O. White crystals. Solulility. — 1 in 9 of water; 
1 in 2 of alcohol. Given in doses of 5 to 8 gr. it is an 
active antipyretic with no effect on the circulation ; but it is 
mostly used as an analgesic for headaches and neuralgias. 

Antipyrin Salicylas.— Salipyrin. CnHjaNaO- 
HC7H5O3. White crystals. Solubility.— \ in 240 of water; 
1 in 4 of alcohol. Dose. — 10 to 30 gr. Decomposed in the duo- 
denum into Sodium Salicylate and Antipyrin, it is used like 
these in rheumatism, neuralgia and influenza. See page 388. 

Helniitol.— FoRMAMOL, New Ubotropine. C^HgOy 
(CH2)8^*'4- White crystals. Soluble in water (1 in 5), 
sparingly in alcohol. It is decomposed by acids and alkalis, 
liberating formaldehyde ; and hence is used in doses of 5-15 
gr. as a urinary antiseptic. 

Aniylciii Hydras.— Amylene Hydrate. CjHuO. 
Soluble in water (1 in 8), freely in alcohol. In doses of 30 to 
60 min. it is intermediate in its action between Chloral 
Hydrate and Paraldehyde, but is a more powerful hypnotic 
than the latter. 


?art a. 




Aconiti Radix. —Aconite Root. The root of 
Aconitum Napellus, collected in the autumn from plants 
cultivated in Britain, and dried. 

Characters. — Usually from 2 to 4 inches long, ^ to | inch 
thick at the crown ; conical ; brown ; presenting scars or 
bases of broken rootlets. Fracture short ; whitish and 
starchy within. Has no marked odour. Cautiously chewed, 
causes tingling and prolonged numbness in the mouth. 

Composition. — The active constituent of Aconite is an 
alkaloid, aconitine (C34H47NO11), in colourless hexagonal 
rhombic prisms ; very sparingly soluble in water and in 
petroleum spirit, readily in alcohol 90 per cent, or chloroform, 
less readily in ether. Even a very dilute solution causes 
characteristic tingling and pro]onged numbness of the tongue 
and lips. Beuzacoiiine {Pier aconitine), C32H45NO10) Aoonine, 
^•25^41^09, and other more or less allied alkaloids, occur 
along with it. They are combined with an acid, aconitic acid, 


1. Tinctura AconitL — 1 in 20 of Alcohol 70 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Bose, 5 to 15 min. ; if very fre- 
c^uently repeated, 2 to 5 min. 

214 AcoNiTi Radix. 

2. Linimentum Aconiti. — 1 in 15 of Alcohol 90 per 
cent., by percolation ; with -g^ of Camphor. 

From Aconiti Radix is made : 

3. Aconitina.— AconitinejCg^H^^NOji, an alkaloid 
obtained from Aconite Boot. 

Characters. — See Composition of Aconite Root. 
Not given internally. 


Unguentum Aconitin^.— 0-5 ; dissolved in 
Oleic Acid, 4 ; added to Lard, 20-5. 


Externally. — Applied to the skin, or an exposed mucou? 
membrane, Aconite affects the terminations of the sensory 
nerves, causing tingling followed by numbness, and lowering 
the sensibility of touch and temperature. It is, therefore, 
used to relieve pain due to disorder of the peripheral nerves, 
particularly certain forms of neuralgia and acute and chronic 
rheumatism. The Aconitine Ointment must be employed with 
great caution, especially in the neighbourhood of the eye. 

Internally. — A drop of even an extremely dilute solution 
of Aconitine (not more than one-tenth per cent.) causes per- 
sistent tingling and numbness of the tongue and lips. A 
sense of warmth and pain and sickness follows its admission 
to the stomach in full doses. 


Aconitine enters the blood, and thence finds its way to 
the tissues. Medicinal doses of Aconite, taken in close suc- 
cession, reduce the frequency, force, and tension of the pulse ; 
flush and moisten the skin ; and increase the amount of 
urine. Larger doses cause a sense of illness and muscular 
weakness ; '* creeping," " tingling," " numb " sensations gener- 
ally, but especially in the lips, face and extremities, ending 
in anesthesia ; and disturbances of vision, hearing and con- 
sciousness. On analysis, it is found that the heart is briefly 
accelerated, and then reduced in frequency by Aconitine, 
through the nerves ; its force is then reduced, by direct 
action on the nervo-muscular structures; and finally the 
cardiac action becomes greatly accelerated, irregular and 
more and more feeble, tending to cease in diastole. The 
blood -pressure falls continuously, partly from cardiac, |>artly 

AcoNiTi Radix. 215 

from vaso-motor depression. On the contrary, Aconine and 
Benzaconine act to some extent as the antagonists of 
Aconitine, slowing the heart ; the former is indeed a general 
cardiac tonic. Respiration is slowed and deepened by 
Aconitine and Benzaconine, with spasmodic irregularity of 
rhythm, and is finally arrested after poisonous quantities: 
death is due to central respiratory failure. The skin is 
stimulated, perspiration becoming abundant. The kidneys 
are also stimulated, both the fluids and solids of the urine 
being increased in amount. Oxydation being diminished 
both directly and through impairment of circulation and 
respiration, the temperature falls steadily. The muscular 
weakness appears to be primarily due to depression of the 
motor nerve-endings ; but this condition extends to the cord. 
The brain itself is not directly affected ; and even in cases 
of poisoning by Aconite, consciousness, although disturbed. 
is preserved almost to the end. The sensory nerves are 
probably paralysed from their periphery inwards by the 
internal, as by the external, administration of the drug. 

Such being the specific actions of Aconite, the use of it is 
obviously indicated in the treatment of two morbid conditions, 
namely, fever and pain. The cardio-vascular excivement, the 
dry skin, the high temperature and the scanty secretions of 
fever would all be relieved by this drug. For this purpose 
the Tincture is given in small and closely repeated doses, say 
1 minim in water every 15, 20, or 30 minutes, the effect being 
watched. Acute tonsillitis, bronchitis, pleurisy, and febrile 
conditions attending other local inflammations, have been 
treated with Aconite, the effect being to control the urgent 
symptoms, relieve the distress of the patient, and possibly to 
cut short the disease. Some of the symptoms of scarlatina 
and measles may be similarly alleviated. The powerfully 
depressant action of Aconite on the respiration and the circu- 
lation forbids its use as an antipyretic in diseases of the 
lungs and heart, and suggests its cautious employment in all 

In neuralgia and other painful affections connected with 
the nerves and muscles, Aconite may be given internally 
instead of being locally applied ; facial neuralgia with 
spasm {tic -douloureux) particularly being relieved by it. lu 
these cases, also, the Tincture m.ight be given in minim 
doses, repeated three or four times in an hour, and the effect 


Aconite is probably excreted by the kidneys, and as we 
have seen, increases the activity of their secretion. The 

2i6 Staphisagrim Semina. 

stimulation of the sweat glands and the occasional appear- 
ance of an eruption suggest that it also leaves the body by 
the skin. 

Staphisagrise Semina. — Stavesacbb Seeds. 

The dried ripe seeds of Delphinium Staphisagria. 

Characters. — Irregularly triangular or obscurely quadran- 
gular, arched, blackish-brown when fresh, dull greyish -brown 
by keeping. Testa wrinkled and deeply pitted ; interior 
soft, whitish, oily. No marked odour ; taste nauseous, bitter 
and acrid. 

Composition. — Stavesacre contains four alkaloids, del- 
pMnine^ allied to aconitine ; staphisagrine, delpMnoidine and 

Unguentum Staphisagrisa. — 2, crushed ; Benzoated 
Lard, 85 ; Yellow Beeswax, 1. 


Delphinine closely resembles Aconitine in its actions, but is 
even more depressant to the vessels. Stavesacre is used only 
as a parasiticide in the form of the Ointment, to kill pediculi. 

Ciniicifug^se Rhizoma. — Cimicifuoa. Actsea 
Racemosae Radix. The dried rhizome and roots of Cimicifuga 
racemosa, Black Snake-root. 

Characters.— Rhizome from 2 to 6 inches long, J to 1 inch 
thick ; hard, nearly cylindrical, bearing the remains of 
ascending branches. Roots brittle, usually broken off near 
the rliizome. Colour brownish-black. Odour faint; taste 
bitter and acrid. 

Composition. — Cimicifuga contains a voUvtile oil, two resins^ 
and tannic acid. The active principle is uncertain. Dose, 20 


1. Extractum CimicifugsB Liquidum.— Alcoholic ; 
1 in 1. Dose, 5 to 30 min. 

2. Tinctura Cimicifuga. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 60 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 

Hydrastis Rhizoma, 217 

actions and uses. 

In moderate doses Black Snake-root is bitter ; in larger 
doses it acts much like Digitalis, increasing also the activity 
of the skin and generative organs. 

Cimicif aga has been used as a stomachic in diseases of 
the heart; and in neuralgia, rheumatism, chorea," bronchitis, 
uterine disorders and spermatorrhoea. 

Hydrastis Rtiizoma. — Hydeastis Ehizome. 
The dried rhizome and roots of Hydrastis canadensis. 

Characters. — Rhizome tortuous, simple or branched ; ^ 
to 1^ inch long, and |^ to ^ inch thick, with short as- 
cending branches, terminating with scars above, and thin 
brittle roots below. Externally yellowish-brown ; fracture 
resinous ; odour slight, characteristic ; taste bitter. 

Composition. — Hydrastis contains the alkaloids, hydrastine, 
CgaHaiNOg, berlerine, C20W17NO4, and canadine, C20H21NO4. 


1. Extractum Hydrastis Liquidum. — Alcoholic ; 
1 in 1. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 

2. Tinctura Hydrastis. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 60 
per cent. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 


Hydrastis, Golden Seal, is a bitter and a spinal stimulant 
causing convulsions, much like Nux Vomica. It is used as a 
stomachic and nervine stimulant ; and locally in various kinds 
of ulceration and haemorrhage in connection with the nose, 
rectum and uterus. 


Podophylli Kliizonia. —Podophyllum Rhizome 
Podophyllum Root. The dried rhizome and roots 01 
Podophyllum peltatum, American May -Apple. 

Characters. — Dark reddish-brown, smooth or wrinkled. 
In pieces, several inches long, and from about | to ^ of an 
inch thick, nearly cylindrical, presenting at intervals irregular 
tuberosities which are marked above by a depressed circular 
gear, and give off below a number of very brittle brownish 


roots, or present a corresponding number of whitish scars. 
Fracture short ; internally whitish and starch-like, or pale 
yellowish-brown and horny. Odour characteristic ; taste 
slightly bitter and acrid. 

Co7uposition. — Podophyllum contains the official resin, 
which yields podophyllotoxin, C23H24O9, a neutral crystalline 
glucoside, and podophylloresin ; both are purgative. Ficro- 
yodopliyllin and guerGitrin are also present. 

From Fodophylli Rhizoma is obtained : 

Podophylli Resina. — Podophyllum Resin. 
Source. — Made by percolating with Alcohol 90 per 
cent. ; precipitating the resulting tincture in Water 
acidulated with Hydrochloric Acid ; washing, and 

Characters. — A pale yellow to deep orange-brown 
amorphous powder ; soluble in alcohol 90 per cent, and 
in ammonia, partly soluble in ether. Precipitated from 
alcoholic solution by water ; from the ammoniacal by 
acids. Dose, |^ to 1 gr. 

Tinctura Podophylli.— 1 in 30 of Alcohol 90 
per cent. ; by maceration. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 


Externally, Podophyllum Resin possesses no local action ; 
but if applied to a wound, it enters the blood, and exerts its 
specific effect as a purgative, to be presently described. 

Internally, Podophyllum Resin gives rise to a bitter acrid 
taste ; possibly salivation, irritation of the stomach, nausea and 
colic ; and after ten or twelve hours produces a free watery 
motion. The purgative effect appears to be due to stimu- 
lation both of the muscular coat and the glands of the 
intestine, as well as to increase of the biliary flow. 

Podophyllum Resin is used entirely as a purgative. One- 
grain doses are given to produce free evacuation of the bowels 
in severe constipation or portal congestion. A dose of | to | 
grain may be employed as an ingredient of habitual laxative 
pills. It is a useful cholagog^e when mercurials are contra- 
indicated. Podophyllum liesin must not be given alone on 
account of its griping tendency, but combined with a car- 
minative, such as Hyosc.vamus, Belladonna, or Cannabis 
Indica. The comparative slowness of its action must also bo 

Calumb^ Radix. 219 


Anisi Stcllati Fructiis.— Fruit of the Star-Anise. 
The dried fruit of Illicium verum. From China, 

Characters. — Eight carpels diverging horizontally in a 
stellate manner from an axis ; each carpel boat-shaped, 
beaked, irregularly wrinkled, rusty brown, with a solitary 
reddish brown seed. Odour and taste like those of Anise. 

From Anisi Stellati Fructus is made : 

Oleum Anisi. See page 305. 


These are described at page 305. 


Calumbw Radix.— Calumba Root. The dried 
transversely cut slices of the root of Jateorhiza Columba. 

Characters. — Flattlsh, circular or oval slices, depressed 
centrally, about 1 to 2 inches broad ; from | to f inch thick ; 
yellowish. Cork brownish, wrinkled ; the cortex thick, with 
radiating lines, a fine dark line separating the two parts. 
Odour feeble ; taste bitter ; fracture short. 

Composition. — Caluraba contains three yellow crystal- 
line alkaloids, JateorMzivie, CaoHao^^OsOH, Columbamine^ 
C2iH22N05*OH, and Palmatiue, C^^H^^^O^OU. ; a colourless, 
bitter, crystalline principle, Coliimbin ; 35 per cent, of 
starch ; but no tannic acid. 


1. Infusmn Calmnbse. — 1 in 20 of cold Water. 
Dose, ^ to 1 fl.oz, 

2. Liquor Calumbse Concentratus. — Aqueous and 
Alcoholic. 1 in 2. Dose, ^ to 1 11. dr. 

3. Tinctura CalumbaB.— 1 in 10 of alcohol 60 per 
cent. ; by maceration. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 


Calumba is the first of the large and important group of 
bitter substances or bitters which we meet with in the 

2 20 Calumbm Radix. 

materia medica, and will therefore be fully discussed as the 
type of this class of remedies. Under the head of the other 
bitters, such as Quassia and Gentian, fresh description of 
their actions and uses will be unnecessary, and reference will 
simply be made to the present account. So with the actions 
and uses, as hitters, of the alkaloids (Strychnine, Quinine, 
etc.), and of the a/romatic bitters, including Orange, Lemon, 
Cascarilla, etc. 


Externally. — Calumba and other bitters are antiseptic 
and disinfectant to a degree, arresting decomposition and 
fermentation. They are not used for this purpose. 

Internally. — Taken into the mouth, bitters, as their name 
implies, stimulate the nerves of taste, and therewith induce 
several reflex effects of the first importance in digestion. (1) 
The saliva is increased, and thus its solvent and digestive 
influence on the food in the mouth, as well as its stimulant 
action on the gastric secretion. (2) The vessels and glands of 
the stomach are excited through the central nervous system, 
and the gastric secretion is thus increased in a second way, 
an effect which is heightened if the bitter be aromatic and 
relish given by the pleasant flavour. 

Reaching the stomach, Calumba and other bitters stimu- 
late digestion in a third way by acting directly on the gastric 
nerves and causing a sensation closely resembling hunger. 
This rouses the appetite ; and if food be taken within a few 
minutes, the other effects just described afford the means of 
digesting it. As in the mouth, the action of bitters in the 
stomach is greatly assisted by aromatics (essential oils) and 
alcohol (contained in tinctures). Like these substances, 
bitters also stimulate the local circulation, and produce a 
remote effect on the heart and systemic vessels, raising the 
blood pressure, and thus acting as " general tonics." They 
will also exert a certain controlling effect on any decom- 
position or fermentation which may be set up in the stomach. 
When given in excess, or for a long time, bitters will mani- 
festly, in every way, tend to irritate the stomach and 
induce indigestion. 

Calumba and bitters in general pass slowly along the in- 
testbu's, moderating decomposition, and slightly stimulating 
peristalsis unless they contain tannic acid, which many do. 
They increase pancreatic secretion, but not the bile. 

The uses of Calumba and other bitters internally depend 
on the actions just described They are of great value as 

CaLUMBM R^DIX. 22 1 

stomachics, and are much employed in rousing gastric diges- 
tion in atonic dyspepsia, where the appetite and the ability 
to digest have been diminished or lost, as in anaemia, conva- 
lescence from acute diseases, in persons exhausted by over- 
work, whether mental or bodily, and in the subjects of chronic 
constitutional diseases, such as phthisis and syphilis. In 
such cases, bitter infusions form the best vehicle for acid 
or alkaline stomachics, as the case may require, combined 
with an aromatic tincture which renders the mixture much 
more agreeable and active. Their use must not be continued 
too long without intermission ; they must not be given in too 
concentrated a form ; and they must be employed with 
caution, or entirely avoided, in cases of dyspepsia attended 
with much pain, vomiting, or mucous secretion, as well as in 
structural disease of the stomach. Calumba is one of the 
least irritant of all bitter stomachics. 

The action of bitters on the bowels no doubt adds to 
their value in indigestion, as they remove flatulence and pro- 
mote evacuation. Some forms of diarrhoea are relieved by 
Calumba. Whether given by the mouth or as an enema, 
bitter infusions are anthelmintic, preventing and destroying 
the threadworm. 


Whether bitters possess any direct actions on the blood 
or tissues beyond those just described, is uncertain. Their 
indirect effect on the system is manifestly great, and of the 
first importance therapeutically, as they are the means of 
introducing into the blood an increased amount of nutrient 
material. In this way bitters are tonics, invigorating the 
body whilst they increase appetite ; a system of treatment 
which is agreeable and striking to invalids and persons 
enfeebled by disease, over-work, or dyspepsia. 

PareiraE Radix.— Pareira Root. The dried root 
of Chondrodendron tomentosum. 

Characters. — Long cylindrical twisted pieces, | to 2 or 
more inches thick ; with a thin blackish-brown bark, marked 
with longitudinal furrows and transverse ridges and fissures. 
Internally yellowish- or brownish -Krey, with circles of porous 

2 22 Pareirm Radix. 

wood, separated into wedge-shaped portions by large 
medullary rays, waxy when cut. No odour ; taste bitter. 

Comj)osltwn. — Pareira Root contains a bitter alkaloid 
pelosine, CigHoiNOs, possibly identical with beberine ; starch, 
and resin. Incompatibles. — Ferric salts, salts of lead, and 
tincture of iodine. 

Extractum Pareirsa Liquidum. — Aqueous and 
alcoholic. Dose, ^ to 2 fl.dr. 


The physiological actions of Pareira are imperfectly 
known, but it is believed to possess mild bitter and laxative 
effects, and to be a moderately active diuretic. 

Empirically, it is used in inflammatory affections of the 
urinary tract, from the pelvis of the ureter downwards, being 
held to relieve pain, reduce irritation, and promote healing 
and cessation of muco-purulent discharge. 

Picrotoxinuni.— PicROToxiN. 

principle obtained from the fruits of Anamirta paniculata 
( Cocculus indicus). 

Characters. — Colourless, inodorous, prismatic crystals. 
Taste bitter. Solubility.— I in 330 of cold, or 35 of boiling, 
water ; 1 in 3 of boiling, 1 in 13 of cold, alcohol 90 per cent. 

Dose, T^^ to ^V ^^ 

Externally, Cocculus or Picrotoxin, in the form of an 
ointment, very carefully applied to the unbroken surface, 
destroys pediculi. Internally, Picrotoxin is a very powerful 
agent which especially stimulates the various centres in the 
medulla, large doses causing disturbances of respiration and 
circulation, and tonic and clonic muscular spasms. It is 
chiefly used in the night-sweating of phthisis, and in chronic 
diseases of the nervous system. 

Papaveris CapsiilBE — Poppy Capsules. The 
nearly ripe dried fruits of Papaver somniferum, the White 

Opium 223 

Characters. — Rounded, depressed or ovoid capsules, with a 
thin, dry, brittle pericarp. Usually 2 to 3 inches in diameter, 
crowned by stellately arranged stigmas. Pericarp yellowish- 
brown ; frequently with blackish spots. Presents internally 
thin parietal placentas, and very many small reniform reticu- 
lated whitish seeds. Fruits inodorous ; pericarp bitter. 

Composition. — Poppy Capsules contain a little opium and 
woody fibre ; the seeds contain a bland oil. See Opium. 


The actions of Poppy Capsules are the same as those ol 
Opium, but very much weaker. A warm decoction is a 
favourite anodyne fomentation. Preparations of Opium are 
in every respect preferable. 

Opium.— Opium. The juice obtained by incision from 
the unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum, the White Poppy, 
inspissated by spontaneous evaporation. 

Characters. — Rounded, irregular, or flattened masses, 
weighing from 8 ounces to 2 pounds. When fresh, plastic, 
moist, coarsely granular, and reddish- or chestnut-brown ; but 
becoming harder on keeping, and darkening to blackish- 
brown. Odour strong, characteristic ; taste bitter. 

Varieties. — Any suitable variety of Opium may be employed 
as a source of Tincture of Opium and Extract of Opium of 
the respective official alkaloidal strengths, provided that 
when dry it contains not less than 7'5 per cent, of anhydrous 
morphine ; but when otherwise used for official purposes. 
Opium must be of such a strength that when dried and 
powdered, the powder heated to 212° F, until it ceases to lose 
moisture, and the product tested by the official method, such 
dried powder shall yield not less than 9-5 per cent, and not 
more than 105 per cent, of anhydrous Morphine. Svnjrna, 
Turkey or Levant Opium is the best. It occurs in irregular, 
rounded or flattened masses, seldom more than two pounds in 
weight, enveloped in poppy leaves, and surrounded with the 
fruits or seeds of rumex. Good Smyrna Opium yields 10 to 
12 per cent, of Morphine. Constantinople Opium is generally 
inferior to Smyrna. It is found in cakes, either large and 
irregular, or small and lenticular, covered with a poppy leaf, 
and marked with its midrib, but without rumex seeds. It 
emells much less strongly than Smyrna Opium. Egyptian 



Opium occurs in round flattened cakes of a reddish hue, with 
vestiges of a leaf. Persian Opium is in sticks or lumps. 
Indian Opium is in balls enveloped in poppy leaves, or in 
cakes. There are also French and English varieties. 

Composition. — Opium contains (1) certain alkaloids ; (2) a 
neutral substance ; (3) tvio oxgama acids ; (4) about 16 per 
cent, of water; (5) resin, gum, salts, extractives, odorous 
principles, and other constituents of plants. The most 
important of these are as follows : 

Morphine .. .. 
Codeine . . . . 
Thebaine or \ 

Paraniorphine S 

4. Codamine . . . . 

5. Cryptopine 

6. Hydrocotaniine 

7. Papaverine 

8. Narcotine .. .. 

9. Narceine .. 

10 Gnoscopine 

11. Laudanine 

12. Meconin .. .. 

13. Meconic Acid .. 

14. Thebolactic Acid 

in 100 

6 to 12 
up to •( 

up to '3 


4 to 6 

up to 02 

•OS to •: 
4 to 8 


+ H2O 









Lactic Acid 










White needles. 

See page 225. 
( White plates, with 
J acrid styptic 
( taste. 

("Large 6-sided 
\ prisms. 

Minute prisms. 
( Large colourless 
( prisms. 

White needles, 
r" Shining prisms ; 
I tasteless, odourl 
C less. 

rFine white 
i. needles ; odour- 
(. less, liitter. 
jThin woolly 
( needles. 

Hexagonal prisms. 
\' White needles; 
X odourless, acrid. 
<■ Scales or rhombic 
](. prisms. 

Imjmritics (chiefly adulterations). — Opium is often soft 
from excess of water, which causes a great variation in the 
strength. Stones, fruits, leaves, etc., may be detected by 
filtering a decoction ; and starch by the iodine test. Test. — 
The official test is intended to ascertain the amount of 
Morphine in specimens which are pure but of doubtful rich- 
ness. It consists in (1) triturating 14 grammes of Opium, 
dried at 212° F. and powdered, with 6 grammes of Calcium 
Hydroxide and 40 cc. of Water, adding more water, stirring, 
and filtering; (2) adding to the filtrate 10 cc. of Alcohol 
90 per cent., and 50 cc. of Ether, and shaking ; (3) adding 

Opium, 225 

4 giuuiDLes of Ammonium Chloride, shaking frequently, 
separating the Morphine by standing, collecting it on a filter, 
washing, drying and weighing ; and (4) titrating -5 gramme 
of the crystals with decinormal volumetric solution of H2SO4. 
Che result should correspond to about 10 per cent, of 
anhydrous Morphine. 

General chemical characters, reactions and incompatibilities 
of Opium. — A fluid (watery or alcoholic) preparation of 
Opium reddens litmus paper (free meconic acid). It gives a 
deep red colour with ferric chloride (meconic acid) ; precipi- 
tates with lead acetate and subacetate, silver nitrate, zinc, 
copper, and arsenic (meconates, sulphates, and colouring 
matter) ; a precipitate with tincture of galls or astringent 
preparations (codeine tannate). It becomes turbid with fixed 
alkalis and their carbonates, alkaline earths, and ammonia 
(precipitated morphine and narcotine). 

Dose of Opium. — \ to 2 gr. 


1. Emplastrum Opii. — 1 in 10, with Resin Plaster. 

2. Extractum Opii. — Aqueous. Contains 2 of 
Opium in 1, or 20 per cent, of Morphine. Bose, 
\ to 1 gr. 

From Extractum Opii is prepa/red : 

Extractum Opii Liquidum. — -75 of Extract 
macerated in 16 of Water, with 4 of Alcohol 
90 per cent, added. Contains | grain of Morphine 
in 110 minims. Dose, 5 to 30 min. 

3. Pilula Plumbi cum Opic— Opium, 1; Lead 
Acetate, 6 ; Syrup of Glucose, 7. 1 in 8. Dose, 2 to 

4. Pilula Saponis Composita. — Opium, 1 ; Hard 
Soap, 3 ; Syrup of Glucose, 1. 1 in 5, Dose, 2 to 4 gr, 

5. Pulvis Opii Compositus. — Opium, 3 ; Black 
Pepper, 4 ; Ginger, 10 ; Caraway Fruit, 12 ; Traga- 
canth, 1. 1 in 10. Bose, 2 to 10 gr. 

6. Pulvis IpecacuanhaB Compositus. — Dover's 
Powder. Opium, 1 ; Ipecacuanha, 1 ; Potassium Sul- 
phate, 8. 1 in 10. Bose, 5 to 15 gr. 

From Bover's Powder is prepared : 

Pilula Ipecacuanhje cum Scilla. — Com- 
pound Powder of Ipecacuanha, 3 ; Squill, 1 ; 
Ammoniacum, 1; Syrup of Glucose, £.«. 1 of 
Opium in 20. Bose^ 4 to 8 gr. 

226 Opium. 

7. Pulvis Kino Compositus.— Opium, 1 ; Kino, 16; 

Cinnamon, 4. 1 in 20. Lose, 5 to 20 gr. 

8. Pulvis Cretae Aromaticus cum Opio.— Opium, 1 ; 
Aromatic Powder of Chalk, 39. 1 in 40. Bom, 10 to 
40 gr. 

9. Suppositoria Plumbi Composita. — Opium, 1 gr. ; 
Lead Acetate, 3 gr. ; and Oil of Theobroma, 11 gr 
1 gr. of Opium in each Suppository. 

10. Tinctura Opii. — Laudanum, Opium, 1 -5 ,• 
Alcohol 90 per cent, and Distilled Water, of each a 
sufficiency to produce a standardised tincture contain- 
ing 1 gr. of Opium in 15 min. or 'TO-'SO gramme of 
anhydrous Morphine in 100 cc. Doie, 5 to 15 min. 
repeated ; 20 to 30 min. at once. 

From Tinctura Opii are prepared : 

a. LiNiMENTUM Opii.— Equal parts of Tinc- 
ture of Opium and Liniment of Soap. 1 in 27. 

b. TiNCTUBA Opii Ammoniata. — "Scotch 
Paregoric." Tincture of Opium, 150 ; Benzoic Acid, 
20-6 ; Oil of Anise, 6-25 ; Solution of Ammonia, 200 ; 
Alcohol 90 per cent., to make 1000. Contains -62 gr. 
of Opium in 1 fl.dr. (1 in 88), or 5 gr. in 1 fl.o*. 
Dose, 30 to 60 min. 


Paregoric ; Paregoric Elixir. Tincture of Opium, 
60-9; Benzoic Acid, 4-6; Camphor, 34; Oil of 
Anise, 3-1 ; Alcohol 60 per cent., to make 1000. 
Contains *25 gr. of Opium, or -^ gr. Morphine 
Hydrochloride, in 1 fl.dr. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 

11. Unguentum Gallse cum Opio. — Opium, 15; 
Gall Ointment, 185. 7 5 in 100. 

From Opium, are made : 

12. l^Iorphinae Hydrocliloridiiin. — Morphine 
Hydrochloride. CiyHjgNOs.HCl.SHaO. The Hydrochloride of 
an alkaloid obtained from Opium. 

Characters. — White acicular prisms of silky lustre, or a 
white powder consisting of minute cubical crystals. Solu- 
bility. — 1 in 24 of cold, 1 in 1 of boiling, water ; 1 in 50 of 
alcohol. Solutions yield a white precipitate with KHO, 
soluble in excess. Morphine salts give an orange-red colour 
when moistened with HNO,; a greenish-blue with neutral 

OpiVM, ±2'J 

solution of\. Inc&nipatibles. — The alkaline carbonates ; 
lime water; salts of lead, iron, copper, mercury, and zinc; 
Liquor Arsenicalis, and all astringent vegetable preparations. 
ImpiiHties. — Other alkaloids, mineral matters. Dose, |^ to | gr. 


a. Liquor Morphinae Hydrochloridi. — Solution of 
Morphine Hydrochloride. 1 of Morphine Hydro- 
chloride in 100 of a mixture of Alcohol 90 per cent., 
Water and Diluted Hydrochloric Acid. 1 gr. in 110 
min. Dose, 10 to 60 m in. 

&. Suppositoria Morphinae. — \ gr. in each, with 
14| gr. of Oil of Theobroma. 

c. Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinae Composita.— 

-^ gr. of Morphine Hydrochloride in 10 min. See 
page 167. 

d. Trochiscus Morphinae. — ^V gr. of Morphine 
Hydrochloride, with Tolu Basis. 

e. Trochiscus Morphinae et Ipecacuanhae. — J^ gr. 

of Morphine Hydrochloride, and yL gr. of Ipecacuanha, 
with Tolu Basis. 

13. ITforpliiiise Acetas.— Morphine Acetate, Ci-Hjo 
N03,C2H402,3H20, carefully dried. 

Source. — Made by neutralising Morphine with Acetic 

ChoA'acters. — A white crystalline or amorphous powder. 
Solubility.— I in 2\ of water ; 1 in 100 of Alcohol 90 per cent. 
Lose, \iQ\ gr. 


Liquor Morphinae Acetatis.— Solution of Mor- 
phine Acetate. 1 of Morphine Acetate in 100 of 
a mixture of Alcohol 90 per cent,. Distilled Water 
and Diluted Acetic Acid. 1 gr. in 110 min. Dose, 10 to 
60 min. 

U. Moi'pliiuae Tartras. — Morphine Tartrate. 


Source. — Prepared by the combination in molecular pro- 
portions of Morphine and Tartaric Acid. 

Characters.— K white powder, consisting of fine nodular 
tufts of minute acicular crystals, efflorescent. Solubility.— 
1 in 11 of cold water; almost insoluble in alcohol 90 per 
cent. Dose, | to \ gr. 

a 28 Opium. 


a. Injectio Morphinse Hypodermica. Hypodermic 

Injection of Morphine. Made by dissolving'5 of Mor- 
phine Tartrate in 100 of Distilled Water recently 
boiled and cooled. 1 gr. of Tartrate in 22 min. 
Dose, hypodermically, 2 to 5 min. 

b, Liquor Morphinse Tartratis.— 1 of Morphine 
Tartrate in 100 of a mixture of Alcohol 90 per cent, 
and Distilled Water. 1 gr. in 110 min. Dose, 10 to GO 

15. Codciiia.— Codeine. CnHigCCHg) NO,, HjO. An 
alkaloid obtained from Opium or Morphine. 

Characters. — Nearly colourless trimetric crystals. Solu- 
hility.—l in 80 of water or of Solution of Ammonia ; readily 
in alcohol 90 per cent., in chloroform, and in diluted acids ; 
1 in 30 of ether. Aqueous solution is alkaline and bitter. 
Impurities. — Morphine and others. Dose, J to 2 gr. 

16. Codelnae Phosplias.— Codeine Phosphate. The 
phosphate (C,7Hi8(CH3)N03,H3POj2,3H20 of an alkaloid ob- 
tained from Opium or from Morphine. 

Characters. — White crystals, bitter. Solubility. — 1 in 4 of 
water : less soluble in alcohol 90 per cent. Dose, | to 2 gr. 


Sjnnipus CodelnsB. — J gr. Codeine Phosphate in 
1 fl. dr. of Syrup and Water. Dose, \ to 2 fl. dr. 

17. Diacetyl - Iflorpliine Hydrochloride.— 

" Heroin." {Not offi,cial). A white crystalline powder, 
soluble in water. Dose, ^ to ^ gr. 


^Externally. — Opium is generally believed to be anaesthetic 
and anodyne when applied to the unbroken skin ; and the 
Emplastrum, Linimentum, fomentations made from the 
Tincture, and other preparations are used to relieve the 
pains of neuralgia, lumbago, abscess, etc. It is doubtful, 
however, whether Morphine can be absorbed by the unbroken 
skin ; and the benefit derived from these applications may be 
due to the spirit, or to the heat. Wounds, ulcers, and exposed 

Opium, 229 

mucous surfaces readily absorb Morphine or Opium, which 
are used in painful ulcers, conjunctivitis and similar diseases. 
Morphine is occasionally given by the enderviio method, 
especially in the epigastric region. Hypodermic injection is 
a most valuable means of administration, when a rapid or 
local effect is specially desired, or when the stomach is 
irritable or inaccessible. 

Internally.— O'^ixi.m is quickly absorbed by the mucous 
membrane of the motith, and exerts an action there which, 
although in part also specific and in part remote, is chiefly 
an immediate local one. A full medicinal dose renders the 
mouth dry and the tongue foul, from diminution of the 
secretions, with thickness of the voice and some thirst. On 
entering the stomach Opium may cause sickness, from brief 
irritation of the nerves, but sensibility is quickly reduced : 
hunger and pain are relieved or removed; appetite, gastric 
secretion, and digestive activity diminished ; the vomiting 
centre is now depressed, and the reflex abolished, so that 
reflex emetics will no longer act. Anorexia, nausea, and 
sickness may occur as seqicelcB of the same or of larger doses. 

These effects of Opium on the stomach have a double bear- 
ing in therapeutics. First, they indicate that it has a constant 
tendency to derange digestion. Secondly, it is a powerful 
means of relieving gastric pain and vomiting, whatever their 
cause, but especially in the acute catarrh which remains as 
the effect of irritant food, alcohol, or poison, after these have 
been removed; in ulcer, "chronic," or malignant; and in 
reflex sickness, due to disease, irritation, or operation, in 
some other part of the abdomen. In chronic dyspeptic pain it 
is manifestly contra-indicated. 

The action of Opium on the intestine is distinctly sedative, 
although very brief primary stimulation may sometimes be 
recognised. The passage of food into the intestine from the 
stomach is delayed owing to contraction of the pyloric 
sphincter; pain is prevented or relieved ; and the secretions 
become less abundant. ^^ At the same time peristalsis is 
rendered more feeble or is completely arrested ; this con- 
stipating action is local and can be obtained when all the 
nerves are cut. The total result on the bowel is anodyne and 
astringent. Opium is therefore a most valuable remedy for 
unnatural frequency of the bowels, as in simple diarrhoea, the 
first stage of cholera, the ulceration of typhoid fever and 
tuberculosis, and irritant poisoning. In all such capes, how- 
ever, it must be employed with the cautions to be afterwards 
insisted on ; and in most instances it is best prescribed as an 
?iddition to other astringents, such as Chalk, Lead, and 

230 Opium. 

Tannic Acid in its many forms ; the amount of Opium being 
a minimum, but still sufficient to assist the less powerful 
drugs. It has the further advantage of relieving abdominal 
pain. Even infants (see Cautions, page 238) may thus be 
treated for diarrhoea with the greatest benefit. Very large 
doses of Opium paralyse the splanchnics in animals, increasing 
peristalsis ; and diarrhoea may be observed in man undei 
similar conditions. 

Opium relieves pain and collapse in hernia, intestinal 
obstruction, peritonitis, and visceral perforations, ruptures 
and wounds ; but must be given with this end only until sur- 
gical measures can be employed, for it produces dangerous 
paralysis of the bowel and masks guiding symptoms. 

Given by the rectum, as an enema or the Suppository, 
Opium relieves local pain, diarrhoea, and spasm of the rectum 
or neighbouring parts ; sets the pelvic organs at rest after 
operation ; and prevents irritation of the rectum by nutrient 
enemata. The dose of Opium by the rectum should be half 
as much again as by the mouth. 

A trace of Morphine is excreted unabsorbed in the fasces. 


Morphine enters the circulation less quickly than some 
other alkaloids, although the first traces of the drug are 
rapidly discovered in the blood. Thus its full action is 
comparatively slowly developed, and solid Opium continues 
to exert local effects even in the colon, portion by portion of 
the Morphine being absorbed into the vessels. The red cor- 
puscles are said to be reduced in size indirectly, possibly 
through slowing of the circulation and want of oxygen. 


After administration Morphine can be found in the body 
not as such, but in the form of oxymorphine, C54HseN20„. 
All the organs, probably without exception, are physiologically 
affected by it ; but its principal action is exerted upon the 
nervous system. 

Tlie convolutions are first briefly excited, and afterwards 
depressed, apparently by direct action of the Morphine upon 
the nerve ceils, not on the cerebral vessels. The stage of 
Opium excitement is said to transcend even the first stage 
of alcoholic intoxication in the exaltation of feelings, the 
sense of happiness and comfort, the brilliancy of imagination, 
and the increase of intellectual power and mental vigour 
generally, ail accompanied by brightness of expression and 
roaaner. But the effect of Opium, even in this stage, is 

Opium. 231 

rarely one of pure exaltation, ana in most persons is perhaps 
never so. There is generally some perversion of the faculties, 
and the imagination becomes extravagant, wandering into the 
land of dreams, of the grotesque, and the impossible. De- 
pression now supervenes : the various perceptive and sensory, 
centres in the convolutions are more or less depressed, 
according to the dose ; impressions made upon the afferent 
nerves, including pain, do not readily affect the centres ; the 
subject becomes drowsy, and finally sleeps ; and if he 
momentarily respond to a sharp inquiry or other forms of 
stimulation, he quickly relapses into heavy sopor. When the 
dose is excessive, the stage of excitement is entirely absent, 
the cerebrum is speedily and profoundly depressed, and no 
response follows severe forms of stimulation, such as flagella- 
tion : the patient is comatose. These effects of Opium on the 
brain as a stimulant, anodyne, hypnotic and narcotic are 
more marked in man and in highly intellectual races than in 
animals and lower races, respectively. In cold-blooded 
animals they are quite subordinate to the effects of stimula- 
tion of the cord. 

The ganglia at the base of the brain are affected by Opium, 
whence contraction of the pupil and disturbed accommo- 

The viotor ce^itres in the brain and spinal cord are at first 
briefly stimulated by Opium, reflex excitability being in- 
creased, as shown by restlessness in man and convulsions in 
animals. At the stage of cerebral depression, languor and 
muscular weakness, of central origin, set in, and the subject 
lies down ; but there is not then complete loss of muscular 
power and irritability, and even in dangerous poisoning the 
patient can be marched about if supported on either side. 

Following close upon the convolutions and cord, the great 
vital centres in the medulla are markedly affected by Opium. 
Vomiting is not uncommon as one of the first effects. The 
respiratory centre, at first unaffected, is then depressed, the 
respiratory movements becoming quiet, superficial, and ir- 
regular ; and death by Opium poisoning is due to paralysis 
of the respiratory centre and arrest of breathing, that is, to 
asphyxia. The cardiac centre is more resistant to Morphine : 
slight acceleration of the heart occurs ; followed by a slow- 
ing due either to direct stimulation of the vagus centre or to 
asphyxial blood. The vascular centre is depressed, but never 
to a dangerous extent ; and even in complete narcosis, when 
respiration is failing, the blood-pressure (pulse) responds to 
afferent stimuli. The full action of Opium on the respiration, 
heart and vessels will be immediately described. 

232 Opium, 

We shall presently find that the therapeutical value of the 
action of Opium on the central nervous system lies in the 
fact that it depresses the perceptive and sensory centres so 
much earlier and more profoundly than the vital centres in 
the medulla. Its effects on the pupil, heart, vessels, respira- 
tion and cord are of less positive value in treatment, and in 
some respects unfortunate. v. 

Unless given in very large doses, Opium has no influence 
on the peripheral sensory or motor nerves or on the muscles. 
When applied directly to a nerve, it does not produce any 
effect on its irritability. The statement that Morphine para- 
lyses sensory nerve terminations and thus acts as a local 
anodyne when applied to the unbroken skin endermically, or 
injected hypodermically, is incorrect. Morphine has no such 
local action. The apparent anesthesia of the skin after an 
injection, has been proved to be no greater at the point of 
injection than elsewhere ; thus we can deduce that its action 
in relieving pain is purely central. Muscular irritability is 
never completely lost. 

The action of Opium upon the centres of several of the 
viscera has been partly described under tlie previous heads. 
In addition, retention of urine occurs in the bladder since 
the sphincter reflex is diminished or abolished. The heart is 
temporarily accelerated by Opium, in part through the 
cardiac centre, in part through its intrinsic ganglia. There- 
after, or with fuller doses, it is slowed by stimulation of 
the vagns in the medulla ; it has been remarked that the 
slowing of the heart does not occur if the blood is properly 
aerated, so that the cardiac effects appear to be consequent 
on respiratory failure. Very rarely death occurs by sudden 
cardiac failure. 

The vessels, dilated througli the centre, as described, are 
not directly influenced by Opium, either in their muscular 
coats or in their peripheral nerves. 

The respiratory movements of the chest are impaired 
through the centre, so that they become feeble and tend to 
cease. Frequently Cheyne-Stokes breathing results, due 
probably to tiie depressed centre being stimulated from time 
to time by the accumulation of asphyxial blood ; and even 
when the individual is unconscious in Opium poisoning the 
respiratory centre may nevertheless be temporarily excited 
by sudden shocks, such as the application of cold water to 
the skin, flagellation, etc. Dyspnoeal excitement (hyperpnoea), 
cough, spasm, and other reflex respiratory acts are rendered 
more difficult or are altogether prevented. At the same time 
the bronchial secretions are diminished or inspissated by the 

Opium. 2^^ 

action of the drug upon the glands, and the activity of 
the pulmonary circulation is lowered with the general blood- 
pressure and by the weakening of the respiratory movements. 
The total effect of Opium upon the respiratory functions is 
thus powerfully depressant. 

The biliary and glycogenic functions of the liver are 
affected by Morphine, which may cause pale stools or even 
jaundice, and markedly diminish the amount of sugar in dia- 
betes mellitus. Hepatic and general metabolism is reduced in 
activity, the amount of urea and probably of carbonic acid 
excreted being distinctly diminished. The temperature rises 
for a time, and then falls, apparently varying with the blood- 


The hypnotic and anodyne effects of Opium constitute it 
by far the most valuable drug of its kind, and the most 
important article of the whole materia medica. It is con- 
stantly employed to induce sleep, relieve pain, and calm 
excitement; this combination of properties making Opium 
greatly superior to Chloral Hydrate and other simple hyp- 
notics, on the one hand, and to Aconite, Belladonna, Quinine, 
and other direct or indirect anodynes, on the other hand. 
Speaking broadly, it is used in sleeplessness due to pain ; in 
the insomnia of exhaustion, overwork, fever or insanity, and 
in the restlessness and anxiety of visceral disease, the 
quantity, combinations, and time of administration being 
carefully arranged. In delirium Chloral Hydrate is often 
preferred, especially in delirium tremens ; but Opium is more 
suitable in the delirium of mania, and in the later stages of 
fevers, when the temperature is falling and the respiration 
and circulation are not oppressed. It has been recommended 
in heat pyrexia, combined with Quinine. 

There are but few kinds of pain that cannot be relieved 
by Opium ; whether it be wise to administer it in every 
instance is another question. The unbearable distress attend- 
ing the passage of renal and biliary calculi ; the pains of 
neuralgia, acute rheumatism and malignant disease, and of 
fractures, dislocations and other injuries, are a few examples 
of conditions in which Opium is essential. In all cases 
where pain is urgent the hypodermic method should be 
chosen. In gout it is to be used only when the pain is ex- 
cessive, as it tends to aggravate the cause. In hysterical 
pain recourse to it is undesirable. Other local visceral pains 
will be noticed presently. The pain and shock of operations 
are treated with a full dose of Opium. 

234 Opium. 

No use is made of the action of Opium on the iris and 
ciliary nerves. 

As an antispasmodic, Opium is less employed, for various 
reasons, e.g. in epilepsy and other convulsive diseases ; but 
it relieves some cases of spasmodic asthma, whooping-cough 
and spasmodic stricture of the urethra. 

The violent spasms and pains of certain diseases of the 
cord may yield to no other form of treatment than Morphine 

From its action on the medulla. Opium has been recom- 
mended as an antidote to Belladonna, which is so far its 
physiological antagonist, as we shall see (page 239) ; but it 
must be used with caution, and only in the stage of ex- 

The practical points connected with the vital centres will 
now be noticed under the heart, vessels and respiration. 

In diseases of the heart, Opium is of great value to relieve 
pain, anxiety and distress, whilst, as we have seen, it is a 
cardiac depressant. Towards the end of most cases of 
cardiac disease, the greatest discrimination is called for as to 
whether Opium may or may not be given. The safe rcile is 
to trust to other anodynes, such as direct and indirect stimu- 
lants, and measures for relieving the circulation ; but it is 
equally true that in some cases of heart disease unspeakable 
relief and permanent benefit may be obtained by the hypo- 
dermic injection of Morphine. This subject must be studied 
in books on the practice of medicine. 

From its soothing effect upon the vessels and circulation 
generally, Opium is a hsBmostatic of the first order, but 
requires to be used with judgment. In haemoptysis it is 
given in moderate doses, to promote rest and sleep, to relieve 
cough, to depress the circulation slightly by slowing and 
weakening the heart and dilating the vessels, and to relieve 
the mind of the anxiety which aggravates the bleeding. In 
intestinal haemorrhage it is of great value, arresting, as it also 
does, the movements of the bowel. It is best given with Lead 
or preparations containing Tannic Acid. 

The soothing influence of Opium on the bronchi, lungs, 
the afferent nerves and the centre of respiration, accounts for 
its extensive employment in cough, pain, dyspnoea and othei 
distressing symptoms in the chest. Its power here is un- 
questionable ; but for this very reason the danger attending 
it is great. Cough and dyspnoea are frequently beneficitJ 
acts, and are not to be arrested in a routine fashion by 
sedatives, but, if possible, by the removal of their cause. 
When cough is due to some irremovable condition, such as a 

Opium. 235 

growth in the lungs or bronchi, to pressure, to remote (reflex) 
irritation, or to excessive irritability of the nerves and centre, 
Opium is indicated and may be given with benefit. On the 
Bther hand, in cough and respiratory distress with abundant 
secretion, as in the bronchitis of the old and infirm or of the 
very young and feeble. Opium leads to retention and in- 
spissation of the products, aggravation of the cause, and 
asphyxia, and is on no account to be given. Between these 
extremes lies every variety of case in which Opium may 
suggest itself, e.g. in phthisis and recurrent bronchial catarrh. 
The rules of practice here should be not to prescribe Opium 
unless other means have failed, such as the many expectorants, 
and attention to food, warmth, etc. ; and that, when given, 
Opium must be ordered in small doses combined with ex- 
pectorants, such as Ammonia and Ipecacuanha, which will 
prevent dangerous depression of the local nerves and centres. 
In acute inflammation of the pleura, or pleuro-pneumonia, it 
may be necessary to relieve severe pain in the chest, harassing 
cough, sleeplessness and mental distress by Morphine hypo- 
dermically. Opium must be ordered with the greatest hesita- 
tion for asthma, as the Opium habit is readily acquired in 
this disease. Its employment in haemoptysis has been already 

With respect to the liver and metabolism, Opium is by far 
the most powerful drug known for reducing or removing 
sugar from the urine in diabetes mellitus, and therewith 
ameliorating the condition of the patient in most respects. 
Very large doses of solid Opium, Codeine or Morphine may 
be tolerated in this disease, their effect on the nervous system 
being remarkably absent whilst the diabetes mellitus is yield- 
ing. Acute inflammatory and febrile diseases are now less 
frequently treated with Opium than formerly, when a com- 
bination with Calomel was in general use, the Opium prevent- 
ing the purgative action of the mercurial, and the latter 
preventing constipation, whilst both drugs were believed to 
act specifically on the morbid process, reducing the local and 
general circulation, alleviating pain and restlessness, and 
promoting healing. The combination Opium and Mercury is, 
moreover, very valuable in syphilis. In the specific fevers, 
such as typhoid. Opium given with judgment reheves delirium, 
as we have seen, checks diarrhoea, and is invaluable in haemor- 
rhage, perforation or peritonitis. Phagedaena and some kinds 
of ulceration may call for its free exhibition. 

Opium is employed in obstetrics to prevent abortion, 
in some varieties of diflicult labour, and to relieve after- 

236 Opium. 

5. remote local actions and uses. 

The excretion of Morphine commences quickly, but maj 
not be completed for forty-eight hours. It leaves the body 
by most of the secretions, and by the intestine. In the urine 
it is found mainly unchanged. The quantity of urine mav 
be diminished; its evacuation disturbed from the loca; 
action of Morphine on the nervo-muscular mechanism of the 
bladder ; part of the Morphine reabsorbed ; and sugar present. 
These facts, and the probability of the retention and accumu- 
lation of Morphine in the system if the action of the kidneys 
be deficient, indicate the necessity to give it only with the 
greatest caution, in reduced doses or not at all, according to 
circumstances, in renal disorder or disease. 

Morphine in passing though the skin may cause itching, 
heat, and sometimes eruptions. The vessels are also dilated, 
as we have seen, and the sweat glands decidedly stimulated ; 
both being effects of its central, not of its local cutaneous 
action. Thus Opium, especially in the form of Dover's Powder, 
is a valuable diaphoretic, and is given with great success as 
a refrigerant antipyretic, in the onset of catarrh, influenza, 
and mild febrile or rheumatic attacks caused by cold. In 
certain circumstances Dover's Powder checks the sweating of 
phthisis, probably by removing its cause. Being excreted in 
the milk. Morphine must be prescribed with great caution to 
nursing females. 


1. Morphine.— The action of opium depends chiefly on 
morphine, and the description just given applies so nearly to 
the pure alkaloid, that only a few points of difference require 
to be noticed. These depend upon two principal circum- 
stances : (1) Opium, being much less soluble than the phar- 
macopceial preparations of Morphine, is more slowly absorbed, 
and thus acts less quickly than Morphine, whilst its effects 
are more lasting, and its immediate local action on the 
intestines is decidedly more marked. (2) Several of the 
constituents of Opium possess more or less convulsant actions 
(Thebaine, Codeine, Narcotine), Morphine none (in man) ; 
the latter has therefore a more sedative influence than the 
entire drug. The effect of Morphine on the skin is also less 
marked than that of Opium. Unless there be some special 
reason to the contrary. Morphine is generally to be preferred to 
Opium in practice, as being of definite composition (whilst the 
crude drug is very variable), more rapid in action, and readily 

Opium. 237 

administered hypodermically, whilst the dyspeptic and con- 
stipating effects of the drug are less marked. Opium is to 
be preferred in intestinal and abdominal diseases, such as 
diarrhoea, obstruction, peritonitis and hernia, because it 
reaches the bowel directly ; in delirium tremens and mental 
disorder, because its action is more continued ; in diabetes, 
because it is very much safer ; for combinations with Quinine 
or Calomel, and as a diaphoretic, because it prevents purga- 
tion and lowers fever ; in astringent enemata, from its action 
on the bowel ; and for local applications, e.g. to the con- 
junctiva, because less irritant than the alkaloid. The relative 
strength of Opium to Morphine is about i or ^ to 1. 

2, Codeine. — This alkaloid appears to excite the cord 
more than Morphine and to depress the convolutions less, so 
that muscular tremors may follow and exceed its sedative 
influence. Codeine, in |-gr. doses cautiously increased, until 
20 gr. or more may be taken per diem, markedly reduces the 
amount of sugar in diabetes. It is also employed to prevent 
or relieve pain in connection with the abdominal nerves ; 
and, as the Syrup, to allay troublesome cough. 

8. Xarcotine causes a condition of excitement with ex- 
aggerated reflexes, restlessness and tremors, which end in 
strychnine-like convulsions. It acts directly on the heart 
and slows it. 

4. Narceine probably acts like Morphine and is not em- 
ployed medicinally. 

5. Thehaine is a convulsant, almost like Strychnine. 

6. Protopine, Cryptopine, and possibly Papaverine, act 
like Morphine. Hydrocotarnine and Laudanine act like 

7. The action of Meconio Acid is doubtful. 


This subject will be best discussed from the point of view 
of the conditions calling for Opium. 

1. Severe pain, such as colic or neuralgia, is to be treated 
with the Hypodermic Injection of Morphine. Failing this, 
either of the Solutions of Morphine must be given by the 
mouth, or a fluid preparation of Opium, such as the Tincture, 
or the Liquid Extract. An enema made with the Tincture and 
mucilage of starch is a valuable anodyne in cases of abdo- 
minal pain. The Pilula Saponis Composita also acts rapidly, 
being more readily soluble in the stomach than solid Opium. 

2. Superficial pain may be met with local applications, sucb 

238 Opium. 

as the Plaster, Liniment, or fomentations made with Laad- 
anum or other fluid preparation ; but, as we saw, the value ol 
the drug itself in these applications is very doubtful. 

3. As a hypnotic, the best forms are the Tincture, the 
Liquid Extract, the Solutions of Morphine, and the Soap^and 
Opium Pill ; the particular preparation and the dose being 
regulated by the degree of sleeplessness and by the pain 
which may accompany it. Dover's Powder is an excellent 
hypnotic in the restlessness at the commencement of feverish 

4. As a sedative to the stomach, various preparations may 
be tried, such as the Solutions of Morphine in effervescing 
mixtures, Morphine endermically or hypodermically over the 
epigastrium ; sometimes solid Opium or the Extract in the 
form of a small pill, or Dover's Powder combined with 
Bismuth Oxycarbonate, or Sodium Bicarbonate. 

5. As a sedative and astringent to the horvels. Laudanum, 
either by the mouth or in an enema, may be given in urgent 
cases attended by much pain. When there is less urgency 
we may prescribe one of the powders: Compound Powdei 
of Opium, Chalk and Opium, Kino and Opium, or Dover's 
Powder. Morphine Acetate with Lead Acetate and Acetic 
Acid, or the Lead and Opium Pill may be demanded in severe 
diarrhoea, especially if haemorrhage threaten. Solid Opium, 
alone or combined with Calomel, is the best form in hernia, 
peritonitis and intestinal obstruction. 

6. As sedatives to the rectum, bladder, pelvic organs, and 
urethra, we order one of the Suppositories of Opium or 
Morphine, or an enema. 

7. Cou(jh may be relieved by several special prepaxationa, 
namely : Tinctura Camphorae Composita, Tinctura Opii 
Ammoniata, the Trochiscus Morphinas, Trochiscus Morphinaa 
et Ipecacuanhae, Pilula Ipecacuanhae cum Scilla, Syrupus 
Codeinae, and Heroin. 

8. Diaphoresis may be accomplished with Dover's Powder. 
The uses of the other preparations are obvious. 
Influences modifying the actions and uses of Opiom. 

Dangers : Cautions. — Age greatly modifies the effects of 
Opium, children being particularly susceptible of its influence 
on the convolutions and medulla. An infant of one year 
should not be given more than half a minim of the Tincture 
for an ordinary dose, and nursing mothers should be ordered 
Opium with special precautions. Females are more easily 
affected than males. Certain individuals have peculiar 
idiosyncrasies as regards Opium, some resisting its action, 
otberi being excited by it, others again very readily nar' 

Opium, 239 

cotised ; whilst some persons suffer from a species of shock 
after th« hypodermic injection of Morphine, becoming sick, 
faint, or even alarmingly collapsed. The effect of halnt is 
extremely marked in Opium, the necessary dose steadily 
rising until large quantities are taken. This can be safely 
done for a time, but presently the habit becomes uncon- 
trollable, and a disorder known as Opium-eating, Morphinism 
or Morphino-mania is established. Disease, especially pain, 
affords great resistant power to the action of Opium, and 
larger amounts of it are frequently tolerated. The quality of 
the Opium, the particular preparation and the combinations 
used also modify its action. On the contrary, Opium and 
Morphine act more powerfully in the subjects of renal disease, 
as we have already seen. Morphine and Opium are contra- 
indicated because dangerous, or they are to be used with 
special care in diseases of the respiratory organs, the heart, 
and the kidneys ; in congestive conditions and hyperaemia of 
the brain ; and in alcoholic intoxication. 

Opium and Belladonna : Combinations and Antagonism of 
Morphine and Atropine. — In several respects the actions of 
Morphine are opposed to those of Atropine, the active principle 
of Belladonna. The antagonism between the two substances 
is in part real, such as their respective effects on the con- 
volutions, respiratory centre and intestines. In part it is 
apparent only. Thus, the contraction of the pupil caused by 
Morphine occurs through the pupillary centre ; the dilatation 
caused by Atropine is referable to paralysis of the ciliary 
branches of the third nerve. Morphine is diaphoretic through 
the centres ; Atropine is anhidrotic through the terminal 
nerves of the glands. Both depress the heart and reduce the 
blood-pressure in poisonous doses. Thus Morphine and 
Atropine are not true antagonists, but the one may prevent or 
relieve certain effects of the other, and may therefore be 
(1) combined with the other for particular medicinal pm*- 
poses, or (2) given in the treatment of poisoning by the other 
under particular circumstances. 

(1) Combinations of Morphine and Atropine are now 
used for hypodermic injection (^-J,-, -^, or even -^ gr. of 
Sulphate of Atropine, to each grain of Acetate of Morphine) 
to prevent certain unpleasant effects of the latter. It is 
found that the immediate sickness and depression, and the 
subsequent dyspepsia and constipation, may thus be avoided, 
and a more natural sleep induced. The combination is pre- 
ferable when Morphine is given as a hypnotic or anodyne ; in 
conditions of cardiac depression and disease of the lungs ; in 
obstruction of the bowels; and to relieve spasms. The 

240 Apomorphinm Hydrochloridum. 

Atropine should be avoided in cerebral excitement, especially 

(2) Use as mutual antidotes. — Sulphate of Atropine, in 
doses of -^ gr. may be injected subcutaneously every quarter 
of an hour in Opium poisoning, the pulse and respira- 
tion being carefully watched. Three or four doses may 
thus be given ; but the ordinary means of resuscitation, 
especially artificial respiration, must not be interrupted for 
a moment. In poisoning by Belladonna, Morphine should 
be given subcutaneously, with the same precautions, in doses 
of igr. 

Apomorphiiise Hydrochloridum. — Apomob- 

PHINE Hydrochloeide. Ci7Hi7N02,HC1. The hydrochloride 
of an alkaloid obtained by heating Morphine Hydrochloride 
or Codeine Hydrochloride in sealed tubes with Hydrochloric 
Acid. C17H19NO3 = C17H17NO2 + H2O, the alkaloid losing 
one molecule of water. 

Cliaracters. — Small, grey ish- white, shining needles, turning 
green on exposure to liijht and air, inodorous, very faintly 
acid. Solubility. — 1 in (K) of water ; more soluble in alcohol 
90 per cent. Solutions become decomposed and green when 
boiled ; give with NaHCOa a precipitate which becomes green 
on standing, and then forms a purple solution with ether 
violet with chloroform, and bluish-green with alcohol 90 per 
cent. With dilute test solution of ferric chloride it gives 
a deep red, with nitric acid a blood-red, coloration. The salt 
should be rejected if it imparts an emerald-green colour to 
100 parts of water, Dose^ a's to -j'jy gr. hypodermically ; -^ to 
i gr. by the mouth. 


Injectio Apomorphinsa Hypodermica. — 1 dissolved 
in 1 of Diluted Hydrochloric Acid and 100 of Distilled 
Water recently boiled and cooled. To be prepared 
as required. 1 gr. in 1 10 min. Dose, subcutaneously, 
5 to 10 min. 


Apomorphine is the most certain of all emetics, acting 
upon the vomiting centre and but little on the ^;tomach, ie, 
being mainly a central emetic. In 5 to 20 minutes it causes 
moderate nausea, repeated vomiting, and the disturbances 
of the respiratory and circulatory organs produced by 

Rhceados Pet ALA. 241 

emetics, {fiee p. 489.) If the dose have been sufficient, the 
evacuation of the stomach is certain and complete. Larger 
doses cause prostration and paralysis of the voluntary 
muscles, depression of the respiratory centre, acceleration of 
the heart, and fall of temperature. Apomorphine may be 
used for the many purposes of emetics in general. Its 
special advantages consist in its certainty; the absence of 
local irritation of the stomach ; the readiness with which it 
can be given hypodermically, that is to patients unable to 
swallow, as a small non-irritant injection ; and the slightness 
of the after-effects. Small doses (-Jq gr.) are expectorant, and 
5 min. of the Injection given by the mouth may be used in 

Khoeados Petala. — Red-Poppy Petals. The 
fresh petals of Papaver Rhoeas. Indigenous. 

Characters. — Scarlet ; outline transversely elliptical, 
2 inches broad, surface smooth lustrous, margin entire, odour 
characteristic ; taste bitter. 

Composition. — Red Poppies contain 40 per cent, of red 
colouring matter, readily soluble in water, consisting of 
papaveric and rhoeadic acids ; an alkaloid rhceadine, 
CjiHaiNOg, without narcotic properties ; but no Morphine. 


Sjrrupus Rhoeados. — Made with Water, by infu- 
sion ; Sugar ; and Alcohol 90 per cent. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 


Syrup of Red Poppies is used as a colouring agent only. 


Sinapis Albse Semiiia.— White Mustard Seed. 
The dried ripe seeds of Brassica alba. 

Characters. — About ^ of an inch in diameter, -^^ gr. in 
weight, spheroidal, pale yellow ; with very finely pitted, 
reticulated testa ; externally hard ; internally yellow, oily. 
Inodorous ; taste less pungent than of black mustard seeds. 

Sinapis Nigral Scmlna. — Black Mustard Seed. 

The dried ripe seeds of Brassica sinapioides. 

242 Sin APIS Nigrm Semina. 

Characters. — Scarcely half the size of White Mustard 
seeds, ^\j gr. in weight, spherical or ovoidal, dark-reddish- or 
greyish-brown, testa finely pitted, hard ; internally yellowish- 
green and oily. Inodorous when dry, and even when 
powdered, but when rubbed with water yielding a strong 
pungent odour and irritating the eyes ; taste bitter at first, 
then very pungent. 

Substances resembling Black Mustard : Colchicum Seeds, 
which are larger, lighter, and not quite spherical. 

Comjyosition. — The seeds of Black Mustard contain: (1) 
about 27 per cent, of a hland. fixed oil. When this has been 
expressed, and the powdered mustard mixed with water at 
120** and distilled, there is obtained (2) the official volatile 
oil, Oleum Sinapis Volatile, C3H5CNS, allyl sulphocyanate, 
described below. As the seeds and powder of the mustard 
are devoid of these irritant properties, the oil cannot exist 
ready-formed in them, but is developed by a decomposition 
of their constituents. On the addition of water to the Black 
Mustard, its most important principle, potassium myronate, 
or sinigrin, KCioHigNSgOio (a compound of potassium with 
an acid glucoside, niyronic acid), is broken up by another 
constituent, myrosinj an enzyme, into volatile oil of- mustard, 
potassium sulphate and sugar, thus : KCjoHigNSjO^o = 
C3H5CNS -f KHSO4 -f CgHiaOg. Sinajns alba also contains 
(1) the fixed oil. It does not, however, yield the volatile 
oil, but (2) a substance with allied properties, called acrinyl 
sulphocyanate, C7H7CNSO, by a similar decomposition of its 
constituents, sinalbin, C^f^H^^lii^SX)^ (in place of potassium 
myronate) and myrosin; thus: C39tt44N2S20ie=C7H7CNSO 
+ Ci6H24CN05,HS04 (sinapin disulpliate) + CgH jjOj (glucose) 

From Sinapis Nigra Semina is made : 

Oleum Sinapis Volatile.— Volatile Oil of Mus- 
tard. Source. — Distilled from Black Mustard Seed 
after maceration with water. 

Characters. — Colourless or pale yellow, with in- 
tensely penetrating odour and very acrid taste. Almost 
immediately vesicates the skin. Solubility. — Readily 
in alcohol and ether. Boils at 297°-306° F. Sp. gr. 
1-018 to 1-030. Impxtrities. — Ethylic alcohol and 


Linimentum Sinapis. — Volatile Oil, 2; Camphor 
3; Castor Oil, 7; and Alcohol 90 per cent 43^ 
1 in 27. 

SiNAPJS. 243 

Sinapis. — Mustaed. The dried ripe seeds of Brassica 
sinapioides and Brassida alba, Black and White Mustard, 
powdered and mixed. 

Characters. — A greenish-yellow powder, of bitter pungent 
taste, inodorous when dry, but yielding when moist a pungent 
penetrating odour ; very irritating to nostrils and eyes. Jw- 
purities. — Starch and turmeric. 


Charta Sinapis. — Mustard Paper. Bruised Black 
and White Mustard Seeds percolated with benzol to 
extract the fixed oil ; the residue', dried, powdered, 
mixed with Solution of Indiarubber, and spread on 
cartridge paper, which is then dried. 


Externally. — When applied to a limited area of skin, 
Mustard acts quickly (1) as a rubefacient and nervous 
stimulant, causing redness, heat and severe burning pain. 
(2) This effect is followed by loss of sensibility of the part to 
other impressions, and relief of previously existing pain. (3) 
Prolonged application of the Charta or of a mustard poultice 
causes vesication, by producing local inflammation. Neigh- 
bouring and deeper parts, and viscera in vascular communica- 
tion or intimate nervous relation with the blistered area, 
may thus have their circulation relieved (^see p. 608). The 
heart, blood-pressure, respiration, and nervous centres gener- 
ally are stimulated by the first application of Mustard to the 
skin; soothed during the stage of anaesthesia and relief of 
pain ; and depressed in the third stage, especially if the 
vesication be too severe through neglect. Applied to the 
whole or a large part of the surface of the skin in the form of 
a bath, Mustard dilates the cutaneous vessels, and thus 
relieves the blood-pressure in the viscera. 

In the form of a poultice or of the Liniment or Paper, 
Mustard is extensively used as a readily available, con- 
venient and rapid means of relieving local pain, stimulating 
the internal organs, and producing counter-irritation, with 
evanescent and mild after-effects. It is applied to relieve the 
pains of muscular rheumatism (lumbago, etc.), neuralgia, in 
any part of the body, the indefinite pains in the chest in 
chronic disease of the lungs or heart, and colic, gastralgia 

244 SiNAPIS. 

and other forms of distress in the abdomen. As a cardio- 
vascular and respiratory stimulant, a large sinapism may be 
applied to the calves or soles in syncope, coma, or asphyxia, 
whether from disease or from poisoning. The counter- 
irritant effect of Mustard is chiefly used in inflammation of 
the throat, larynx, bronchi, lungs, pleura and pericardium ; 
sometimes in abdominal diseases ; frequently, and with 
success, in morbid conditions of the stomach and persistent 
vomiting from any cause. Diffused through a warm bath it 
is a popular " derivative " in cerebral congestions, in head- 
ache, and at the onset of colds and febrile diseases in 
children. A Mustard sitz bath may stimulate menstruation 
if taken at the period. 

Intemally. — Mustard produces a pungent impression on 
che tongue and olfactory organs, a sense of warmth in the 
stomach, with increase of relish and appetite and of the 
circulation in the gastric wall. It is therefore the most 
familiar of condiments. In full doses it is emetic, with rapid 
stimulation and but little subsequent depression. From one 
to four teaspoonfuls may be given, stirred up with a tumbler- 
ful of warm water in cases where other emetics are not avail- 
able or have failed, especially in poisoning by narcotics. 


The odour of Oil of Mustard can be detected in the 
blood. Its specific action is obscure, and never taken advan- 
tage of medicinally. Oil of Mustard is partly excreted by 
the lungs. 

Armoraciae Radix.— Hobsebadish Root. The 
fresh root of Cochlearia Armoracia. Cultivated in Britain. 

Clia/racten. — A nearly cylindrical root, ^ to 1 inch in 
diameter, a foot or more in length ; pale yellowish- or 
brownish-white externally, whitish within ; taste very 
pungent ; odour pungent when bruised or scraped. Sub 
sta/nce resembling Horgeradish : Aconite Root, which is short 
conical, darker, and causes tingling when chewed. 

Composition. — Horseradish contains the glucoside sinigrin 
(potassium myronate) and also the enzyme viyrosin ; these in 
presence of water interact and produce the volatile oil of. 
mustard, allyl isothiocyanate, CjHgCNS (seep. 242). Basins, 
sugar and starch are also present. 

Senegm Radix. 245 

Spiritus ArmoraciaB Compositus.— 1 in 8, by dis- 
tillation with dried Bitter-Orange Peel, Nutmegs 
Alcohol 90 per cent., and Water. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr. 

Horseradish has been used in domestic medicine as a 
counter-irritant, but is most familiar as a pleasant condi- 
ment, possessing much the same properties as Mustard. The 
Compound Spirit is a flavouring and carminative agent. 


Seneg^ce Radix.— Senega Root. The dried root of 

Polygala Senega. 

Characters. — Greyish- or brownish-yellow slender roots 
varying from 2 to 4 inches in length, enlarged at the top 
into a knotty crown which bears the bases of numerous 
slender aerial stems. Roots curved or contorted, sparingly 
branched, keeled, longitudinally wrinkled, with transverse 
cracks in the cortex, and short fracture. Odour distinctive ; 
taste at first somewhat sweet, afterwards acrid. Substances 
resembling Senega : Arnica, Valerian, Serpentary. All these 
have no keel. 

Composition. — The active principles of Senega are two 
i^aponms, senegin, Cj^H^sOiq, and polggalic acid ; if shaken 
the watery solutions froth and suspend oils and insoluble 
powders. Saponins are decomposed by acids in presence of 
water into sugar and sapogenins, e.g., seneginin C80H33O7. 


1. Infusum Senegae. — 1 in 20 of boiling Water. 
Dose, ^ to 1 fl.oz. 

2. Liquor Senegae Concentratus.— Alcoholic. 1 in 2. 
Dose, I to 1 fl.dr. 

3. Tinctura Senegae. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 60 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 


Externally. — Applied to the mucous membrane of the nose 
or throat, in the form of powder (snuff). Senega is a powerful 
irritant, causing reflex hyperaemia, sneezing, cough and 

246 Senegm Radix, 

mucous flow. Thus, solutions containing Senega are useful 
for dry inflammations of the nose and throat. Solutions of 
Saponins injected under the skin are violent local irritants 
and general depress ints; the heart, vessels, central and peri- 
pheral nervous system and muscles being all affected. 

Internally .—The action of Senega on the stomach and 
intestines is moderately irritant, large doses causing epigas- 
tric heat, sickness and diarrhoea; and medicinal doses 
deranging digestion. The absence of severe general symptoms 
indicates the diflficulty of its absorption by the stomach. 


Saponin passes through the blood to the tissues, dimi. 
nishes the frequency of the heart, and probably affects the 
circulation much like Digitalis, but in a manner which is 
more uncertain. See page 365. 

It appears to be excreted in part by the bronchial mucosa, 
which it stimulates remotely as it does when locally applied. 
The circulatory, muscular, and nutritive activity of the tubes 
is increased ; the mucous secretion is rendered more abundant 
and watery ; and the afferent nerves are stimulated, so that 
reflex cough is the result. The total action is said to be 
expectorant, the bronchial contents being expelled in greater 
volume and with greater force, i.e. more readily and easily. 
Senega is in common use as a stimulant expectorant, being 
given in the second stage of acute bronchitis, in chronic 
bronchitis, and in bronchiectasis, to liquefy and evacuate the 
contents of the tubes or cavities, and stimulate the " weak" 
surface of the mucous membrane. It is contra-indicated in 
the first stage of acute bronchitis, in phthisis, and when 
digestion is feeble or deranged. Saponin is probably excreted 
in part by the skin and kidneys, both of which it stimulates, 
increasing the volume of the urine and its most important 
solid constituents. 

Kramerise Radix.— Krameria Root. Rhatant 
Root. The dried root of (1) Para Rhatany, a species of 
Krameria attributed to Krameria argentea ; or of (2) Peruvian 
Rhatany, Krameria triandra. 

Characters. — 1. Para Rhatany is in cylindrical pieces, 
purplish brown, with smooth, thicker, adherent bark, marked 
by deep transverse cracks. Fracture short. 2. Peruvian 

Kramerim Radix, 247 

Rhatany consists of (a) a readily separable bark, thinner than 
that of Para ; rough and scaly except in the smaller pieces, 
dark reddish-brown externally, bright brownish-red within ; 
and (&) a yellowish woody axis. Fracture splintery. The 
bark of both kinds has a strongly astringent taste, and tinges 
the saliva red ; odour not marked. 

Composition. — Krameria Root contains from 20 to 45 per 
cent, of rhatania-tannic acid, C54H24O2J, a red amorphous 
substance, the watery solutions of which first dolour ferric 
chloride green and then precipitate it, but are not precipitated 
by tartar emetic ; rhatania-red ; and starch. Incovipatihles, 
— Alkalis, lime water, salts of iron and lead, and gelatin. 


1. Extractum Kramerise. — Aqueous. Dose, 5 to 
15 gr. 

From Extractum Xrameria are prepared : 

(a) Trochiscus Krameei^. — 1 gr. of Extract 
with Fruit Basis. 

(i) Trochiscus Krameria et Cocaine.— 
1 gr. of Extract and ^ gr. of Cocaine Hydro- 
chloride, with Fruit Basis. 

2. Infusmn Kramerise. — 1 in 20 of boiling Water. 
Dose, ^ to 1 fl.oz. 

3. Liquor Krameriae Concentratus. — Alcoholic. 
1 in 2. Dose, i to 1 fl.dr. 

4. Tinctura E[rameri8e. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 60 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

Krameria is also contained in Pulvis Catechu Compositus, 
1 in 5. See page 321. 


The preparations of Rhatany possess the properties of 
Tannic Acid, and may be employed for the same purposes 
(see Acidum Tannicum, page 394), except that they are 
obviously of no use in poisoning by antimony. 


Crtiaraiia. — (I^ot official.) The seeds of PauUinia 
Cupana, reduced to powder after roasting, and made into 
a stiff paste with water. Brazilian Cocoa, 


Characters. —QyWndkvicaX rolls of dried paste. 

Composition. — .Guarana contains from two to five per cent, 
of caffeine, C8HioN402,H20, the alkaloid of the coffee and tea 
plants ; united, as in these, with tannic add, starch and gum 
{see page 322). Lose, 15 to 60 gr. in powder, or as infusion. 


The action of Guarana closely resembles that of strong 
tea or coffee. It is chiefly used in megrim. See Caffeina^ 
page 322. 


€ocee Folia.— Coca Leaves. The dried leaves of 
Erythroxylum Goca and its varieties. 

Characters. — The leaves imported from Bolivia vary from 
li to 3 inches in length, and from 1 to 1^ inch in breadth ; 
brownish -green, oval, entire and glabrous ; upper surface 
bearing a distinct ridge above the midrib. On under surface 
near midrib, and on either side of it, a curved line is usually 
visible. Midrib prolonged into a min^ute horny apiculus, fre- 
quently broken off. Odour faint but characteristic ; taste 
slightly bitter, succeeded by a sensation of numbness. The 
leaves imported from Peru are somewhat smaller, narrower, 
more fragile ; pale green, without a prominent ridge above 
the midrib on upper surface, and with less distinct curved 
lines on each side of it on under surface. 

Composliion. — Coca Leaves contain about 05 per cent, 
of an alkaloid, cocaine; with other two, ciniiaviyl-cocaine, 
C19H23NO4, iindtruxilline, C19H23NO4 ; coca-tannin, and coca- 
wax. Cocaine is official. It yields ecgonine, C^HuNOs, ben- 
zoic acid and methyl-alcohol when heated with strong HCl. 


1. Extractum Coc» Liquidnm. — 1 in 1, with Alco- 
hol 60 per cent. Dose, J to 1 fl. dr. 

From Coca Leaves are made : 

2. Cocaina.— Cocaine. An alkaloid, C^HjjNO^, 
obtained from the leaves of Erythroxylum Coca and 
its varieties. 

Characters. — Colourless monoclinic prisms; taste 
bitter, followed by a sensation of tingling and numbneaiw 

CocM Folia. 249 

Melts at 204-8*' to 208-4°. Solubility .~A\mo&t iusoluble 
in water ; insoluble in glycerin ; 1 in 10 of alcohol 90 
per cent. ; 1 in 4 of ether ; 2 in 1 of chloroform ; 1 in 
12 of olive oil ; 1 in 14 of oil of turpentine. Impurities. 
— Chlorides, sulphates. 


Unguentum Cocaine. — 1; Oleic Acid, 4; 
Lard, 20. 

3. Cocainae Hydrochloridum. — Cocaine Hydro- 
chloride. Ci7H2iN04,HCl. The hydrochloride of an 
alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Erythroxylum 
Coca and its varieties. 

Characters. — Colourless needles or a crystalline 
powder. Melts at 356° to 366-8*' F. SoluUlitij.— 
2 in 1 of cold water, 1 in 4 of alcohol 90 per cent., 
or of glycerin ; almost insoluble in ether ; insoluble in 
olive oil. Its solution in water is neutral and colourless ; 
has a bitter taste ; and produces on the tongue tingling, 
followed by numbness. It gives a yellow precipitate 
with auric chloride. Impurities. — Cinnamyl cocaine 
and cocamine and other derivatives of cocaina 

Base, i to A gr. 


1. Injectio Cocain^e Hypodebmica, — 
Hypodermic Injection of Cocaine. 10 of Cocaine 
Hydrochloride in about 100 of a mixture of Sali- 
cylic Acid and Distilled Water recently boiled and 
cooled. About 1 gr. in 11 min. Dose, by suhcutaneoiis 
injection, 2 to 5 min. 

2. Lamella CocAiNiE.— Discs of Cocaine. 
Discs of Gelatin, with some Glycerin, each weigh- 
ing about -^ gr., and containing J^ gr. of Cocaine 

Cocaine Hydrochloride is also contained in 
Trochiscus Kramerite et Cocainae, ^ gr. in each. 


A solution of Hydrochloride of Cocaine has a powerful 
local action when administered hypodermically, or applied to 

250 Coc^ Folia. 

an exposed mucous surface such as the tongue or conjunctiva, 

rapidly paralysing the sensory nerves and contracting the 
vessels. It thus produces local anaesthesia and anaemia, 
which last for fifteen minutes or more, according to the 
strength of solution used, and may be followed by temporary 
dilatation of the vessels. The Hypodermic Injection is used 
as a local anaesthetic, to prevent or remove the pain attending 
minor operations on the surface of the body, and is of special 
value in the surgery of the eye, nose, ear, throat, teeth, 
rectum, vagina and urethra. In the form of spray it must 
always be employed with care, particularly to the nose or 
throat. A 4 per cent, solution is commonly used, being applied 
once or twice before operation at intervals of a few minutes. 
Examinations of the eye and throat are also greatly facilitated 
by the previous application of Cocaine. In painful or nervous 
affections of the same or other parts, such as neuralgia (hypo- 
dermically with caution), burns, itching, whooping cough, 
tuberculous laryngitis, dental caries, and hay fever^it is also 
of use, strong applications being avoided as likely to increase 
the subsequent congestion of the parts. Its local application 
to the conjunctiva is followed in six or eight minutes by tem- 
porary dilatation of the pupil and impairment of accommo- 
dation, effects apparently due to irritation of the sympathetic. 


Coca is stimulant, tonic and restorative when given 
internally, enabling persons who chew the leaf to undergo 
great muscular exertion with little or no fatigue. In animals 
it causes great muscular restlessness or excitement, and finally 
convulsions of cerebral origin ; the whole brain, medulla, and 
cord being powerfully stimulated from above downwards. 
Very large doses paralyse the posterior columns of the cord 
and the peripheral sensory nerves, hut do not affect the motor 
tract. The muscles remain unaffected. The pupils are dilated 
by internal as well as by local administration. Respiration 
rises in frequency, is disturbed in rhythm, and finally ceases. 
The heart is greatly accelerated by direct action on the 
muscle or stimulation of the accelerator mechanism. The 
blood pressure rises from the cardiac acceleration, stimulation 
of the vasomotor centre and the local effect on the vessels. 
Metabolism is diminished but the temperature is often raised. 

This drug has been used to prevent muscular exhaustion ; 
in some forms of nervous and muscular debility, and in wasting 
attended bv increased formation of urea ; in convalesence ; in 
mental exhaustion ; and in the alcoholic and opium habits. 
On the other hand, the employment of this drug sometimes 

LiNUM, 251 

develops the cocaine habit or chronic cocainism, comparable 

with morphinism in its unfortunate characters and results. 

dicaine-a, a benzoyl-methyl compound of oxypiperi- 
dine, and Eucaine-/3, the hydrochloride of benzoyl-vinyl- 
diacetonalkamine, are two synthetic compounds chemically 
and pharmacologically allied to cocaine. They are used like 
it, but their action is slower and less toxic, and their solutions 
can be sterilised by boiling without being decomposed. 

Ltinuin. — Linseed. The dried ripe seeds of Linum 

usitatissimum, Flax, 

Characters. — Small, brown, flat, ovate, pointed, with acute 
edges ; ^ to 1^ of an inch long ; smooth, glossy externally, 
yellowish-white within ; inodorous, with a mucilaginous oily 

Comj)ositio7i. — The seeds of Flax contain mucilage, and the 
official /aji?^ oil, which consists chiefly of glyceryl united with 
Unoleic acid. Crushed linseed, after expression of the oil, 
contains mucilage, proteids, salts and a little oil. 

From Linum are made : 

1. Linum Contusum. — Crushed Linseed. Linseed 
reduced to a coarse powder ; recently prepared. Im- 
jnirities. — Starch and mineral matters. 

2. Oleum Lini. — Made by expression at ordinary 
temperatures. Viscid, yellow, with faint odour and 
bland taste. 


Externally.— QiTVisYiedi Linseed is used only as a poultice, 
which is intended to convey heat and moisture to parts, and 
thus affect the nerves, circulation and nutrition generally. 
The Oil may be applied to burns, either pure or mixed with 
an equal quantity of Lime water— constituting Carron Oil, a 
substitute for Linimentum Calcis. 

'Internallij . — An infusion of Linseed, '♦ Linseed Tea," is a 
familiar demulcent drink. 




Linseed Tea is supposed to have a specific or remote local 
effect as a demulcent on the bronchi and urinary passages, 
but this is probably referable to the warm water only. It 
may be slightly diuretic, for Oil of Linseed becomes 
oxydised in the system (as it does on exposure to air), and is 
excreted by the kidneys as a resinoid body which stimulates 
these organs. 


Oossypium.— Cotton. Cotton Wool. The hairs 
of the seed of Gossypium barbadense, and of other species 
of Gossypium, freed from fatty matter. 

Characters. — Long white soft filaments, each consisting 
of an elongated cell, under the microscope appearing as a 
flattened twisted band with slightly thickened rounded edges ; 
inodorous ; tasteless. Readily wetted by water, without 
yielding either an alkaline or an acid reaction. 

Jfh'om Gossypium is made : 

Pyroxylinum. — Pyroxylin. "Gun Cotton." CgH, 
(N02)205. Made by immersing Cotton in a mixture of 
Sulphuric and Nitric Acids, washing free from acid in 
distilled water, draining and drying. Readily soluble 
in a mixture of equal volumes of Ether and Alcohol 
90 per cent. ; leaves no residue when ignited. 


1. Collodium. — Collodion. Made by disaohing 
Pyroxyhn, 1 ; in Ether, 36 ; and Alcohol 90 per 
cent., 12. 

I^rom Collodium is prepared : 

Collodium Flexile. — Collodion, 48; 
Canada Turpentine, 2 ; and Castor Oil, L 

2. Collodium Vesicans.— Blistering Collodion. 
Pyroxylin, 1 ; dissolved in Blistering Liquid, 40. 


The actions and uses of Cotton Wool are sufficiently 

AvRANTii Cortex Siccatus. 253 

Pyroxylin is introduced into the Pharraacopceia for the 
purpose of making Collodion. 

(Jollodion, when painted on the skin or other exposed 
part, instantly dries by evaporation of the ether, and forms 
a fine film, which serves as a protective to thin, inflamed, 
broken or incised surfaces. It is used to prevent bed-sores, 
arrest haemorrhage (as in leech bites), and close fissures or 
punctures made with aspirateurs or trocars in paracentesis. 
Flexible Collodion does not contract on drying, nor readily 
crack, and is a better form for most of the above purposes. 

The root-bark of the cotton plant is believed to be ecbolic. 


Aurantii Cortex Siccatus. — Dried Bitter- 
Orange Peel. The dried outer part of the pericarp of 
Citrus Aurantium, var. Bigaradia. 

Characters. — Thin strips, of a deep orange-red colour 
externally, nearly free from the white spongy portion of the 
pericarp ; odour aromatic and pleasant ; taste, bitter. 

Composition. — Orange Peel contains 1 to 2^ per cent, of 
volatile oil, oleum corticis aurantii, an amorphous bitter 
glucoside, aura/ntiamarin, and a tasteless crystalline gluco?- 
ide, hesperidin. 


1. Infusum Aurantii — 1 in 20 of boiling Water. 
Dose, ^ to 1 fl.oz. 

2. Infusum Aurantii Compositum. — 25 ; with 
fresh Lemon Peel, 125 ; Cloves, 625 ; boiling Water, 
to make 1000. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.oz. 

Aurantii Cortex Recens. — Fresh Bitter- 
Orange Peel. The fresh outer part of the pericarp of 
Citrus Aurantium, var. Bigaradia. 

Characters. — Deep orange-red or red, rough and glandular 
externally ; only a very small portion of white spongy portion 
of pericarp internally ; odour aromatic, pleasant ; taste bitter. 


1. Tinctura Aurantii.— 1 in 4 of Alcohol 90 per 
cent. ; by maceration. Dose, J to 1 fl.dr. 

254 Aura NT I I Cortex RECEifs. 

From Tinctura Aurantii are prepared : 

a. Syrupus Aromaticus.— 1, with Cinnamon 
Water, 1 ; shaken with talc and filtered; 
Syrup, 2. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

h. Syrupus Aurantii.— 1 ; Syrup, 7. Dose, 
i to 1 fl.dr. 

Tinctura Aurantii is also an ingredient oj 
Syrupus Cascarse Aromaticus, Tinctura Quininae, 
Confectio Sulphuris, and Trochiscus Sulphuris. 

2. Vinum Aurantii.— Made by fermentation of 
a saccharine solution, to which fresh Bitter-Orange 
Peel has been added. Contains 10 to 12 per cent, by 
volume of Ethyl Hydroxide. 

Vinum Aurantii is used in making Vinum Ferri 

Citratis and Vinum Quininae. 

Bitter - Orange Peel is also an ingredient of 
Spiritus Armoracias Compositus, Tinctura Cinchonae 
Composita, Infusum Gentianae Compositum, and 
Tinctura Gentiana; Composita. 

Aqua Aurantii Floris.— Obange-Floweb Water. 

Water prepared by distillation from the flowers of the Bitter- 
Orange tree, Citrus Aurantium, var. Bigaradia. To be diluted 
with twice its volume of distilled water immediately before 

Characters. — Colourless or slightly greenish ; very fra- 
grant ; bitter. Impurity. — Lead, derived from the vessels in 
which it is imported. 

Composition. — Orange flowers yield a volatile oil, oleum 
Neroli, and a trace of a bitter principle. 

Syrupus Aurantii Floris. — Undiluted Orange 
Flower Water, 1 ; Kefined Sugar, 6 ; Water to make 9. 
Dose, i to 1 fl.dr. 

Undiluted Orange Florver Water is contained in 
Mistura Olei Ricini and in Syrupus Calcii Lacto- 


Orange is at once an aromatic and a bitter substance, 
and combines the actions of these two classes of remedies, as 
described under Caryophyllum (page 290) and Calumba 
(page 219) respectively. It is extensively used as a highly 

LiMONis Cortex. jj55 

a^eeable flavouring agent in cookery, pharmacy and the 
manufacture of liqueurs ; and in these several ways may be 
turned to account therapeutically. It is but feebly bitter. 

Llmoiiis Cortex. — Lemon Peel. The fresh outer 
part of the pericarp of the fruit of Citrus medica, var. 
/8 Limonum. 

Characters. — Thin pieces, pale yellow and rough on the 
outer surface from the presence of glands containing volatile 
oil; having little of the white spongy portion of the rind. 
Odour strong, characteristic, fragrant ; taste warm, aromatic 
and bitter. 

Compositwn. — Lemon Peel contains the o?&c\?i\volaMle oil, 
Oleum Limonis, chiefly limonene, CioHje, and Uestperidin. 


1. Synipus Limonis.— 2; Lemon Juice, 50; Re- 
fined Sugar, 76 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., 4. Dose, \ to 
1 fl.dr. 

2. Tinctura Limonis. — 1 in 4 of Alcohol 90 per 
cent. ; by maceration. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

From Lemon Peel is made : 

Oleum Limonis. — Source. — Obtained from fresh 
Lemon Peel. Characters. — Pale yellow ; fragrant ; 
warm, bitter, aromatic. Sp. gr. 0-857 to -860. 

Base, ^ to 3 min. 

Lemon Peel is also co7itained in Infusum Aurantii 
Compositum and Infusum Gentianae Compositum ; Oil 
of Lemon in Linimentum Potassii lodidi cum Sapone, 
Spiritus Ammonias Aromaticus, Tinctura Guaiaci Am- 
moniata, and Tinctura Valerianae Ammoniata. 


The actions and uses of Lemon Peel arc the same as those 
of Orange, the only difference being in the flavour. 

Limouis Succtis. — Lemon Juice. The freshly ex- 
pressed juice of the ripe fruit of Citrus medica var. ^8 

256 Li MO N IS Sc/ccus. 

Characters. — A slightly turbid yellowish liquid, with a 
grateful odour and sharply acid taste. Sp. gr. 1030 to 1040. 
One fluid ounce contains 30 to 40 gr. of Citric Acid ; and 
half a fluid ounce neutralises : 25 gr. of Potassium Bicarbonate, 
nearly 21 gr. of Sodium Bicarbonate, or about 13 gr. of 
Ammonium Carbonate. 

Composition. — Lemon Juice contains citric, acid, C3H4OH 
•(C00H)3, H3O (see page 146), both free and combined with 
potassium and other bases ; malic acid, H3C4H3O5, and phos- 
phoric acid, etc. 


Syrupus Limonis. — See Limonis Cortex, page 255 

Lemon Juice in the mouth and stomach has the same 
action as Citric Acid, and is used chiefly to relieve thirst, and 
produce effervescing mixtures and drinks. See page 147. 



Lemon Juice enters the blood as alkaline citrates, po- 
tassium salts, and phosphoric acid. Here the citrates are in 
part oxydised into carbonic acid and water (see Acidum 
Citricum, page 148). The potassium and phosphoric acid 
probably act upon the red corpuscles, of which both are 
important constitu-ents. 

Lemon Juice is used with great success in the prevention 
and treatment of scurvy, a disease the precise nature of which 
is still obscure, but which is no doubt produced by the want 
of the juices of fresh vegetable and animal food. The Citric 
Acid, the Potash, and the Phosphoric Acid have severally 
been credited with the beneficial effect by different authori- 
ties. Lemon Juice has also been given in acute rheumatism 
and gout, but appears to be useful only in as far as it contains 


These, which are of great interest, are fully described 
under Citric Acid. 

Buchu Folia,— BUCHU Leaves The dried leaves of 
Barosma betulina. 

BucHU Folia. 257 

Characters. — From ^ to | of an inch in length, dull 
yellowish-green, rhomboid-obovate in outline, rigid, and when 
slightly moist, cartilaginous. Surface glabrous and somewhat 
warty ; margin usually sharply denticulate, apex blunt and 
recurved. Oil-glands distinctly visible in the leaf, especially 
near the margin. Odour and taste strong and characteristic. 
Impurity. — Leaves of Empleiirum serrulatum ; apex acute. 
Substances resembling Bii^hu : Senna and Uva Ursi, which 
have entire leaves. 

Composition. — Buchu contains a yellowish-brown volatile 
oil, in the glands or "dots," which deposits crystalline 
diosphenA)l, CioHieOg, an antiseptic body ; a ketone, probably 
menthone ; a glucoside, diosmin ; and hesperidin. 


1. Infusum Buchu.— 1 to 20 of boiling Water. 
Dose, 1 to 2 fl.oz. 

2. Tinctura Buchu. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 60 per cent. ; 
by percolation. Dose, | to 1 fl.dr. 


The actions and uses of Buchu closely resemble those of 
Pareira, to the description of which the student is referred. 
It is more frequently employed than Pareira, its Infusion 
constituting an excellent vehicle for saline diuretics. 

Ciispariae Cortex.— Cusparia Bark. " Angustura 
Bark." The dried bark of Cusparia febrifuga. 

Characters.— Flattened or curved pieces, or quills 4 or 5 
inches long, 1 inch wide, J^ inch thick, obliquely cut on inner 
edge. Coated externally with a yellowish-grey mottled corky 
layer which can easily be scraped off, exposing a hard dark- 
brown inner layer: inner surface light brown, laminated. 
Fracture short and resinous, exhibiting, under a lens, nu- 
merous white points or lines. Odour musty ; taste bitter. 
Impurity.— The bark of Strychnos Nux vomica (" false an- 
gQstura bark ") ; distinguished by its inner surface giving an 
arterial blood-red colour with HNO, (brucine) ; whilst true 
Cusparia Bark does not. 

Composition.— A crystalline bitter, anyusturin, C.U.^0. • 
the alkaloids, cusparine, C20H19NO3, yalipine, C^o^.^m' 
and cnsparidme; an aromatic oil, but no tannic acid. 

258 CusPARiM Cortex. 


1. Infusmn Cuspaxise.— 1 in 20 of boiling Water 
Dose, 1 to 2 fl. oz. 

2. Liquor Cuspariae Concentratus. — Alcoholic. 1 


Cusparia belongs to the group of aromatic bitters, the 
actions and uses of which are fully discussed under Caryophyl- 
lum (page 290) and Calumha (page 219) respectively. Like 
other bitters, it has been credited with antipyretic and anti- 
periodic properties, and in South America, its native place, is 
used in-stead of Cinchona for malarial diseases. 

Jaborandi Folia.— Jaborandi Leaves. The dried 

leaflets of Pilocarpus Jaborandi. 

Characters. — Dull green, oval-oblong or oblong- lanceolate 
in outline, varying from 2^ to 4 inches in length. Shortly 
petiolate, obtuse and emarginate at the apex, and mostly 
unequal at the base ; margin entire and slightly revolute ; 
texture coriaceous. Mature leaves are glabrous or are nearly 
so ; the mesophyll contains numerous oil glands ; on the 
upper surface the lateral veinlets are distinctly prominent. 
They emit when bruised a slight aromatic odour ; taste at 
first somewhat bitter and aromatic, afterwards pungent. 
When chewed they increase the flow of saliva. Jmpitritics. — 
Leaves of species of Piper ; not oval-oblong. 

Composition. — Jaborandi contains pilocarjjine, CijHiaN202, 
a liquid colourless alkaloid, to which its chief effects are due. 
It also yields a second (isomeric) alkaloid, isopilocarpine, as 
^sqW 2ls pilocarpidine siVid a small percentage of volatile oil. 
The assertion that an alkaloid, jaborine, is present has not 
been confirmed. {Dose, not oflicial, 5 to 60 gr.) 


1. Extractum Jaborandi Liquidum. — Alcoholic. 1 
in 1. ]h)S(% T) to 15 niin. 

2. Tinctura Jaborandi. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 45 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, \ to 1 fl.dr. 

Ja BO RAND I Folia. 259 

From Jdborcmdi is made : 

PilocaxpinsB Nitras. — Pilocarpine Nitrate, 
CuH.eNA. HNO3. 

Characters. — A white crystalline powder. 
SoluMlity. — 1 in 9 in water ; slightly in cold, 
freely in hot, Alcohol 90 per cent. Strong Sulphuric 
Acid forms with it a yellowish solution, which, on 
the addition of Potassium Bichromate, gradually 
acquires an emerald-green colour. Dose, -J^ to \ gr. 
by the mouth ; (J^ to ^ gr. hypodermically). 


jExtemally. — Jaborandi applied to the conjunctiva causes 
contraction of the pupil by stimulation of the ends of the 
third nerve, spasm of the apparatus of accommodation, and 
disturbance of vision. The effect commences in ten minutes, 
and lasts from 1^ to 24 hours before finally disappearing. 
Pilocarpine is used in some cases of inflammation of the 
eye, such as iritis ; in certain forms of blindness ; and in 
paralysis of the muscles. 

Internally, in full doses, Jaborandi is liable to cause 
nausea, vomiting, and increased peristalsis from direct action 
on the gastric branches of the vagus. 


Pilocarpine enters the blood rapidly, and passes thence 
into the tissues. The striking effects of Jaborandi consist in 
profuse salivation, and perspiration, disturbance of vision, 
and circulatory depression, which last for hours, and leave 
a sense of drowsiness and debility. 

Salivation is due to stimulation of the terminal ends of 
the chorda tympani in the glands, as well as of its centre. 
The flow commences in about five minutes after a moderate 
dose, and may last several hours. It increases with the dose. 
It is completely prevented or arrested by Atropine. 

Perspiration is referable to active stimulation of the 
terminations of the sudoriparous nerves. It follows quickly 
on the appearance of the salivation ; is accompanied by flush- 
ing of the skin, and sometimes rigor ; progresses from the 
head downwards ; may be so profuse as to soak the bed 

26o Jaborandi Folia. 

clothes ; and lasts several hours. The body-weight necessarily 
falls, metabolism is stimulated, and urea is said to be excreted 
in the saliva and sweat. Atropine arrests this diaphoresis. It 
is doubtful whether the milk be increased. The hair grows 
more actively under a course of Jaborandi. Bronchial and 
nasal secretions flow more freely ; even the tears, cerumen, 
and alimentary secretions are somewhat increased ; but not 
the bile. The amount of urine is moderately raised at first 
by small doses ; necessarily diminished if profuse sweating 
have occurred. The menses are not affected. The eye is 
affected specifically, as it is locally. Respiration is not 
modified directly by Pilocarpine. The heart is slowed from 
stimulation of the vagus nerve endings or myo-neural junction ; 
later, if the dose is large, paralysis of the vagus occurs, and 
acceleration results with palpitation. The blood-pressure falls 
from the cardiac effects and from depression of the vaso- 
motor centre. Atropine counteracts the slowing of the heart. 
Temperature rises before, and falls during tlie sweating. 

Pilocarpine has been tried in every kind of disease, but is 
now chiefly used as a powerful and rapid diaphoretic, 
especially in nephritis with uriemia, as it eliminates both 
water and urea. It is less useful in effusions into the 
pleura and peritoneum. It must be used with caution in 
cardiac dropsy, and indeed in every class of case if the 
heart be weak. It has also been given to relieve itching bv 
gently stimulating the skin. Bronchial catarrh, asthma, and 
pertussis are said to have been relieved by the flux which it 
establishes in the respiratory passages ; but in certain cases 
where the irritability is low or the patient comatose this 
may become positively dangerous, a result that must never be 
despised when this powerful drug is administered. Small 
doses relieve the thirst of chronic Bright's disease. 1 1 has 
been given with success as an antidote to Atropine. 


Oleum Tlicobroniatis. — Oil of Theobroma. 

Cacao Butter. A concrete oil obtained by pressing the warm 
crushed seeds of Theobroma Cacao. 

Cliaracters. — A yellowish-white solid ; odour like that of 
cocoa ; taste bland and agreeable ; fracture smooth ; not 
rancid from exposure to the air. Softens at 80" F., and melts 
at 88" to 93° F. Im^vHtiet. — Other fata. 

Tea. 261 

Composition. — Oil of Theobroma constitutes from 30 to 50 
per cent, of the Cacao Bean, with an alkaloid theobromine, 
C^HgN^Oj. It consists chiefly of stearin with a little olein. 

Oil 0/ Theobroma is used in preparing : Supposi- 
toria Acidi Tannici, Hydrargyri, lodoformi, Morphinae, 
and Plumbi Composita — i.e. all the Suppositoria ex- 
cept Suppositoria Glycerini. 


Cacao Butter serves as a vehicle for more active sub- 
stances in the form of suppositories. The actions of Theo- 
bromine are similar to those of Caffeine. See page 322. 


l^eVL,—(^Not official) The dried leaves of Camellia Thea. 

Composition. — Tea contains 1 to 4 per cent, of caffeine, 
C^Yi^^'^^O^^O ; a volatile oil, most abundant in green tea ; 
and tannic acid. The relations of the alkaloid, as well as its 


are fully described under Caffeina, page 322. 


Gambog^ia. — Gamboge. A gum-resin obtained from 
Garcinia Hanburii. 

Characters. — Cylindrical solid or hollow rolls longitudinally 
striated on the surface, either distinct or agglutinated into 
masses; fracture conchoidal, the fractured surface dull, 
smooth, uniform, reddish-yellow ; powder bright yellow ; no 
odour; taste very acrid. Rubbed with water it forms a 
yellow emulsion. Solubility. — Completely by the successive 
action of alcohol 90 per cent, and water. Impurities. — 
Starch and mineral matter. 

Composition. — Gamboge contains about 73 per cent, of a 
resinous substance, gamhogic acid ; 25 per cent, of gum; and 
about 2 per cent, of water. The so-called gambogic acid 
consists of a, /3, and 7 garcinolic acids ; all these form salts 
with bases, the last-named giving a red colour with alkalis. 
Dose, i to 2 gr. 

262 Cambogja. 


Pilula Cambogi» Composita.— Gamboge 1 ; Bar- 
bados Aloes, 1 ; Compound Powder of Cinnamon, 1 ; 
Hard soap, 2 ; Syrup of Glucose, q.s. Dose, 4 to 8 gr. 


Gamboge* is an irritant to the stomach and bowels, causing 
vomiting in large doses, and in medicinal doses acting as a 
hydragogue cathartic not unlike Colocynth, without being 
cholagogue. It is seldom prescribed alone, and not often as 
the Compound Pill. Such a remedy is indicated in dropsies, 
in cerebral hyperaemia, and as an anthelmintic (not to chil- 
dren) ; but other substances have now almost completely 
displaced it. 


Gambogic acid is chiefly thrown out in the liquid faeces ; 
but part is absorbed, passes through the blood and tissues, 
and is excreted by the kidneys, which it stimulates, causing 
an increased flow of yellow-coloured urine. The diuretic 
effect may add to the value of the drug in dropsy. 


UVSB. — Raibins. The ripe fruit of Vitis vinifera, the 
Grape Vine, dried in the sun, or partly with artificial heat. 

Composition. — Raisins contain grape sugar, acid potassium 
tartrate, other vegetable acids, etc. 

liaising a/re contained in Tinctura Cardaraomi Composita 
and Tinctura Sennee Composita. 


Raisins are demulcent, refreshing, and nutrient, and are 
employed in medicine as sweetening and flavouring agents. 

Guaiaci L.igiium,— Guaiacum Wood. The heart- 
wood of Guaiacum oflacinale : or of Guaiacum sanctum. 

GuAiACi Resina, 263 

Characters. — Dark greenish-brown ; dense, hard and heavier 
than water; taste acrid; odour, when it is heated, fairly 

Cruaiaci Lignum is an ingredient of Liquor Sarsae Com- 
positus Concentratus. 

Oiiaiaci Kesina,— Guaiacum Resin. The resin 
obtained from the stem of Guaiacum officinale or of Guaiacum 

Characters. — Large masses of rounded tears, reddish-brown 
or yellowish-green. Powder green. Breaks with a clean 
glassy fracture. Odour somewhat balsamic. Taste slightly 
acrid. A solution in alcohol strikes a clear blue when applied 
to the inner surface of a raw potato (fresh protoplasm). 

Substances resembling Guaiaciim Besin : Myrrh, Scam- 
mony, Benzoin, Aloes, Resin ; which have no green tinge. 

Coviposition. — The chief constituent of Guaiacum Wood is 
the official resin, with crystalline bitter guaiac yellow, gum, 
etc. The resin is itself composed of three resins : guaiaconio 
acid, C19H20O5, 70%; guaiacio acid, CiaHieOg, resembling 
benzoic acid ; and guaiaretic acid, C20H26O4, 10 per cent. 
Incompatibles. — Mineral acids, spirit of nitrous ether. Dose 
of the Resin, 5 to 15 gr. 


1. Mistura Guaiaci. — 1 ; Refined Sugar, 1; Powdered 
Tragacanth, "16 ; Cinnamon Water, 40. Dose, 5 to 
1 fl.oz. 

2. Tinctura Guaiaci Ammoniata.— 20 ; Oil of 
Nutmeg, -31 ; Oil of Lemon, -21 ; Strong Solution of 
Ammonia, 7-5; Alcohol 90 per cent, to make 100. 
Dose, \ to 1 fl.dr. (with 1 dr. of mucilage, or with 
yolk of egg, to form an emulsion). 

3. Trochiscus Guaiaci Resinse. — 3 grs. with Fruit 

Guaiacum Resin is also contained in Pilula Hydrargyri 
Bubchloridi Composita. See page 95. 


Internally, Guaiacum is a local stimulant, producing sali- 
vation, an acrid hot sensation in the throat, warmth in the 
epigastrium, increase of the movements and secretions of the 
stomach and bowels, and rellcx stimulation of the heart. In 

2^4 QuASSiyS Lignum. 

large quantity it is a gastro-intestinal irritant, causing vomit- 
ing and purging, and the attendant disturbances of the 

Guaiacum in powder frequently relieves sore throat, if 
given in 30-gr. doses, to be placed on the tongue and slowly 
swallowed every six hours. The Tincture and Lozenge are 
less successful Plummer's Pill doubtless owes part of its 
mildly purgative effects to the Guaiac Resin it contains. 


The further action of Guaiacum physiologically is still 
obscure. Besides its stimulant eflfect on the circulation, 
already mentioned, it appears to increase the secretions of the 
skin and kidney, and it probably stimulates the liver and meta- 
bolism generally. In the form either of the Resin (in cachet) 
or of the Ammoniated Tincture it is used in chronic gout and 
rheumatism, certainly with much success in some cases. As 
a constituent of Liquor Sarsae Compositus Concentratus, not 
alone, it is given in syphilis. 


Quassise Liigiium.— Quassia Wood. The Wood of 
the trunk and branches of Picraena excelsa. 

Characters. — Logs varying in length, frequently exceeding 
6 inches in diameter. Wood dense, tough, yellowish-white. 
Inodorous ; taste intensely and purely bitter. 

Substance resembling Quassia : Sassafras, which is aromatic, 
not bitter. 

Composition. — Quassia contains quassin, a mixture of two 
white, crystalline, neutral bitter principles, a-picras/ni?i, 
Cj5H4,Oio. and fi-picrasmin, C3aH480io- It contains no 
tannic add. 


1. Infusum Quassiffl.— 1 in 100 of cold Water. 
Dose, ^ to 1 fl.oz. 

2. Liquor Quassias Concentratus.— Alcoholic. 1 
in 10. Dose, \ to 1 H.dr. 

3. Tinctura Quassias. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 45 per 
cent. ; by maceration. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

EuoNYMi Cortex. 265 


Quassia is a pnre or simple bitter, and possesses the 
various properties fully described under Calurriba (p. 219). It 
is very extensively used. The special points to be noted re- 
specting it are : (1) that its preparations contain no tannic 
acid, and may be combined with salts of Iron ; (2) that it is 
entirely devoid of flavour, and intensely bitter, i.e. less agree- 
able than Gentian and Chiretta ; and (3) that the Infusion 
makes an excellent anthelmintic enema. 

Euonymi Cortex. — Euonymus Bark, The dried 
root-bark of Euonymus atropurpureus. 

Characters. — Quilled or curved pieces, -^ to ^ inch thick ; 
the outer layer is a soft friable cork, ash-grey with dark 
patches ; pale tawny-white and smooth within. Odour faint, 
characteristic ; taste somewhat mucilaginous, afterwards 
bitter and acrid. 

Composition. — Euonymus contains an intensely bitter 
principle, a glncosidcy eiionic acid, resin, and dulcite. 

Extractum Euonjoni Siccum. — Dry Extract of 
Euonymus. "Euonymin." Alcoholic; incorporated 
with Calcium Phosphate. Dose, 1 to 2 gr. 


Euonymus is an hepatic stimulant, cardiac tonic and 
mild cathartic. It is used in cons-tipation and derange- 
ment of the liver. 


Cascara Sagrada.— Cascara Sagrada. Rhamni 
PuRSHiANi Cortex. Sacred Bark. The dried bark of 
Rhamnus purshianus. 

Characters. — In quilled, channelled or nearly flat pieces 
about 4 inches long, | inch wide and Jy inch thick. Cork 
nearly smooth, dark purplish-brown, marked with scattered 
transversely elongated lenticels ; but usually more or less 
covered with patches of silvery-grey lichen ; when these are 
removed the exposed cork is brownish-red. Inner surface 

a66 Cascara Sagrada. 

reddish-brown, transversely corrugated and longitudinally 
striated. Fracture short ; near the inner surface somewhat 
fibrous. Odour characteristic but not powerful ; taste per- 
sistent, bitter, nauseous. 

Composition. — Cascara contains emodin and frangula- 
emodin about 2%. Cascarine (CiaHjoOg), Leprince, is said 
to be impure. 


1. Eztractiun Cascarae Sagrada. — Aqueous. 
Dose, 2 to 8 gr. 

2. Extractum Cascarse Sagradsa Liquidiun. — Alco- 
holic and aqueous. 1 in 1. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

From the Liquid Extract is prepared : 

Syrupus Cascaii>e Aromaticus. — 4; Tinc- 
ture of Orange, 1 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., -5 ; Cinna- 
mon Water, 1*5 ; Syrup, 3. Dose, ^ to 2 fl.dr. 


Cascara Sagrada is stomachic and tonic in small doses, 
aperient in large doses, and cathartic if freely given. It is 
extensively used in chronic constipation. The Liquid Extract 
may be given in a single full dose in the morning, or in 
divided doses of 10 to 15 min. thrice a day, before meals. 


ITIyrrlia. — Myrbh. A gum-resin obtained from the 
stem of Balsamodendron Myrrha, and probably other species. 

Characters. — In rounded or irregular tears or masses 
varying much in size, reddish-yellow or reddish-brown, dry 
and more or less covered by a fine powder ; brittle, the frac- 
tured surface irregular, somewhat translucent, rich brown, 
oily, often with whitish marks ; odour agreeable, aromatic ; 
taste aromatic, bitter, acrid. 

Composition.— 'hljxxh contains gum, 60 per cent. ; a volatile 
oil, Ciolli4^^« viyrrhol, 2 per cent. ; and a resin, myrrhin, 35 
per cent. Impurities. — Every variety of resin and gum- 
resin ; detected by appearance, smell and taste. Bdellium 
and false myrrh ; detected by absence of violet colour 
assumed by true myrrh when moistened with Nitric Acid. 

Myrrha. 267 


1. Pilula Aloes et MjrrrhsB.- 1 in 4'5. See Aloe 
Socotrina, page 415. 

2. Tinctura Mjrrrhae. — 1 in 5 with Alcohol 90 per 
cent. ; by maceration. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. (in emulsion). 

Myrrh is also contained in Decoctum Aloes Compositum, 
Mistura Ferri Composita, Pilula Galbani Composita and 
Pilula Rhei Composita. 


JExternally.—Mjrrh is a stimulant and disinfectant like 
other oleo-resins, and is sometimes used as a dressing for 

Internally. — It exerts a similar effect upon the mouth, 
throat, stomach and bowels. It is much employed as a wash 
(2 fl.dr. of the Tincture to 4 fl.oz. of water) in spongy gums 
and ulcerated mouth ; as a gargle in relaxed throat ; and as a 
stomachic and adjuvant of purgatives in dyspepsia, anaemia 
and constipation. 


Myrrh increases the number of leucocytes in the blood, 
apparently by stimulating lacteal activity, and this fact may 
in part account for its value along with Iron in anaemia. 
Nothing definite is known of its specific action. Like the 
oleo-resins (see TerebintJiince Oleum, page 403), Myrrh 
appears to be excreted by the mucous membranes, especially 
the genito-urinary and respiratory tracts, and to stimulate 
them during its passage. It is thus a uterine stimulaint and 
emmenagogue, and is extensively given along with Aloes 
or Iron in the amenorrhcea of girls As a stimulant and 
disinfectant expectorant it is used less than formerly in 
chronic bronchitis. 


Tragacantha. — Tbagacanth. A gummy exuda- 
tion, obtained by excision from Astragalus Gummifer, and 
some other species known as Syrian Tragacanth in conunerce. 

268 Tragacantha. 

Characters. — In white or pale yellowish-white, flattened 
flakes of varying length and breadth, frequently about 1 inch 
long and J an inch wide ; thin, irregularly oblong or more or 
less curved ; marked on the surface by concentric ridges. 
Somewhat translucent and horny ; breaks with a short frac- 
ture ; inodorous and almost tasteless. Solubility. — Sparingly 
in water, but swells into a gelatinous mass, which is tinged 
violet or blue by a solution of iodine. Impurities. — Other 
gums. After maceration in cold water, the fluid portion is 
not precipitated by alcohol 90 per cent. Substance resembling 
Tragacanth : Squill, which is thicker and opaque. 

Composition. — Tragacanth consists of two gums : traga- 
canthin (bassorin), C12H20O10, 33 per cent., comparatively 
insoluble in water, and unfermentable ; and a gum nearly 
identical with the ardbin of acacia (but precipitated by lead 
acetate), 53 per cent., soluble in water (see page 10). It also 
contains a little starch. 


1. Glycerinum TragacanthaB. — 1 ; Glycerin, 3; 
Water, 1 ; by trituration. 

2. Mucilago Tragacanthse. — A solution in Water 
with the aid of Alcohol 90 per cent. 

3. Pulvis TragacanthsB Compositus. — 1 ; Gum 
Acacia, 1 ; Starch, 1 ; Refined Sugar, 3. Dose, 20 to 

Tragacanth is also contained in Pulvis Opii Compositus, 
Confectio Sulphuris, Mistura Gretas, Mistura Guaiaci, Pilula 
Ferri, and Pilula Quininre Sulphatis ; Mucilage of Tragacanth 
in Lotio Hydrargyri Nigra. 


Internally, Tragacanth is demulcent. The Mucilage may 
be used as a vehicle for more active substances in linctuses 
for pharyngeal cough. Tragacanth is partly converted into 
sugar by the stomach ; in large quantities it causes indiges- 
tion, it is chiefly employed to suspend resins and heavy 
powders such as salts of Bismuth, the simple gum being 
preferable to the Compound Powder, because less likely to 

Glycyrrhizm Radix. 269 


Tragacapth, like other gums, enters the blood and tissues, 
partly unchanged, partly as sugar and other products, and 
has a nutritive etfect of comparatively low value. It is not 
used for this purpose. A remote demulcent effect on the 
urinary organs is probably imaginary only. 

Olycyrrhizse Radix. — Liquorice Root. The 
peeled root and peeled subterranean stem of Glycyrrhiza 
glabra, and other species. 

Characters. — In long, nearly cylindrical pieces ; before 
being peeled, dark brown and longitudinally wrinkled but 
not scaly ; when peeled, yellow, with a nearly smooth fibrous 
surface. Fracture coarsely fibrous ; transverse sections 
exhibit a porous, distinctly radiate yellow wood and a thick 
cortex with groups of bast fibres arranged in radial lines. 
Odour faint ; taste characteristic, sweet, free from bitterness. 
Substances resembling Liquorice Boot : Pyrethrum and Tarax- 
acum, which are not sweet. 

Composition. — Liquorice Root contains grape-sugar^ gly- 
cyrrhizin, starch, resin, asparagin and proteins. Glycyrrhizin 
is a white crystalline substance consisting of the potassium 
and calcium salts of glycyrrhizic aoid, C44Hfl2NOi8 '. it is not 
a glucoside. 


1. Extractum Glycyrrhizae. — Aqueous. 

2. Extractum GlycyrrhizsB Liquidum. — Aqueous 
and Alcoholic. Dose, a to 1 fl. dr. 

3. Pulvis Glycyrrhizse Compositus. — 2; Senna, 2; 
Fennel, 1 ; Sublimed Sulphur, 1 ; Refined Sugar, 6. 
J)ose, 60 to 120 gr. 

Liquorice or its preparations are contained in many prepa- 
rations throughout the Pharmacopoeia. It especially covers 
the tastes of Senna, Aloes, Ammonium Chloride, Senega, 
Hyoscyamus, Turpentine and Bitter Sulphates. The pow- 
dered root is a useful basis for pills. 


Liquorice is chiefly used for the pharmaceutical purposes 
just indicated. It has a pleasant taste, and increases the 

270 ScoPARii Cacvmina. 

flow of saliva and mucus when slowly chewed or sucked. It 
is a popular demulcent, used to relieve sore throat and 

Scoparii Cacumina.— Broom Tops. The fresh 

and dried tops of Cytisus Scoparius. 

Characters. — Stem dark green, with long, straight, slender 
alternate branches ; the latter, like the upper part of the 
stem, winged, tough, flexible, glabrous. The leaves, when 
present, are small, sessile and simple above, stalked and 
trifoliate below. Odour of the fresh tops, especially when 
bruised, characteristic ; but when dry the drug is almost 
odourless. Taste bitter and nauseous. 

Composition. — Scoparium contains two active principles, 
scoparin and sparteine, besides other constituents. Scoparin, 
CjoHaoOio, is a yellow crystalline neutral body, said by some 
to be a diuretic, by others not so. Sparteine, CigHggNj, is a 
volatile, oily-looking liquid alkaloid, allied in appearance, 
composition and action to conine. See Conii Fructns, 
page 2yU. 


1. Infusmn Scoparii. — 1, dried, in 10 of boiling 
Water. Dose, 1 to 2 fl. oz. 

2. Succus Scoparii. — 3 of juice of fresh tops to I 
of Alcohol 90 per cent. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr. 


The actions of Broom on the system are still obscure, the 
only fact definitely known being that it frequently produces 
free diuresis. Scoparin appears to be diuretic and purgative. 
Sparteine increases the force of the heart, and its sulphate 
has been given in cardiac disease in the place of Digitalis, to 
which, however, it is certainly inferior. Broom itself is ex- 
tensively used in Great Britain as a diuretic in dropsy, 
especially cardiac dropsy, but is almost invariably combined 
with other drugs of the same class, such as Digitalis and 
Potassium Acetate. It should be avoided in acute renal 

Pterocarpi Lig^nuni.— Ked Sandbbs Wood. Red 
8andal-wood. The heart-wood of Fterocarpus sauLalinoJi- 

Kino. 271 

Characters. — Dense heavy logs ; externally dark reddish- or 
blackish-brown ; internally deep blood-red, variegated with 
lighter red zones, if cut transversely. When warmed, exhales 
a faint aroma ; taste very slightly astringent. Substance re- 
semhling Red Sanders Wood : Logwood ; less dense. See 
page 279. 

Composition. — Red Sanders Wood contains a blood-red 
crystalline resinoid principle, santalic acid or santalin, 
C15H14O5, sparingly soluble in water, soluble in alcohol 
90 per cent. 


Red Sanders Wood is used only to give colour to the Com- 
pound Tincture of Lavender. 

Kino. — Kino. The juice obtained from incisions in the 
trunk of Pterocarpus Marsupium, evaporated to dryness. 

Characters. — In small, angular, glistening, opaque, reddish- 
black, brittle fragments, transparent and ruby-red at the 
edges ; inodorous ; very astringent, tinging the saliva red. 
Solubility. — Partially in water ; almost entirely in alcohol 
90 per cent. 

ComjJosition. — Kino contains 75 per cent, of kino tannic 
acid, CigHigOg, giving a greenish precipitate with ferric salts of 
iron; pyrocatechin, a deriva,te of catechin (see Catechu Palli- 
dum, page 321) ; kino-red, formed from kino-tannic acid by 
oxydation : and gum. Incompatibles. — Mineral acids, alkalis, 
carbonates, metallic salts and gelatin. Base, 5 to 20 gr, (in 


\. Pulvis Kino Compositus. — 15; Opium, 1; Cin- 
namon Bark, 4. 1 of Opium in 20. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 

2. Tinctura Kino.— 2 ; Glycerin, 3; Water, 5; 
Alcohol 90 per cent,, to make 20 ; by maceration. 
Dose, i to 1 fl.dr. 

KiTU) is also a constituent of Pulvis Catechu Com- 
positus, 1 in 5. 


Kino closely resembles Taimic Acid in its actions, and 
may be used for the same purposes. {See page 39-4.) It is 
chiefly employed in the form of astringent gargles, and as a 
constituent of mixtures for diarrhoea. 

272 Balsamum Peruvianvm. 

Balsamum Peruvianum.— Balsam op Pebu. A 

balsam exuded from the trunk of Myroxylon Pereirae, after 
the bark has been beaten and scorched. 

Characters and Tests. — A viscid liquid; in bulk nearly 
black, in thin layers deep orange-brown or reddish-brown 
and transparent. Odour agreeable, balsamic ; taste acrid ; 
when swallowed, it leaves a burning sensation in the throat. 
Solubility. — Insoluble in water ; soluble in chloroform ; 1 in 1 
of alcohol 90 per cent., but on the further addition of 2 or 
more volumes, turbidity occurs. Sp. gr. 1-137 to 1*150. Im- 
purities. — Copaiba, resins, ethylic alcohol, castor oil and 
other fatty oils, gurjun balsam. 

Composition. — Balsam of Peru is a complex substance. 
It consists of 56-66 % of a colourless oily fluid {einnamein) 
and 28 % of dark resin. The liquid is a mixture of henzyl 
henzoate, C7H5.C7H7.O2, and henzyl cinnamate, C9H7.C7H7O2 ; 
the resin of an alcohol {peru-resinotannol) united to cin- 
namic and benzoic acids {see pages 333 and 391) ; there is 
further an alcohol (peruviol), which has sweet odour and 
taste, vanillin, and free cinnamic acid. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 
(made into an emulsion with yolk of egg or mucilage of 


Externally. — Balsam of Peru possesses the properties of 
its several constituents, Benzoic Acid and its allies and resins, 
being an antiseptic and disinfectant, a vascular and nutri- 
tive stimulant, and a nervine sedative. (See Terebinthin/v 
Oleum, page 401, for a full account.) Balsams have been 
used from time immemorial as applications to wounds and 
sores, but are now almost entirely displaced by simpler 
dressings, such as Phenol and Boric Acid. They are still 
used, however, to cleanse bed-sores. A more important 
application of Peruvian Balsam is in certain diseases of the 
skin, namely, (1) in some chronic inflammatory affections 
(eczema) ; (2) to relieve itching (prurigo, urticaria, etc.) ; and 
(3) in scabies, for which it is an excellent remedy, killing the 
acaruB, relieving the itching and inflammation, and disin- 
fecting the parts. The entire skin should be thoroughly 
rubbed with it (1 dr. to 1 oz. of Soft Paraffin) on two or more 
Gccasious ; a warm bath being taken before, and the applica- 
tion washed off in the morning with Soft Soap. 

Balsa MUM Tolutanum. 273 

Internally. — Balsam of Peru has a mild carminative efEecfc 
on the stomach and bowels, like volatile oils. 


The important changes undergone in the blood and tissues 
by benzoic and cinnamic acids, and the excretion of these 
and of aromatic oils by the mucous membranes, kidneys and 
skin, are fully discussed under Benzoinum (page 333), Styrax 
(page 391), and TereHnthince Ole^im (page 401). The con- 
stituents of Peruvian Balsam appear chiefly to affect the 
respiratory organs ; and it may therefore be added to cough 
mixtures as an agreeable stimulant and disinfectant expec- 
torant in chronic bronchitis. 

Balsamum Toliitaiium.— Balsam op Tolu. A 
balsam that is obtained by making incisions in the trunk of 
Myroxylon Toluifera. 

Characters. — A reddish-yellow, soft and tenacious solid, 
becoming hard by keeping ; brittle in cold weather. Trans- 
parent, yellowish-brown in thin films. It presents micro- 
scopical crystals of cinnamic acid. Odour highly fragrant ; 
taste somewhat aromatic and slightly acid. Solubility. — In 
alcohol 90 per cent., with an acid reaction. 

Composition. — Balsam of Tolu contains a terpene, CioH,«, 
tolene ; benzoic and cinnamic acids; and various r^^'iws, simi- 
lar to those of Peru Balsam. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. (as an emulsion). 


1. Syrupus Tolutanus.— 1 in 38. Dose, | to 1 fl.dr. 

2. Tinctura Tolutana. — 1 in 10 of alcohol 90 per 
cent. ; by maceration. Dose, 30 to 60 min. (with 

Balsam of Tolu is also a constituent of Tinctura Benzoini 
Composita; Tincture of Tolu of Trochisci Acidi Carbolici, 
Morphinae, and Morphinae et Ipecacuanhas ; Syrwp of Tolu of 
Mistura Ammoniaci. 


These are the same as those of Peruvian Balsam, but Tolu 
is used internally only, and chiefly as a pleasant ingredient of 
cough mixtures and lozenges. 

2 74 Physostigmatis S em in a. 

Pliysostig:inatis Scmiiia.— Calabar Bean. The 

ripe seeds of Physostigma venenosum. ^ 

Characters. — Large reddish-brown or chocolate-brown, 
oblong-reniform seeds, about 1 inch long, f inch broad, \ inch 
thick. A broad dark furrow extends nearly the entire length 
of the curved margin. Testa hard, thick, and somewhat rough, 
enclosing two firm, white, starchy cotyledons, between which 
there is a large cavity. No odour, nor characteristic taste. 

Composition. — Besides the ordinary constituents of beans, 
the seeds of Physostigma contain four alkaloids, (1) xyliyso- 
stiymine or eserine, CigHgiNgOa, combining with acids, 
and obtained as colourless scaly crystals ; (2) eseridine, 
C16H23N3O3, in crystalline prisms, acting like eserine ; (3) 
eseramine, CieHas^^Og, probably inactive ; and (4) calabarine. 


Extractum Physostigmatis.— Alcoholic, with Milk 
Sugar. Dose., ^ to 1 gr. 

From Physostigmatis Semina is m^de : 

PhysostigminsB Sulphas.— Physostigmine Sulphate. 
Eserine Sulphate. (Ci.,H2iN302)2, H2S04,a;H20. 

Characters. — Yellowish-white, minute crystals, 
becoming red by exposure to air and light, highly 
deliquescent. Solubility.— ¥onv in 1 of water ; 2-5 
in 1 of alcohol 90 per cent. Aqueous solution 
neutral ; becomes red when shaken with dilute solution 
of potassium hydroxide. Dose, ^^^ to -^ gr. 


Lamella PHTSOSTiOMiNiE. — Discs of Gelatin, 
with some Glycerin, each weighing about -^ gr., 
and containing y^^gr. of Physostigmine Sulphate. 


Extract of Physostigma or preparations of Eserine are 
readily absorbed by the conjunctiva, and produce the specific 
contraction of the pupil to be presently noticed. 

Taken by the mouth, Calabar Bean in moderate doses 
bometimes causes sickness and colic, and in larger doses 
diarrhoea, all from increased and irregular peristalsiB, appa- 

Physostigmatis Semina. 275 

rently of local origin. The Extract is therefore occasionally 
used in habitual constipation. 


Eserine enters the blood unchanged, and passes thence 
into all the tissues. Along with the gastro-intestinal symptoms 
just described, moderate doses of the Bean give rise to a sense 
of weakness, faintness, and shortness of breath ; larger doses 
to an aggravation of the same symptoms, with contraction of 
the pupil, frontal headache, salivation, diaphoresis, and slowing 
and weakening of the pulse. These are short of poisonous 

The exact action of Physostigmine on the nervous system 
is as yet undetermined. Depression seems to be the principal 
effect, causing muscular weakness and loss of reflexes. It is 
probable that the depression starts in the cord and medulla, 
and only affects the cerebrum if large doses are given. 
The movements of all involuntary muscles are stimulated ; 
thus increased movements of the stomach, intestines, uterus, 
bladder and bronchi result, due to local stimulation of the 
nerve endings. The endings of voluntary nerves are also 
stimulated, and this causes the muscular twitchings observed 
in Physostigmine poisoning. The sensory nerves and muscles 
are not affected. 

The medulla is decidedly affected by Physostigma. Thus 
the respiratory centre, after brief (probably reflex) stimula- 
tion, is depressed, and death occurs chiefly by asphyxia. 
Small doses slow the heart and raise the blood-pressure ; 
larger doses cause further slowing and a fall in blood- 
pressure. The slowing of the heart is due to direct action on 
the heart muscle, with perhaps increased irritability of the 
vagus endings. The rise in blood-pressure is referred to 
local constriction of the intestinal vessels, to contractions of 
the muscles of the intestinal walls, and to stimulation of the 
vasomotor contrp. 

Contraction of the pupil and spasm of accommodation 
are striking and highly important effects of Eserine, whether 
it be given internally or applied locally. Both phenomena 
are due to irritation of the fibres of the third nerve, and 
not to central disturbance as in the contraction caused by 
Opium, nor to paralysis of the sympathetic. They are accom- 
panied by fall of the intraocular tension, and can be removed 
by Atropine. 

The salivary secretion is increased by stimulation of the 
terminations of the secretory nerves, but ceases after large 
doses from arrest of the circulation in the glands. 

27^ Physostigmatis Semis a. 

3. specific uses. 

The specific uses of Calabar Bean depend on its action on 
the cord and the eye. It has been frequently given in tetanus, 
and other convulsive diseases referable to irritation or disease 
of the spinal centres, and apparently with success, although 
many cases recover spontaneously and others resist the Eserine. 
The Sulphate of the alkaloid should be given subcutaneously 
in doses of gr, J^ to -^ in solution ; or gr. \ of the Extract, 
rubbed up with spirit, gum, and water, may be given sub- 
cutaneously, or gr. 1 by the mouth, repeated in two hours, 
and followed by doses of gr. ^^ to \ every few hours. For 
the convulsions of Strychnine poisoning Calabar Bean is of 
little or no use. Neither is it of much real service in the 
treatment of poisoning by Atropine or Chloral Hydrate, as 
was once expected. 

In diseases of the eye Eserine is now much used. A drop 
of a solution of the Sulphate (2 gr. to 1 fl.oz. of water) is 
applied locally to diminish intraocular pressure in glaucoma, 
perforating keratitis, etc. ; in paralysis of the iris and ciliary 
muscle, e.g. after diphtheria (^ gr. to 1 fl.oz.) ; to counteract 
the effects of Atropine ; or to diminish the entrance of light 
in painful diseases of the eye, photophobia, etc. The Lamellie 
PhysostigminaB, inserted beneath the lids, are a convenient 
form for ophthalmic purposes. 


Eserine is excreted by the liver and salivary glands, and 
has also been found in the urine. 

Araroba.— Araroba. Goa Powder; Crude Chrys- 

Source. — Found in cavities in the trunk of Andira 
Araroba, freed as much as possible from fragments of wood, 
dried and powdered. 

Characters. — From brownish-yellow to umber-brown in 
colour. Should yield to hot chloroform not less than 50 per 
cent, of a substance which, on evaporation, drying and 
powdering, should have the characters of Chrysarobin. 

From Araroba is prepared : 

Clirysarobtnum.— Chrysarobin. 

Source. — Obtained from Araroba by extracting with hot 
chloroform evaporating to dryness and powdering, Cha/racters. 

Chr ysa robinum. ^77 

—A. crystalline yellow powder, inodorous, tasteless. Solubility. 
—Entirely in hot chloroform, almost entirely in hot alcohol 90 
per cent., partially in petroleum spirit, only slightly in water. 
In solution of potassium hydroxide it partially dissolves and 
assumes a deep brownish-red colour. Composition. — Consists 
of a chemical substance known as chrysarobin, with dichrysa- 
robin, dichrysarobin methyl ether, and chrysophanio acid. 

Chrysarobin, CgoHgeOy, is converted into chrysophanio acid, 
Cj3Hi(,04, by slow oxydation, or by solution in strong potash 
and decomposition with a mineral acid. Chrysophanio acid 
is also contained in Rhubarb. See Rhei Radix, page 372. 


Unguentum Chrysarobini. — 1 to 24 of Benzoated 


Externally. — Chrysarobin destroys low vegetable or- 
ganisms in connection with the skin, stains it purple-red, 
and stimulates it so much as to produce in some instances 
serious constitutional disturbance. It is a successful applica- 
tion in some forms of ringworm, and in scaly and other 
diseases of the skin, especially psoriasis. When applied over 
an extensive area of the skin it is apt to cause vomiting, 
purging, and fever. Chrysarobin is excreted by the kidneys 
and stains the urine yellow. 

Senna Alexandrina,— Alexandrian Senna. The 
dried leaflets of Cassia acutifolia. 

Characters. — About | to fully l\ inch long, lanceolate or 
oval-lanceolate, acute, unequal at the base, entire, thin, brittle ; 
pale greyish-green ; distinctly veined on the lower surface ; 
finely pubescent. Odour peculiar, faint ; taste mucilaginous, 
unpleasant. Impurities, and substances resembling Senna : 
Solenostemma Argel, Uva Ursi, and Buchu, all equal at the 

Senna Indica.— East Indian Senna. Tinnevelly 
Senna. The dried leaflets of Cassia angustifolia. From 
plants cultivated in Southern India. 

Characters. — About 1 to 2 inches in length, lanceolate 
acute, unequal at the base, thin, entire ; yellowish-green and 
smooth above, somewhat duller beneath ; glabrous or slightly 
pubescent. In odour and taste similar to Alexandrian Senna, 

278 Senna Indica. 

Composition. — Senna contains Senria-emodin, Ci4H4(CH3) 
(OH)302, identical with aloe-emodin ; senna- cTirysophanic 
acid, Ci4H5(CH3)(OH)202 ; glvcoseniiin, C22HJ8O8, a glucoside 
yielding senna-emodin and sugar ; senna-isoemodin ; senna- 
rliamnetin and senna-nigrin, the last giving by decomposition 
senna-emodin ; and mucilage. The so-called Cathartic Acid 
is a mixture of these. 

Preparations of either kind of Senna. 

1. Confectio SennsB. — Senna, 7; Coriander Fruit, 
3 ; Figs, 12 ; Tamarinds, 9; Cassia Pulp, 9 ; Prunes, 6 ; 
Extract of Liquorice, 1 ; Kefined Sugar, 30 ; Water q.s. 
to make 75. Dose, 60 to 120 gr. 

2. Infusum Sennse. — 1 in 10, with -0625 of Ginger. 
Dose, ^ to 1 fl.oz. ; as a draught, 2 fl.oz. 

From Infusum Sennee is prepared : 

MiSTURA Senn^ Composita. — "Black 
Draught." Infusion of Senna, 1 1 ; Magnesium 
Sulphate, 5 ; Liquid Extract of Liquorice, 1 ; 
Compound Tincture of Cardamoms, 2 ; Aromatic 
Spirit of Ammonia, 1. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.oz. as a 

3. Liquor Sennsa Concentratus. — 1 in 1. Aqueous 
and alcoholic, with Tincture of Ginger. Dose, ^ to 
1 fl.dr. 

4. Syrupus Sennae.—Senna, 1200 ; Oil of Corian- 
der, ; llefined Sugar, 1500 ; Alcohol, 90 per cent,, 2'4 ; 
Alcohol, 20 per cent., 2100; Water, q.s. ; by maceration 
and evaporation. Dose, ^ to 2 fl.dr. 

5. Tinctura Sennae Composita.— Senna, 8; Raisins, 
4 ; Caraway and Coriander, of each 1 ; Alcohol, 45 per 
cent., to make 40. By maceration. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 
repeated ; 2 to 4 fl.dr. at once. 

Senna is also the mmt important ingredient in Palvia 
Glycyrrhizae Compositus. 1 in 6. See page 2G9. 


Given internally. Senna stimulates the muscular coat of 
the intestine, apparently by local reflex action originating in 
the mucous surface of the bowel itself ; and prvxiuces brisk 
peristaltic movements and purgation within four or five hours. 

Senna Indica. 279 

The colon is chiefly stimulated, hnrrying downwards the fluid 
contents received from the ileum, which appear as very thin 
copious yellow stools, with excess of sodium salts and digestive 
products, but no special increase of bile. Full doses cause 
repeated evacuation and griping, but no inflammation of the 
mucous surface. The pelvic structures may, however, 
become hyperaemic, leading to haemorrhoids and the appear- 
ance of the menses. Constipation does not follow the use 
of Senna. 

Senna is never given alone, but always with a carminative 
to prevent griping, and frequently with other purgatives, as 
in the Compound Mixture. It is one of the most useful of 
aperients. It is very extensively prescribed to complete the 
effect of mercurial and other duodenal purgatives, given 
several hours before. It affords at once a rapid and safe 
purge at the commencement of febrile attacks in children, in 
local inflammations, and in cerebral congestion. As an 
habitual laxative in the form of Pulvis Glycyrrhizae Com- 
positus, Senna is most valuable, being a simple stimulant of 
the muscular coat, which neither loses its effect by use nor 
produces subsequent constipation. Combined with bitter 
and other stomachics, it is employed in dyspepsia, the laxa- 
tive effect of Senna having been said to be increasetl by acids 
and diminished bj alkalis. 


Cathartic acid and chrysophanic acid enter the blood, pass 
through the tissues, and are excreted by the kidneys and 
mammary gland ; the cathartic acid purging infants at the 
breast, the chrysophanic acid staining the urine yellow. 
Senna acts as a purgative in animals when injected into the 

HsBinatoxyli L.ig:iiuin.— Logwood. The heart- 
wood of Haematoxjlon campechianum. 

Characters. — The wood is hard, heavy, externally dull 
orange to purplish-red ; internally reddish-brown. The chips 
or coarse powder (unfermented) have a feeble agreeable 
odour, and a sweetish astringent taste. A small portion 
chewed imparts to the saliva a pink colour. 

Substance reseynbling Logwood : Red Sanders Wood, which 
is more dense, and less astringent to taste. 

28o Cassia Pulp a. 

Composition. — Logwood contains tannic acid, and 10 % of 
a peculiar colouring principle, hcBmatoxylin, C,8H,40g, SHaO, 
in colourless crystals, which become red on exposure to light ; 
the solutions undergoing various changes of colour with acids 
and alkalis, and coagulating gelatin. The Decoction pre- 
cipitates ferric salts violet-blue, lead acetate and other 
metallic salts a beautiful blue. Other less important sub- 
stances occur in logwood. iTicompatibles. — Mineral acids, 
metallic salts, lime water, and tartar-emetic. 


Decoctuin Haematoxyli. — 1 in 20, with about ^ 
of Cinnamon Bark. Dose, ^ to 2 fl.oz. 


Logwood possesses the astringent action of Tannic Acid, 
and may be used in the same class of cases. It colours the 
urine dark red. See page 394. 

Cassiae Pulpa.— Cassia Pulp. The pulp obtained 
from the pods of Cassia Fistula. 

Characters of the pods. — Nearly cylindrical ; 1^ to 2 feet 
long, I to 1 inch wide ; shortly stalked ; blackish-brown ; very 
hard ; indehiscent, the sutures being marked by two smooth 
longitudinal bands. Divided by transverse septa into numerous 
cells, each containing a smooth, flattish, oval reddish-brown 
seed and viscid pulp. The pulp, alone official, is nearly black, 
viscid, with a sweet taste and faint odour. 

Composition. — Cassia Pulp contains sugar^ pectin, muci- 
lage, and a purgative principle which has not yet been 

Cassia Pulp is contained in Confectio Sennro, about 1 in 8. 


Cassia Pulp is a laxative, given only in Confection of 

Tamarindiis,— Tamarinds. The fruits of Tamar- 
indus iiidlca, freed from the brittle outer part of the pericarp 
and preserved with sugar. 

Copaiba, 281 

Characterg. — A reddish -brown, moist sugary mass, contain- 
ing strong branched fibres, and brown shining seeds, each 
enclosed in a tough membranous endocarp. Taste agreeable, 
refreshing, subacid. Impurity.— Co^^&r ; a piece of bright 
iron left in the pulp for an hour should not exhibit any deposit 
of copper. 

Com/position. — Tamarinds contain sugar, gum, tartaric acid 
BJidpota^sium tartrate ; also citric, acetic and various aromatic 

Tamarinds are contained in Confectio Sennae, about 1 in 8. 


Tamarinds are a pleasant acid refrigerant and gentle 
laxative. For the former purpose they are prepared as an 
infusion, or as Tamarind Whey (1 part of the pulp to 30 parts 
warm milk), which is also a mild purgative, like the Confection 
of Senna. 

Copaiba.— Copaiba. Copaiva. The oleo-resin ob- 
tained from the trunk of Copaifera Langsdorfii, and other 
species of Copaifera. 

Characters. — A more or less viscid liquid ; generally trans- 
parent, occasionally opalescent and slightly fluorescent ; light 
yellow to pale golden brown ; odour peculiar, aromatic ; taste 
persistent, acrid, somewhat bitter. Sp. gr. 0916 to 0-993. 
Solubility. — Insoluble in water ; soluble in ether, absolute 
alcohol, fixed and volatile oils, and benzol ; 1 in 4 of petroleum 

Composition. — Copaiba consists of at least 40 per cent, of the 
official volatile oil, and more than 50 per cent, of resin. Oil 
of Copaiba, composed of caryophyllene, C15H24, is colourless 
or pale yellow, with the odour and taste of Copaiba. Resin of 
Copaiba is a brownish resinous mass, consisting of a crystal- 
lisable resin, cipaivic acid, C20H32O2, the cliief constituent of 
the oleo-resin, and a non-crystallisable viscid resin of copaiva, 
amounting to \^ per cent. The proportion of oil and resin 
varies much with the age and exposure of the Copaiba. Tiro- 
purities. — Turpentine ; detected by the odour on heating. 
Fixed oils ; leaving a greasy ring round the resinous stain 
when heated on paper. Copaiba dissolves ^ its weight of 
magnesium carbonate by the aid of heat, and remains trans- 
parent (magnesium copaivate) ; fixed oils not so. Gorjun 

282 Copaiba. 

balsam, coagulating at 270° ; Copaiba not so. Dose, \ to 1 fl.dr. 
(in emulsion or in capsules). 

From Copaiba is made : 

Oleum CopaibsB. — The oil distilled from Copaiba. 

Characters. — Colourless or pale yellow ; odour and 
taste of copaiba. Sp. gr. 0-900 to 0-910. Turns ray of 
polarised light to left. Solubility. — 1 in 1 of absolute 
alcohol (distinction from African copaiba oil). Dose, 
5 to 20 min. (with mucilage or yolk of Qgg). 


Copaiba produces an acrid nauseous sensation in the 
mouth, warmth in the stomach, unpleasant eructations and 
gastro-intestinal irritation like other oleo-resins. Large doses 
or the persistent use of the drug leads to dyspepsia, sickness 
and diarrhoea ; it is contra-indicated in irritable states of the 
stomach and bowels. 


The. active principles of Copaiba are absorbed into the 
blood, and pass thence into the tissues. Its actions on the 
organs are obscure. The volatile oil is excreted by the kidneys, 
bronchi and skin, and the resin at least by the kidneys. All 
the secretions smeU freely of the drug, and the neighbourhood 
of the patient is pervaded with a characteristic unpleasant 
odour. In thus passing through the eliminating organs, 
Copaiva stimulates them, altering their secretions and the 
nutrition of their cells and vessels. The urine is passed more 
frequently, and usually in increased quantity : but it may be 
scanty, with albumen and blood, pain in the loins, and other 
symptoms of renal congestion. The albumen thus passed 
must be distinguished from the acid resin of Copaiba which 
may be thrown down from the urine by nitric acid, and which 
is dissolved by heat or alcohol. Carried by the urine into the 
bladder and urethra, and possibly also excreted by the mucous 
membranes of the same parts, Copaiba produces along the 
▼hole genito-urinar^ tract a stimulant and disinfectant 
effect. A similar influence is produced in the bronchi ; the 
mucous secretion is increased, and expectoration reflexly 
excited. The stimulation of the skin (and probably tho 

Ac AC I M GUMMI. 28^ 

primary gastro-intestinal irritation in part) may sometimes 
cause an eruption, the " Copaiva rash," not unlike that of 

The uses of Copaiba depend entirely on its remote local 
effects, the immediate local effects only suggesting care in its 
administration. Its chief application is to the genito-urinary 
organs. The resin is given in doses of 5 to 15 gr., suspended 
in Almond Mixture, as a diuretic in hepatic and cardiac 
dropsy, but not in the dropsy of Bright's disease. The Oleo- 
resin is not used for this purpose, but is chiefly employed in 
inflammatory affections of the bladder and urethra, especially 
gonorrhoea, when the first acute symptoms may have somewhat 
subsided. Naturally it is less useful in vaginitis. Copaiba is 
now seldom used in bronchial affections, on account of the 
unpleasant effects attending it ; but it will sometimes diminish 
and disinfect the profuse foul products of chronic bronchitis 
and bronchiectasis when other means have failed. It is 
occasionally given in skin diseases. 

Acacise Oiimnii. — Gum Acacia. A gummy exuda- 
tion from the stem and branches of Acacia Senegal, and of 
other species of Acacia, 

Characters. — In spheroidal or ovoid tears or masses, nearly 
colourless, or with a yellowish tint, opaque from numerous 
minute cracks, and brittle, with vitreous fractures ; or in angular 
fragments with shining surfaces. Nearly inodorous ; bland 
and mucilaginous in taste. Solubility. — Insoluble in alcohol 
90 per cent. ; entirely soluble in water forming a faintly acid 
viscid solution. Impurities. — Starch, " dextrin," tannic acid, 
sugars and mineral matters. 

Composition . — Gum Acacia consists chiefly of arahio acid, 
or arabin, C^aHaaOtt, combined with calcium, magnesium and 
potassium ; and 17 per cent, of water. Incompatibles. — Alcohol 
and sulphurtc acid. Borax, ferric salts, and lead subacetate 
render it gelatinous. 


Mucilage Acacise. — Gum, 4 ; Water, 6. 

€him Acacia is also contained in Pulvis 

Amygdalae Compositus, Pulvis Tragacanthae Com- 

positus, Pilula Ferri, Pilula Phosphori, and in all 


Mucilage of Acacia is used in prepar- 
ing Mistura Olei Ricini and the Lozenge Bases. 

284 RosM Gallicm Petala, 


Acacia possesses properties and physiological effects 
aimilar to those of Tragacanth, and is employed for the 
same purposes (page 268). An objection to its pharmaceutical 
use is its liability to undergo fermentation, and cause indiges- 
tion and diarrhoea. Its principal application therapeutically 
is for cough, in the form of lozenges and linctuses. 


Rosse Oallicae Petala. — Red Rose Petals. 

The fresh and dried unexpanded petals of Rosa gallica. 
From cultivated plants. 

Characters. — Usually in little cone-like masses, some- 
times separate and crumpled. Petals velvety; colour deep 
purplish-red, retained after drying ; odour fragrant, developed 
in drying ; taste somewhat bitter, feebly acid and astringent. 

Composition. — Red Rose Petals contain an aromatic; vola- 
tile oil, a glucoside qncrcitrin, gallic acid, gum, and red colour- 
ing matter. Oleum rosce contains two alcohols, geraniol, 
CjoHigO, and citronellol, CjoHijO ; free acids and a solid stere- 
optene. The odoriferous principle is not yet determined. 


1. Confectio Rossb GailicsB. — 1 ot fresh Petals to 
3 of Sugar. 

Confectio Rosce Oallicce is used as an ex- 
cipient in Pilula Aloes Barbadensis, Pilula Aloes 
et Asafetidas, Pilula Aloes Socotrinse, and Pilula 

2. InfuBum Rossa Acidum. — 1 of dried Petals in 
•5 of Diluted Sulphuric Acid and 40 of boiling Water. 
Dose, J to 1 fl.oz. 

3. Syrupus Bosss. — 1, dried, in 23, with Sugar and 
Water ; by solution and infusion. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

Oleuni KOSSB. — Oil of Rose. Otto of Rose. The oil 
distilled from the fresh flowers of Rosa damascena. 

Characters. — Pale yellow, crystalline semi-solid ; odour 
strong and fragrant ; taste sweet. Sp. gr. 0*856 to OSGO 
at 86° F. 

Oleum Rosce is contained in Unguentum Aquae Rosae. 

Aqua R0S8B. — Rose Water. — To be diluted immediately 
before use with twice its volume of Distilled Water. 

Amygdala Dulcis. 285 

Source. — Prepared by distillation from the flowers of Rosa 


Unguentum Aquae Bosse. — " Cold Cream." Oil of 
Rose, -5 ; White Beeswax, 45 ; Spermaceti, 45 ; Almond 
Oil, 270 ; Rose Water, undiluted, 210. 
Rose Water is contained in Mistura Ferri Composita and 
the Rose Basis for lozenges. 


The preparations of the Red* and the Damask Rose are 
chiefly used as pleasant vehicles. The Acid Infusion is an 
agreeable astringent. 

Amyg^dala Dwlcis.— Sweet Almond. The ripe 
seed of Prunus Amygdalus, var. dulcis. Known as the 
Jordan Almond. 

Characters. — About an inch in length, nearly oblong, 
pointed at the one end, rounded at the other ; compressed ; 
testa cinnamon brown, thin, rough. Seed exalbuminous, with 
two large plano-convex oily cotyledons. Taste bland. Tri- 
turated with water forms a white odourless emulsion. 
Impurity. — The bitter almond, which yields odour of HON 
when bruised with water. 

Amyg^dala Amara.— Bitter Almond. The ripe 
seed of Prunus Amygdalus, var. amara. 

Characters. — Resembles the Sweet Almond in general 
appearance, but is broader and shorter, has a very bitter 
taste, and when rubbed with water emits an odour like 

Composition.— Both, varieties of Almond yield by expres- 
sion about 50 per cent, of fixed oil. Oleum Amygdalae, and 
albuminous substances including emulsin. The bitter variety 
also yields, by distillation with water, a volatile oil, Oleum 
Amygdalae Amarae, Essential Oil of Bitter Almonds, 
CgHgCOH, not official. The two oils must be carefully 
distinguished, inasmuch as the crude form of "Bitter 
Almond Oil" generally sold is highly poisonous, from 
admixture with 4 to 8 per cent, of hydrocyanic acid. 
Bitter Almonds contain neither the volatile oil nor hydro- 
cyanic acid until moistened, but 2 to 3 per cent, of amyg' 

286 Amvgdala Amara. 

dalin, CjoHgyNOji, a crystalline glucoside, which, in the 
presence of water, and under the fermentative influence of 
the emulsin, breaks up into the volatile oil, hydrocyanic acid, 
and glucose : CsoHgyNOn + 2H2O = CgHsCOH + HCN + 
2CfiHi20fi. When purified by separation of the hydrocyanic 
acid, Volatile Oil of Bitter Almonds is not poisonous, consist- 
ing, as it does, of benzaldehyde (CgHgCOH), with benzoic acid 
(CgHg.COOH) as a product of oxydation by exposure, and other 
allied substances ; and is used for flavouring sweets. Nitro- 
benzene, however, artificial Oil of Bitter Almonds, or •' Nitro- 
benzol," C6H4(N02)H, which is sometimes substituted for it, 
having a very similar flavour, is decidedly poisonous, and has 
caused death. 

Preparation of the Sweet Almond. 

Pulvis Amygdala Compositus. — Sweet Almonds, 
blanched, 8 ; Eefined Sugar, 4 ; Gum Acacia, 1. 

From Compound Powder of A Imonds is prepared : 
MiSTURA. Amygdalae. — 1 ; Water, 8. Dose. 
i to 1 fl.oz. 

Fro)n either Bitter or Sweet Almond is made : 

Oleum Amygdalae. — Almond Oil. The oil ex- 
pressed from the Bitter or Sweet Almond. 

Characters. — Pale yellow, nearly inodorous, with a 
bland nutty taste. Solubility. — In all proportions of 
Ether and Chloroform. Sp. gr. 0-915 to 0-920. Congeals 
below— 4° F. Impurities. — Various fixed oils. 

Almond Oil is contained in Linimentum Am- 
monias, Oleum Phosphoratum, Unguentum Cetacei, 
and Unguentum Aquae Rosaa. It is used in pre- 
ference to Olive Oil, as it makes a whiter 


The Sweet Almond is demulcent and nutritive, and has 
been ground into a flour for making cakes to be eaten by 
diabetic patients, instead of starchy food. The Compound 
Powder and Mixture are used only as vehicles for insoluble 
powders and oils and in demulcent cough medicines. 

Almond Oil has the same action, and is used for the same 
purposes, as Olive Oil, which, though less agreeable, is 
generally employed as being cheaper. See Oleum Oliva, 
page 337. 

Pruni Virginians Cortex. 287 

Pruiiliiil.— Pbunbs. The dried ripe fruits of Prunus 
domestica, var. Juliana. 

Cliaracters. — Ovoid or oblong ; about 1^ inch long ; black ; 
shrivelled ; pulp brownish, without marked odour ; taste sweet, 
bland and acidulous. 

Composition.— The prune contains sugar, malic acid and a 
purgative principle. 

Prunes a/re contained in Confectio Sennas, 6 in 75. 


The Prune is nutritive, demulcent and slightly laxative, 
and is also useful in covering the taste of Senna. It may be 
ordered as an article of diet in habitual constipation. 

Pruni VirginianaE Cortex.— Virginian Prune 
Babk. The bark of Prunus serotina, collected in autumn. 

Characters. — In curved pieces or irregular fragments ^ 
inch or more thick. Young bark frequently covered with a 
smooth, thin, reddish-brown, papery cork, or, if this has been 
removed, exhibiting a greenish-brown inner layer ; it is 
marked with transversely elongated lenticels and breaks with 
a short granular fracture. Outer surface of old bark usually 
rough and nut-brown ; inner surface finely striated or 
fissured and reticulated ; fracture surface reddish -grey. 
Odour, which is developed upon maceration in water, resembles 
that of the bitter almond ; taste astringent, aromatic, bitter. 

Composition. — Virginian Prune contains a volatile oil and 
also amyffdalin and emulsin which, under the influence of 
water, yield by interaction benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid 
{see page 285) ; a bitter crystalline ghicoside and tannic acid. 


1. Syrupus Pruni Virginianse. — A cold aqneovs 
solution, obtained by maceration and percolation ; with 
Refined Sugar, Glycerin and Water. Dose, | to 1 fl.dr. 

2. Tinctura Pruni Virginianae. — 1 in 5 with 
Water and Alcohol 90 per cent. ; by maceration. Dose, 
\ to 1 fl.dr. 


The important constituents of Virginian Prune are the 
aromatic oil by virtue of which it is a flavouring agent, 

288 Laurocerasi Folia. 

and the prussic acid with its sedative action which is developed 
by the special methods employed for preparing the Syrup 
and Tincture. These form pleasant and useful ingredients of 
mixtures and linctuses intended to relieve cough in a variety 
of diseases of the respiratory organs. 

Liaurocerasi Folia, — Cherry- Laubbl Leaves. 

The fresh leaves of Prunus Laurocerasus. 

Characters. — Thick, coriaceous, on short strong petioles ; 
oblong or somewhat obovate ; 5 to 7 inches long ; tapering 
towards each end, recurved at apex ; distantly but sliarply 
serrate and slightly revolute at margins ; dark-green, smooth, 
and shining above, much paler beneath, with prominent mid- 
rib, on either side of which, towards the base, are 1 or 2 
glandular depressions. On bruising, they emit a ratafia-like 

Composition. — Cherry-Laurel Leaves contain a bitter 
crystalline glucoside, lanrocerasiii (prulaurasin), Cj^HiyNOa, 
a glucoside of racemic phenylglycollic acid, which is present 
in the leaf parenchyma ; and emulsin, present in the endo- 
dermis of the veins ; by the interaction of the glucoside and 
the ferment in presence of water, benzaldehyde, hydrocyanic 
acid and dextrose are formed. 


Aqua Laurocerasi. — Cherry-Laurel Water. 1 in IJ 
by distillation, and standardised by the addition either 
of Water or of Hydrocyanic Acid to the distillate, so 
as to adjust the strength to 01 per cent, of Hydro- 
cyanic Acid, as tested volumetrically with AgNOj. 
Incompafibles : metallic salts. Dose, J to 2 fl.dr. 


Cherry- Laurel Water possesses the actions of Diluted Hy- 
drocyanic Acid, and is also a flavooring agent. See page 192. 

Cusso, — Kousso. The dried panicles of pistillate 
flowers of Brayera Anthelmintica. 

QuiLLAiM Cortex. 289 

Characters. — In more or less cylindrical rolls, from 1 to 2 
feet long, consisting of reddish panicles of pistillate flowers. 
The panicles much branched, the branches arising from the 
axils of large sheathing bracts ; they are more or less covered 
with hairs and glands. Flowers numerous, small, shortly 
stalked, mostly unisexual, with two roundish membranous 
veined bracts at the base of each. The calyx has reddish 
veins, is hairy externally, and consists of two alternating 
whorls, each of five segments, the inner whorl curved inwards 
over the young fruit and shrivelled. No marked odour; 
taste bitter and acrid. 

Composition. — Kousso contains a volatile oil, tannic acid, 
gum, sugar, and a neutral crystallisable active principle, 
I'osotoxin, which yields phloroglucin and trimetliyi-phloro- 
glucin. Dose, | to ^ oz. 


Taken in the large doses necessary, Kousso is apt to cause 
nausea, vomiting, colic and slight diarrhoea. Its principal 
action is as an anthelmintic, the tape-worms (Taenia solium, 
Taenia mediocanellata, and Bothryocephalus latus) being 
readily killed by it. It is used for this purpose only, and 
rarely in Britain. It may or may not require the assistance 
of a purgative to expel the dead worm. The powdered 
flowers, either in compressed masses or suspended in an 
aromatic water, are said to be much more active than an 

^Uillaiae Cortex.— Quillaia Bark. Panama Bark. 
The inner part of the bark of Quillaja saponaria. 

Characters. — Usually imported in large flat pieces, about 
\ inch thick, 2 feet or more long, and 4 inches wide. Outer 
surface brownish-white, or, where the outer bark has been 
imperfectly removed, reddish-brown or blackish-brown ; 
inner surface smooth and white or yeUowish-white. Fracture 
splintery ; fractured surface laminated, exhibiting under a lens 
glistening prismatic crystals; transverse section marked 
with fine radial and tangential lines. Taste astringent and 
acrid ; odour not marked, but the powder is extremely 
irritating to the nostrils. 

Compimtiini.—Q^niWwvA, Bark contains two saponins, quiU 
laia-sajwtoxin (Cj^HjeOio)* and quillaiac acid (CigHgoOio^a. 

296 Carvopmvllum. 


Tinctura Quillaise. — 1 in 20 with Alcohol 60 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

Quillaia Bark is also contained in Liqaor Picie 
Carbonis (see page 205). 


Quillaia Bark possesses the property of emulsifying oils, 
resins, etc. By virtue of the saponins which it contains it is 
an expectorant like Senega ; and it is used in various combina- 
tions, including Solution of Coal Tar, for the treatment of 
bronchitis and other diseases of the respiratory organs. 


Caryopliyllum.— Cloves. The dried flower-buds of 
Eugenia caryophyllata. 

Cha/roAsters. — Over \ an inch long, consisting of a dark- 
brown, wrinkled, subcylindrical, somewhat angular calyx 
tube, tapering below, and surmounted by four teeth, between 
which are four paler, imbricated petals, enclosing the stamens 
and style. Odour strong, fragrant, spicy ; taste very pungent, 
aromatic. Emits oil when indented. 

Composition. — Cloves contain 20 per cent, of the official 
volatile oil, tannic acid, and gum. A crystalline body, eugenin, 
isomeric with eugenol ; a neutral body, caryophyllin, isomeric 
with camphor ; and a salicyl compound, can also be obtained 
from Cloves. 


Infusum CaryophyllL— 1 in 40 of boihng Water. 
Dose, ^ to 1 fl.oz. 

Cloves are also contained in Infusum Aurantii 
Compositum and Pulvis Cretaj Aromaticus. 

From CaryophylUcm is nuule : 

Oleum Caryophylli.— Oil of Cloves. The oil di»» 
tilled from Cloves. 

Characters. — Colourless or pale yellow, when 
recent, becoming red-brown ; with the odour and taste 

Carvophyllvm. 291 

of Cloves. Sp. gr. not below r050. It is one of the 
few volatile oils heavier than water. 

Covqjositwn. — Oil of Cloves consists of evgenol 
(eugenic acid), CioHigOg ; a terpene, caryophyllene, 
^16^24 ; and acctcuoenol. Dose, ^ to 3 min. 

Oil of Cloves is contained in Pilula Colocyn- 
thidis Composita, and Pilula Colocynthidis et 

Bicompatihles. — Lime water, salts of iron, mineral 
acids and gelatin. 


Clovea may be taken as the type of a great group of reme- 
dies, other members of which are Orange, Lemon, Pimento, 
Cajuput, Caraway, Dill and many more, which are met with 
in our systematic review of medicinal plants. This group is 
known as the Aromatic Volatile Oils, of complex and variable 
chemical composition, as described at page 9. They are 
closely allied, on the one hand, to Phenol and Benzoic Acid ; 
on the other hand, to still more complex vegetable products, 
the Balsams and Gum-resins. Instead of dislocating the 
various members of the group of aromatic oils from their 
proper botanical position to discuss them together, we will 
describe their actions and uses once for all under the present 
head, it being understood that what is said of Oil of Cloves 
applies to the other substances, with occasional qualifications. 


Externally, Oil of Cloves and allied substances closely re- 
semble Turpentine in their properties. Whilst preventing or 
arresting decomposition, they redden and inflame the skin, 
and cause for a time smarting pain, which gives place to local 
anaesthesia. Oil of Cloves and other fragrant oils are too 
costly to be used externally, except to scent liniments ; but 
the concrete " oils" (or solid constituents of the oils) of Pepper- 
mint, Thyme, Eucalyptus, Myrtle, etc. (stearoptenes), are 
excellent antiseptics, local anaesthetics, stimulants and 
counter-irritants, and Turpentine and Camphor are common 
applications for these purposes. Such aromatic substances 
might be used to disinfect foul wounds and ulcers, and pro- 
mote healing ; to hasten the removal of chronic inflammatory 
products by increasing the local blood flow, and thus to 
reduce swelling in or under the skin, the periosteum or the 
joints to relieve neuralgic and rheumatic pains, such aa 

29 2 Caryophyllvm. 

sciatica and lumbago, by dulling the sensibility of the nerves ; 
and to act reflexlj on deeper parts (for instance, the lungs 
or heart), when applied to the skin over them as counter- 

Internally. — In the mouth the aromatic Oils of Cloves and 
their allies act much as they do on the skin. Besides being 
antiseptic, they dilate the local vessels (? directly), and thus 
increase the circulation, heat, and nutrition, and may even 
cause inflammation. They irritate the nerves, causing pain 
associated with a sense of burning ; but depression quickly 
follows, and local anaesthesia. Oil of Cloves is a valuable 
application in toothache from dental caries, acting at once 
as an anodyne and disinfectant. At the same time, tho 
nerves of taste and smell (flavour) are powerfully excited. 
Several rejiex results, of the first importance in digestion, 
follow these local changes, namely : (1) salivation ; (2) a flow 
of mucus ; (3) hyperaemia of the gastric mucosa, a sense of 
hunger, and a flow of gastric juice. Therewith there occur 
(4) stimulation of the appetite and increase of relish by the 
pleasing flavour. In a word, aromatics produce an increased 
desire for, enjoyment of, and digestion of food. 

Aromatic Oils are accordingly used very extensively in 
cookery, where the proper use of them constitutes an im- 
portant portion of the culinary art. Those of them which are 
also associated with bitters, such as Orange, are taken with 
wines and spirits as various "aromatic bitters," liqueurs, etc., 
to rouse or strengthen appetite and digestion before or during 
a meal. In pharmacy they are employed to correct the 
tastes of nauseous drugs ; and therapeutically they are given 
in dyspepsia and debihty along with most bitters to increase 
the saliva and the gastric juice. 

In the stomach the effect of Aromatics on the vessels and 
nerves is continued. Besides causing an increased flow of 
juice by stimulation of the mouth, these substances are 
powerful stomachics in several ways. The vessels of the 
mucosa are dilated ; the nerves of the same are first excited 
(causing a sense of heat in the epigastrium) and then soothed, 
with relief of pain ; the contents, if decomposing, as in 
dyspepsia, are partly disinfected. Their reflex influence is 
equally important. The muscular coat is stimulated, with 
increase of gastric movements, and the cardiac orifice is 
perhaps relaxed : Aromatics thus expelling flatulence, and 
relieving painful cramps, spasms, hiccup, and other forms of 
distress, an effect generally described as carminatiye. Distant 
organs are also reflexly stimulated : the vigour of the heart 
is increased, the blood-pressure is raised, and the spinal, the 

Caryophyllvm, 293 

medullary, and even the cerebral centres are temporarily 
excited, to the relief of low, hysterical, and " spasmodic " 
symptoms, as well as of more serious conditions such as 
asthma, cardiac pain and palpitation. Aromatics are thus 
general stimulants and antispasmodics. 

In the intestiTies the Aromatic Oils may still be found 
partly unabsorbed, acting on the same structures as before, 
increasing the local circulation and secretions, stimulating 
the intestinal movements, and expelling flatus. They thus 
relieve or prevent pain or spasm (colic), and provide us with 
valuable correctives of the griping tendencies of many 
purgatives. The constitution of the most important com- 
pound pills, powders, and laxative draughts should be studied 
in this connection, sucli as Pilula Rhei Composita, Pulvis 
Jalapae Compositus, and Mistura Sennse Composita. Caryo- 
phyllum is slightly astringent, by virtue of its Tannic Acid. 


The Aromatic Oils of Cloves and its allies enter the blood 
as such, and whilst oxydised in part by the red corpuscles 
leave the circulation mainly unchanged. Some of them are 
known to increase the number of white corpuscles by the 
dilatation of the abdominal vessels just described, and conse- 
quent stimulation of the organs which supply the blood with 


The Aromatic Oils are rarely given in sufficient doses to 
produce definite specific effects on the tissues and organs. 
It may safely be assumed that in the main their action closely 
resembles that of Turpentine, or that of Camphor, respec- 
tively, according as the elaeoptene or the stearoptene is 
in excess in the particular drug. {See pages 378 and 402.) 
Speaking generally, they are stimulant and antispasmodic ; 
but let it be noted that a great part of this effect is reflex 
from the stomach, as has just been described. 


The Aromatic Oils are excreted by the kidneys, skin, 
bronchi, liver, and probably the bowels ; partly unchanged, 
partly as resins. In passing through these structures they 
stimulate and disinfect them. This subject is of the first 
importance in pharmacology, and will be best discussed 
under the head of Turpentine, an oil which producf^s very 
marked remote effects. See TereUnthiTue Oleum, page 399. 

294 Oleum Cajuputi. 

Pimenta.— Pimento. Allspice. The dried full-grown 
unripe fruit of Pimenta officinalis. 

Characters. — Dark reddish-brown, nearly globular, two- 
celled fruits, from ^ to | inch in diameter. Pericarp rough 
externally, brittle and crowned by the remains of the four- 
toothed calyx in the form of a raised ring, surrounding the 
remains of the style. Each cell contains a single brownish- 
black reniform seed. Odour and taste warm and aromatic, 
resembling those of cloves. SuhstoMces resembling Pimento : 
Pepper, whicli has no calyx ; Cubebs, which is stalked. 

Composition. — Pimento contains the official volatile oil, 
consisting chiefly of eugenol, CioHjgOa, with some tannic acid. 


Aqua Pimentsa. — Prepared by distillation. 

From Pimento is made : 

Oleum PimentsB. — The oil distilled from Pimento. 

Characters. — Yellow or yellowish-red, becoming 
darker. Odour and taste of Pimento. Sp. gr. not below 
1040. Dose, i to 3 min. 


The actions and uses of Pimento are similar to those oi 
the preparations of Cloves and other aromatics. 

Oleum Cajupiili.— Oil op Cajitptjt. The oil 

distilled from the leaves of Melaleuca Leucodendron (Mela/- 
leuca Cajuputi). 

Ch^uracters. — Bluish-green ; odour strong, agreeable 
camphoraceous ; taste bitterish, aromatic, camphoraceous 
8p. gr. -922 to -930. 

Comjwsition. — Oil of Cajuput consists of cineol, CioHjgO, 
about 50%; a crystalline terpincol, CjoHjjOH ; lo'vo-pinene, 
CjoWiei ^^^ valerianic and benzoic aldehydes. Impurities.— 
Copper, detected by usual tests ; other volatile oils. Dose, 
i to 3 rain. 


Spiritus Cajuputi. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 90 per cent. 
Dose, 5 to 20 min. 
Oil of Cajup^it is also contained in Linimentum Crotonis. 

Eucalypti Gummj. 295 

actions and uses. 

Cajupnt Oil resembles in its actions and uses Oil of 
Cloves. It is used externally as a stimulant and counter- 

Oleum Eucalypti.— Oil of Eucalyptus. The oil 
distilled from the fresh leaves of Eucalyptus Globulus, and 
other species of Eucalyptus. 

Cha/racter&. — Colourless or pale yellow, becoming darker 
and thicker by exposure. Odour aromatic, camphoraceous ; 
taste spicy, pungent, leaving a sensation of coldness in the 
mouth. Neutral. Sp. gr. -910 to '930. Readily soluble in 

Composition, — Oil of Eucalyptus contains over 50 % of 
cineol, CioHjgO; dextro - pineme (eucalyptene), CioHje ; 
eudesmol, CjoHjeO ; bvfyrio and valerianic aldehydes ; and 
phellandraie : the last three being obnoxious bodies. Dose, 
^ to 3 min. 


Unguentum Eucalypti. — 1 in 10 with Hard Paraffin 
and Soft Paraffin, white. 

Eucalypti Gununi.— Eucalyptus Gum. A ruby- 
coloured exudation, or so-called red gum, from the bark 
of Eucalyptus rostrata, and some other species of Euca- 
lyptus. From Australia. 

Characters. — In grains or small masses. Thin fragments 
are transparent, ruby-red or garnet-red. It is somewhat 
tough, and has a very astringent taste. When chewed it 
adheres to the teeth and tinges the saliva red. Solubility. — 
80 or 90 per cent, is soluble in cold water ; solution neutral ; 
almost entirely soluble in alcohol 90 per cent. 

Composition. — Eucalyptus Gum, contains kino-tannic acid 
(page 271), catechin (page 321), and pyrocatechin. Imp^irity. — 
Australian Kino, which is very resinous, and little soluble 
in water. Dose, 2 to 5 gr. 

Trothiscus Eucalypti Gummi. — 1 gfr., with Fruit 


Externally. — Oil of Eucalyptus is a powerful antiseptic 
and disinfectant to the skin, e.g. in scarlet fever. 

296 Granati Cortex. 

Internally. — The action of Eucalyptus Oil is very similar 
to that of Oil of Turpentine, witli which it is otherwise 
so closely allied. It is antipyretic and antiperiodic to a 
degree, like Quinine, and has been given in ague, typhoid 
fever, septicaemia and pneumonia. 

Eucalyptus leaves the system by the kidneys and lungs, 
giving its odour to their excretions, and disinfecting these 
and the mucous surfaces. It is used in pyelitis and cystitis ; 
and in bronchitis, dilated bronchi and asthma, as a vapour. 

Bed Gum is an astringent, used in diarrhoea. 

Oranati Cortex. — Pomegranate Bark. The dried 
bark of the stem and root of the Punica Granatum. 

Characters. — Irregular, curved or channelled pieces, 2 to 4 
inches long, ^ to 1 inch wide, externally rough, yellowish- 
grey, with conchoidal depressions ; the item bark is smoother, 
with minute lichens ; internally yellow or yellowish-brown ; 
fracture short, pale. No odour ; taste astringent, feebly 

Composition. — Pomegranate Root Bark contains pimioo- 
tannic acid. G^qVI^^O^^', three liquid alkaloids: pcll^fieritw, 
CgHigNO, isopelletierine, and methyl-pellrtierine, C9H17NO ; 
and a crystalline •A\k?i\o\A, pscudopcllctierine, C9Hi5NO,2H20. 
Jncompatihles : Alkalis, lime water, metallir, s:iUs, o^nlatin. 


Decoctum Granati Corticis. — 1 in 5. Dose, ^ to 
2 fl.oz. 


Pomegranate Root Bark has an anthelmintic and slightly 
irritant action, but is somewhat astringent unless taken 
freely. It is used in the treatment of tapeworm, which is 
certainly killed by the Decoction, or by tannate of pelle- 
tierine (.5 to 8 gr,), the dose being preceded and followed by 
a purgative. 


Oleiiiii Oyiiocar<lia».— Chaulmoogra Oil (official 
in the Colonial and Jmliaii Addendmn). The oil expressed 
from the seeds of Gynocardia odorata. 

Charoitcrs. — A pale-brownish unctuous solid, with a dis- 
agreeable odour and taste 


Cmnposition. — Chaulmoogra Oil contains a quantity of 
2Mlmitic acid and climdmooyric acid. CigHggOa. Gyno-cardic 
acid (dose, ^ to 3 gr.) is a mixture of the principles. Dose, 
5 to 60 min. in milk, as emulsion or in capsules, after meals. 


Chaulmoogra Oil is believed to be a local stimulant and 
nutritive, when administered either by inunction or internally. 
It was for a time much praised in leprosy, and has also been 
used for phthisis, lupus, psoriasis and chronic rheumatism. 


Colocyntlitdis Pulpa.— Colocynth Pulp. The 
dried pulp of the fruit of Citrullus Colocynthis freed from 

Characters. — Peeled, in broken whitish balls, about 2 
inches in diameter, consisting of pulp with embedded seeds. 
Broken-up pulp, alone official, is light, spongy, whitish, 
odourless, intensely bitter. Impurities. — Seeds and cortex, 
ground up with the pulp ; starch. 

Compositi&yi. — The active principles of Colocynth are a 
bitter glucoside colocynthin, C5gH84023, usually amorphous, 
but crystaUisable, readily soluble in water and alcohol ; and 
citrullin, a resinoid powder, insoluble in water. 


1. Extractum Colocjrnthidis Compositum. — Colo- 
cynth Pulp, 6 ; Extract of Barbados Aloes, 12 ; Scam- 
mony Resin, 4 ; Curd Soap, 4 ; Cardamom Seeds, 1 ; 
Alcohol, 60 per cent., 160. Dose, 2 to 8 gr. 

2. Pilula Colocjmthidis Composita. — Colocynth 
Pulp, 1 ; Barbados Aloes, 2 ; Scammony Resin, 2 ; 
Potassium Sulphate, -25 ; Oil of Cloves, -25 ; Water, q.s. 
(about •25). Dose^ 4 to 8 gr. 

From Pilula Colocynthidis Composita is m^de : 

Pilula Colocynthidis et Hyoscyami.— 2 ; 
Green Extract of Hyoscyamus, 1. Dose, 4 t<» 8 gr. 



Colocynth is a powerful gastro-intestinal stimulant or 
irritant, according to the amount given, causing speedy 
large and watery evacuations of the bowels, attended with 
griping and general depression unless its effect be covered by 
a carminative. It is one of the most powerful of officiaJ 
purgatives, acting as a hydragogue cathartic, as well as on 
the muscular coat and intestinal glands and liver, the secre- 
tions of which are rendered abundant and watery. 

Colocynth is always used in combination with milder 
purgatives and carminatives. The Compound Pill is exten- 
sively employed alone, or with Calomel or Blue Pill, as an 
occasional purgative, to produce free evacuation of the bowels 
and relieve the portal system after free living, in bilious 
derangement, or in chronic constipation. It is less suitable 
as a habitual purgative. Its hydragogue effect is employed 
in cerebral congestion, where rapid " derivation " is required ; 
and in dropsies, especially ascites, either alone or as the basis 
of a pill containing Elaterin. Colocynth must be given with 
caution in pregnancy, and entirely avoided in delicate or 
irritable conditions of the stomach and bowels. 


Colocynthin enters the blood, and is excreted partly by 
the kidneys, being, according to some, a diuretic. 

Elateriuill. — A sediment from the juice of the fruit 
of Ecballium Elaterium. 

C/uiracters.— In flattened or slightly curved opaque cakes, 
about ^ inch thick ; pale green, greyish-green, or yellowish- 
grey ; fracture finely granular ; odour faint, tea-like ; taste 
bitter and acrid (but not to be tasted by the student). Im- 
purities. — Starch, flour and chalk. 

Composition. — Elaterium contains 25 per cent, and not less 
than 20 per cent, of the official active principle, elaterin. 
Dose, 1^ to ^ gr. 

From Elatcriuvi is made : 

Elaterinum. — Elaterin, CjsWasOy. The active prin- 
ciple of Elaterium. 

CONIVM. ^99 

Characters, — Small hexagonal scales ; taste bitter. 
Solubility. — Nearly insoluble in water, sparingly soluble 
in alcohol 90 per cent. ; readily in chloroform. Neutral 
to litmus. With melted phenol it yields a solution 
which, with H2SO4, becomes first crimson and then 
rapidly scarlet. Impurities. — Alkaloids. Dose, ^ to 

' Preparation. 

Pulvis Elaterini Compositus. — 1 to 39 of Milk 
Sugar. 1 in 40. Dose, 1 to 4 gr. 


Elaterin acts much like Colocynth, as a gastro-intestinal 
Irritant, but is decidedly more violent, being the most 
powerful hydragogue purgative which we possess. It pro- 
duces, even in doses of -^ to yij gr., numerous very watery 
motions, with griping and considerable depression, 

Elaterin is used almost entirely as a hydragogue purgative 
in dropsies and ursemia, relieving the venous pressure by free 
evacuation of fluid into the bowel. More rarely it is given as 
a rapid " derivative " in cerebral cases ; and still more rarely 
as an evacuant in obstinate constipation. This drug must be 
used with caution, and must not be ordered in catarrhal 
states of the stomach or bowels. 


Conii Folia,— Hemlock Leaves. The fresh leaves 
and young branches of Conium maculatum ; collected when 
the fruit begins to form. 

Characters. — Leaves pinnately divided ; the lower decom- 
pound, and sometimes 2 feet long ; glabrous ; arising from a 
smooth stem marked with da,rk purple spots, by clasping 
petioles, those of the lower leaves hollow. Odour strong and 
disagreeable, mouse-like, especially when rubbed with solution 
of potassium hydroxide. 

Conii Friictus. — Hemlock Fruit. The dried, full- 
grown, unripe fruits of Conium maculatum. 

Characters. — Broadly ovoid, greenish-grey ; about ^ inch 
long, and nearly as broad, somewhat laterally compressed, 
crowned by the depressed stylopod. Mericarps usually 

3°^ ComnM. 

separated ; each glabrous, possessing five irregular, crenate, 
primary ridges ; the endosperm deeply grooved on the com- 
missural surface ; in the transverse section of the mericarp 
no vittae are visible. No marked odour or taste, but v/hen 
rubbed with solution of potassium hydroxide a strong and 
disagreeable odour is produced resembling the odour of 

S^ibstances resevibling Conium Fruit : Caraway, Anise, Dill ; 
known by presence of vittae. 

Composition. — The active principle of Conium is a yellowish 
liquid alkaloid, conline^ C,8Hi6HN. It is strongly alkaline, 
oily and volatile; with a peculiar disagreeable mouse-like 
odour ; nearly insoluble in water. It is readily disengaged 
from the preparations of the plant by the addition of alkalis ; 
it has been prepared synthetically and shown to be o-propyl- 
piperidine, C5H9(C3H7)NH. Conium also contains methyl- 
coniine, C5H9'C3H7)N.CH3 ; conTiydrine, C6H9(C3H60H)NH ; 
psewloconltydrinc, C5H80H(C3H7)NH ; and y-coniceine, 
C6H7(C3Tl7)NH, this being the most poisonous. The pre- 
parations are uncertain in strength and action. Incom- 
patibles. — Caustic alkalis, vegetable acids, and astringents. 


A. 0/ Conil Folia: 

Succus Conii. — 3 of the expressed juice, with 1 of 
Alcohol 90 per cent. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr. 

From Succus Conii is 2>repared : 

Unquentum Conii. — Juice, 88, evaporated 
to 11 ; Hydrous Wool Fat, 33. 

B. 0/ Conii Fructus : 

Tinctura Conii. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 70 per cent. ; 
by percolation. Dose, 30 to GO min. 


Externally Conium has been used as an anaesthetic, to 
relieve the pain of cancer. Experiment fails to confirm this 
action, the whole of the sensory nervous system remaining 
unaffected by the drug, unless it be indirectly by poisonous 

Internally. — Conium may in some cases cause irritation 
and vomiting, with profuse sulivalion. 



Conine is readily absorbed into the blood; reaches the 
tissues ; and is found unchanged in many of the organs after 
administration. Moderate doses cause a sense of weight in 
the legs and weakness of the knees ; confusion of vision, with 
drooping of the upper lids, and swollen appearance of the 
eyes ; giddiness ; thickness of speech, and slight dysphagia. 
The poisonous effects of the plant are well described in the 
classical account of the death of Socrates. 

On analysis, the action of Conium is found to be as 
follows : The motor nerves are the parts specially attacked 
by Conium, being paralysed at the muscle end-plates, whence 
the heaviness and weakness of the limbs. The nmscles 
themselves remain irritable. The peripheral ganglia are at 
first stimnlated by Conium, but later they arc decidedly de- 
pressed. The respiratory centre in the medulla is finally 
paralysed ; the cardiac and vascular centres are not defi- 
nitely influenced. The convolutions remain intact until 
asphyxia supervenes. The corpora striata are possibly de- 
pressed. Death in Hemlock poisoning occurs by asphyxia, 
due to paralysis of the respiratory nerves and depression of 
the respiratory centre. 

Conium, although of great interest to the pharmacologist, 
is but little used in medicine. It has been recommended, as 
large doses of the Succus, in spasmodic and convulsive 
diseases such as tetanus, chorea and epilepsy ; in mania with 
muscular excitement ; and in asthma, pertussis and spas- 
modic affections of the larynx. Conine is excreted unchanged, 
chiefly in the urine. 

Asafetida.' — Asafetida. A gum-resin obtained by 
Incision from the root of Ferula foetida, and probably other 

Characters. — In rounded or flattened tears from ^ to 1 inch 
in diameter, or in masses of agglutinated tears, dull yellow in 
colour, darkening on keeping. When fresh the tears are 
tough at ordinary temperatures, but they become hard in cold 
weather. Internally they are yellowish and translucent, of 
milky white and opaque, the freshly exposed surfaces 
gradually assuming a pink colour which changes to red and 
finally to reddish-brown. It should contain not less than 
65 per cent, of matter soluble in alcohol 90 per cent., and 
should yield not more than 10 per cent, of ash when 


incinerated. Taste bitter, acrid, alliaceous; odour strong, 
alliaceous, persistent. Triturated with water it forms a 
white emulsion. The freshly fractured surface of a tear, 
touched with equal parts of nitric acid and water, assumes 
briefly a fine green colour. S^ibstances resembling Asafetida : 
Galbanum, Ammoniacum, Benzoin ; known by odour. 

Composition. — Asafetida contains 5 per cent, of a volatile 
oil, 65 per c«nt. of resin, and 25 per cent of gnm. The oil 
contains pincne, and disulphides, C7H14S2, CuHjoSa, etc. 
The resin is a ferulic acid ester of asaresino-tannol, C24H85O5 ; 
free ferulic acid, CiqE^qO^, is also present. Impurities. — 
Earthy matter, detected by burning. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 


1. Pilula Aloes et Asafetida. — Equal parts of 
Socotrine Aloes, Asafetida, Hard Soap, and Confection 
of Roses. Dose, 4 to 8 gr. 

2. Spiritus Ammoniea Fetidus. — Asafetida, 1-5; 
Strong Solution of Ammonia, 2 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., 
to make 20. Dose, 20 to 40 min. repeated ; CO to 90 
min. at once. 

3. Tinctura Asafetidss. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol, 70 per 
cent. ; by maceration. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

Asafetida is also contained in Pilula Galbani Composita ; 
2 in 7. 



Asafetida possesses the actions of other volatile oils and 
resins upon the alimentary canal, but differs from them in 
this highly important respect, that whilst most of them are 
aromatic and pleasant to the palate, it is extremely disagree- 
able. The mental influence of this nauseous impression, added 
to the other stimulant effects on the mouth and stomach (see 
Caryitphyllum, p. 292), constitutes Asafetida a powerful 
nervine stimulant, which arrests the emotional disturbance, 
muscular spasms and other morbid nervous disorders of 
hysteria. The stimulant action of volatile oils on the bowel 
(see Terehinthince Oleum, p. 401) is specially marked ; and 
an enema of Asafetida may be employed to expel flatulence, 
relieve constipation and arrest convulsions. 


Thfi volatile oil of Asafetida passes through the blood and 

Galbanum. 303 

tissues, and is excreted in the urine, sweat, breath and dis- 
charge from wounds. Thus remotely it exerts the usual stimu- 
lant action of volatile oils, and is sometimes given as a 
stimulant and disinfectant expectorant in chronic bronchitis. 

Oalbanum.— Galbanum. A gum-resin obtained from 
Ferula galbaniflua, and probably from other species. 

Cliaraoters. — In tears, or in masses of agglutinated tears. 
Tears round or irregular, from the size of a lentil to a hazel 
nut, generally that of a pea; yellowish- or orange-brown 
externally, often rough and dirty on the surface, usually 
opaque and yellowish-white internally, sometimes translucent, 
bluish-green and mixed with transverse slices of the root, 
hard and brittle in cold weather, softening in the summer, 
and by the heat of the hand becoming ductile and sticky. 
The masses irregular, and variable in colour from yellowish- 
brown to bluish-green. Odour characteristic ; taste bitter, 
unpleasant. Substances resembling Galbanum : Ammoniacum, 
Asafetida, Benzoin ; known by odour. 

Composition. — Galbanum contains 3 to 6 per cent, of a 
volatile oil, isomeric with turpentine, CioH,^ ; 20 per cent, of 
gum; and 65 per cent, of resins, consisting of galbaresino- 
tannol, a brown powder, with umbelliferone, CaHgOj, colour- 
less, odourless needles. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 


Pilula Galbani Composita. — Compound Pill of Gal- 
banum. Compound Pill of Asafetida. Asafetida, 2 ; 
Galbanum, 2 ; Myrrh, 2 ; Syrup of Glucose, 1. Dose, 
4 to 8 gr. 


Galbanum acts and is used much like Asafetida and Am- 
moniacum, and is always given in combination with either of 
these substances. 

loniacum. — ^Ammoniacum. A gum-resin exuded 
from the flowering and fruiting stem of Dorema Ammoniacum, 
and probably other species. 

Gharacters, — In small doll x)ale yellowish or brownish 

304 Ammoniacum, 

tears, or in nodular masses varying in size from ^ to 1 inch in 
diameter ; hard and brittle when cold, the freshly fractured 
surface having a waxy lustre ; it softens when warmed. In- 
ternally opaque, varying from milky white to pale brownish- 
yellow. Odour faint, characteristic, but not alliaceous ; taste 
bitter, acrid. Triturated with water it forms a white emul- 
sion. The freshly fractured surface is coloured yellow by 
solution of potassium hydroxide, dark red or orange by solu- 
tion of chlorinated soda. If a small fragment be heated to 
redness in a dry test-tube, the contents of the tube, after 
cooling, yield with boiling water a solution which when largely 
diluted with water and made alkaline with solution of 
ammonia does not exhibit a blue fluorescence (distinction from 
asafetida and galbanum). Substances resemlUng Amnwni- 
acum: Asafetida, Galbanum, Benzoin; known by odour and 
above test. 

Composition. — Ammoniacum contains about 4 % of a 
volatile oil, 20% of gum, and 70% of resin, ammoresino- 
tanmd, with salicylic acid. The oil does not contain sulphur. 
Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 


1. Emplastrum Ammoniaci cum Hydrargyro. — 328 ; 
Mercury, 82 ; Olive Oil, 3'5 ; Sublimed Sulphur, 50. 

2. Mistura Ammoniaci. — A milk-like emulsion. 
5 triturated in 150 of Water, with the addition of 10 
of Syrup of Tolu ; and straining. Dose, J to 1 fl.oz. 

Ammoniacum is also an ingredient of Pilula Ipecacuanhas 
cum Scilla, 1 in 6 ; and of Pilula Scillaa Composita, 4 in 21. 


The actions of Ammoniacum closely resemble those of the 
other aromatics and oleo-resins, but this drug is used almost 
solely for its remote local effects. Being excreted by the 
bronchial mucosa, it stimulates the surface and disinfects the 
secretions of the part (see Terehinthin^ Oleum, p. 403) ; and 
it probably acts similarly on the skin. It is used as a disin- 
fectant expectorant in chronic bronchitis with pi'ofuse dis- 
charge, anrl as a constituent of plasters intended to strengthen 
the circulation in the skin and promote absorption. 

Anisi FructHS.— Anise Fbuit. The dried ripe fruit 
of Pimpinella Anisum. 

Anisi Fructus. 305 

Characters. — Ovoid in form, somewhat laterally com- 
pressed, rough from the presence of short, bristly hairs, 
greyish-brown, about \ inch long and jL i^^ch broad. Meri- 
carps usually remain united and attached to the pedicel. 
The primary ridges pale, slender, entire. Each mericarp 
exhibits in transverse section numerous vittas. Odour 
agreeably aromatic ; taste aromatic and sweet. 

Composition. —The chief constituent is the official oil. 

Aqua Anisi. — 10 from 1, by distillation. 
From, Anisi Fnictus is made : 

Oleum Anisi.— Oil of Anise. The oil dis- 
tilled from Anise Fruit ; or from the fruit of the 
Star-Anise, Illicium verum (N.O. MagnoliacecB, 
page 219). 

Characters.— Co\oux\eBQ or pale yellow ; with 
the odour of the fruit, and a mildly aromatic taste. 
Congeals between 50° and 59° F., and should not 
again become liquid below 59°. Laevo-gyrate. 
Sp. gr. -975 to -990 at 68° F. 

Composition. — Oil of Anise is composed of two 
bodies, methyl chavicol, and a stearoptene, anetJwl 
(A), CioHjgO, crystallising out at the above tem- 
peratures. Dose, ^ to 3 min. 


Spibitus Anisi. — I to 9 of Alcohol 90 
per cent. Dose, 5 to 20 min. 

Oil of Anise is also contained in Tinctura Camphorae Com- 
posita and Tinctura Opii Ammoniata. 


The actions and uses of Anise are those of the aromatic 
oils in general. It is believed, however, to possess a specially 
stimulant action on the bronchial mucosa, like Ammoniacum, 
probably because excreted in part by it. It is therefore a 
favourite flavouring agent for cough mixtures and lozenges. 

Coriandri Fructus.— Cobiandbb Fbuit. The 
dried ripe fruit of Coriandrum sativum . 


CharoMers. — Nearly globular, about \ inch in diameter, 
uniform brownish-yellow, glabrous. The two mericarps closely 
united, crowned by the calyx teeth and stylopod. Primary 
ridges wavy, inconspicuous ; secondary ridges straight, more 
prominent. The transverse section exhibits two vittae on the 
commissural surface of each mericarp. Odour aromatic. 
Taste agreeable, especially when bruised. 

Composition. — The principal constituents of Coriander are 
aromatic oils, one of which is official. 

From Coriandri Fructus is mude : 

Oleum Coriandri. — The oil distilled from Coriander 


Cliaracters. — Pale yellow or colourless, having the 
odour and flavour of the fruit and a mild aromatic 
taste. Sp. gr. -870 to -885. Impurities. — Oil of turpen- 
tine and added terpenes. 

Composition. — Coriandrol (linalool), an alcohol, 

CiQHjiyQH; dextro-pinene, CjoHig; and an unknown 

aromatic hod>/. Dose, \ to 3 niin. 

Coriander Fruit is contained in Confectio Sennas, Syrupus 

Rhei, Tinctura Rhei Composita, Tinctura Sennae Composita ; 

the Oil in Syrupus Sennae. 


The actions and uses of Coriander do not differ from those 
of other aromatic substances. Its flavour specially covers 
the tastes of Senna and Rhubarb. 

FflBniculi Fmctiisi— Fennel Fbuit. The dried 
fruit of Foeniculum capillaceum, collected from cultivated 


Cfioracters. — From i to | inch long, and about ^ inch 
broad, oblong, curved, capped by a conspicuous stylopod and 
two styles ; smooth, greenish-brown or pale yellowish-brown. 
Odour aromatic ; taste aromatic, sweet and agreeable. The 
fruit is readily separated into its two mericarps, each with 5 
prominent primary ridges, and exhibiting in transverse 
section 6 large vittae. Substances resembling Fennel : Conium, 
Caraway, Anise. Fennel is larger than Conium, and has 
prominent vittae. 

Comjposition. — Fennel contains a volatile oil, composed of 

Car VI Fructus. 307 

cmetliol, CjoHijO, and a ]iQitone, fenchone, CioHigO, It is light 
yellow, with the peculiar odour of the fruit. 


Aqua Fceniculi. — 10 from 1, by distillation. 
Fennel is also contained in Pulvis Glycyrrhizae Compositus. 


Fennel has the same actions, and is used for the same 
purposes, as other aromatic substances. 

Carui Fructus.— Caraway Fruit. The dried frui-i 
of Carum Carvi. 

Characters. — Mericarps usually separate; each from ^ 
to \ inch long and about -^^ inch broad ; brown with paler 
primary ridges ; slightly curved, tapering towards each end ; 
glabrous. Odour aromatic ; taste agreeable, aromatic. Sub- 
stances resenibling Caraway : Conium, Fennel. Caraway has 
six vittsB and a spicy taste. 

Composition. — The official volatile oil of coA-away is the 
active constituent of the fruit. 

Aqua Carui. — 10 from 1, by distillation. 

From Carui Fr^ictus is made : 

Oleum Carui. — The oil distilled from Caraway 


Characters. — Colourless or pale yellow, with 

the characteristic odour and spicy taste. Sp. gr. 

•910 to -920. Composition. — Carvenc ot d-\ivaonerxey 

CjoHje, a terpene. and carvone^ CioHi40, isomeric 

with thymol. Dose, ^ to 3 min. 

Caraway Fncit is contained in Pulvis Opii Compositus, 

Conf actio Piperis, Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, and 

Tinctura Sennas Composita ; Oleum Carui in Pilula Aloes 



Caraway acts like other aromatic substances. It is exten- 
sively used as a flavouring and carminative agent. 

3^8 SnMBUL Radix, 

Anethi Friictus.— Dill Fruit. The dried ripe frnit 

of Peucedanum graveolens. 

Characters. — The two mericarps of which the fruit is 
composed are separate and freed from the pedicel ; each of 
them broadly oval, about \ inch long, -^ to | inch broad ; 
very strongly compressed dorsally ; brown ; the dorsal ridges 
inconspicuous, the lateral prolonged into paler brown wings. 
Odour and taste agreeably aromatic. 

SubstaTices resembling Dill. — Conium, Anise, Fennel, Cara' 
way. Dill is winged. 

Composition. — Dill contains the oflScial volatile oil. 

Aqua Anethi. — 10 from 1, by distillation. 

From Anethi Fructus is made : 

Oleum Anethi. — The oil distilled from Dill 


Characters. — Pale yellow ; odour that of the 
fruit ; taste sweet and aromatic. Dextro-rotatory. 
Sp. gr. "905 to '920. Compositian. — It contains a 
terpene d'limonene, CioHja, and an oxydised oil, 
CioHi^O, identical with carvor>e. iJose, | to 3 min. 


The actions and uses of Dill are similar to those of other 
aromatic substances. It is given as a carminative to infants ; 
and to cover the taste of Sodium salts. 

Siimbul Radix.— Sum BUL Root. The dried trans- 
verse slices of the root of Ferula Sumbul. 

Characteri. — About 1 to 3 inches in diameter ; | to more 
than 1 inch thick. Covered externally with a dusky-brown 
papery transversely wrinkled cork, with short bristly fibres ; 
internally spongy, coarsely fibrous, dry, dirty yellowish- 
brown, mottled with whitish patches and spots of exuded 
resin. Odour strong, musk-like ; taste bitter, aromatic. 

Composition. — Sumbul contains a small quantity of a vola- 
tile oil ; 9 per cent, of a soft resin, with it« characteristio 
odour; free nvihclliferone ; and a crystalline substance, *m7w- 
bidic acid. 

Sambvci Plores, 3<^9 


Tinctura Sumbiil. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 70 per 
cent. ; by maceration. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 


Sumbul is a stimulant, like the aromatic oils in general, 
and specially resembles Valerian and Musk. It is used in the 
same class of cases as these drugs. See pages 325 and 427. 


Sambuci Flores.— Elder Flowers. The flowers 
of Sambucus nigra, separated from the stalks ; and either 
fresh, or preserved while fresh with common salt. 

Char alters. — Flowers small ; calyx superior, 5-toothed ; 
corolla flat, rotate, 5-lobed, creamy-white, with 5 stamens 
inserted in the tube ; anthers yellow. Odour sweet, faint, not 
altogether agreeable ; taste slightly bitter. 

Covnwsition. — Elder Flowers contain a trace of a volatile 
oil, a resin^ and calclu77i and potassium malates. 

Aqua SambucL — 1 from 1, by distillation. 


Elder Flowers are chiefly used for flavouring purposes, but 
probably possess mildly diaphoretic and diuretic properties. 


Cinchonse Rubrae Cortex. — Red Cinchona 

Bark. '• Bark." The dried bark of the stem and branches of 
cultivated plants of Cinchona succirnbra. 

CTuz/racters. — Quills or incurved pieces, coated with peri- 
derm ; from 2 inches to a foot or more in length ; the bark 
itself T^j to ^ inch thick, rarely more ; outer surface reddish- 
brown ; rough from longitudinal furrows and ridges, or 
transverse cracks and warts ; inner surface brick-red. 

3IO Cinchona Rubr^ Cortex, 

irregularly and coarsely striated. Fracture fibrous. Powder 
brownish or reddish-brown. No marked odour ; taste bitter, 
somewhat astringent. 

(Salts of Quinine may also be obtained from various 
species of Cinchona and Remijia.) 

Composition. — Cinchona Barks contain (1) four important 
alkaloids, namely : quinine, cinchonine, quinidine, and cin- 
chonidine ; (2) two peculiar acids, kinic and kinovic acids ; 
(3) a variety of tannic acid called cincho-tannie acid ; (4) 
cinchona red; and (5) traces of an aromatic volatile oil. 
Remijia bark also yields an alkaloid, cupreine. 

(1) The alkaloids of cinchona. — a. Quinine, C2oH24N20^ 
occurs (as the hydrate) in white acicular crystals, inodorous, 
very bitter. It reacts like an alkali, forming neutral and 
acid salts with acids ; is fluorescent in dilute solutions of the 
Sulphate ; turns the plane of polarisation to the left ; and 
yields in solution a green colour when treated with CI water 
and then with NH4HO. An amorphous form of Quinine is 
obtained after crystallisation of the Sulphate from the 
mother liquor, or from quinoidine, which appears to be a 
compound of this alkaloid and others with resin and colouring 

b. Cinchonine, C19H22N2O consists of colourless prisms, 
inodorous, and bitter ; forms salts with acids ; but possesses 
no fluorescence in solution ; is dextrogyrate, and gives no 
green colour with CI water and NH4HO. 

c. Quinidine, C20H24N2O2, i.e. isomeric with Quinine, 
closely resembles it, but crystallises in prisms, and is dextro- 

d. Cinchonidine, Ci9H22NaO, i.e. isomeric with Cinchonine, 
resembles that alkaloid, but yields indistinctly fluorescent 
solutions, and left-handed polarisation. 

Red Cinchona Bark ought to yield 5 to 6 per cent, of 
alkaloids, not less than a half being Quinine and Cinchoni- 
dine. Of the other species of Cinchona, Yellow Bark should 
yield 2-5 to 38 per cent, of Quinine ; and Pale Bark, 0-7 to 
1-4 per cent, of alkaloids, chiefly Cinchonine or Quinidine 
with a little Quinine. 

(2) (3) The acids of cinchona.— «. ^%nic or quinic acid, 
C7HJ2O4, occurs in large colourless prisms, soluble in water. 
In the bark it is probably combined with the alkaloids ; and it is 
found also in the Coffee-bean, the Vaccinium myrtillus and 
other plants. It is closely allied to benzoic acid, aud appean 
in the urine as hippuric acid. 


b. Kinovic acid, C24H38O4, "kinova bitter," is a white 
amorphous body, insoluble in water. It appears to be a 
product with glucose, of kinovin, a glucoside, CgoH^gOg. 

c. Cincho-tannio acid, the astringent principle and 
soluble red-colouring matter of the bark, amounts to 1 to 3 
per cent. It is a yellow hygroscopic body, and differs from 
ordinary tannic acid in striking green with persalts of iron, 
and in being very readily oxydised, one of the products being : 

(4) Cinchona red, C28H22O14, a reddish-brown substance, 
without taste or odour, nearly insoluble in water. 

(5) The volatile oil, obtained by distillation, has the odour 
of the bark. 

Impurities.— IxdexioT barks are detected by the absence of 
the true characters of the ofl&cial barks, and by a quantitative 
test for (I.) Quinine and Cinchonidine, and (II.) the total 
alkaloids, as follows : I. For Quinine and Cinclionine : This 
consists in (1) mixing 20 grammes of red cinchona bark with 
6 grammes of calcium hydroxide, and moistening with water ; 
(2) boiling and percolating with benzolated amylic alcohol, to 
exhaust the bark ; (3) shaking the filtrate with HCl and water, 
to separate the alkaloids as hydrochlorides ; (4) neutralising 
with ammonia and concentrating ; and (5) adding a solution 
of 1"5 gramme of tartarated soda, to separate the insoluble 
tartrates of quinine and cinchonidine, -^^ of which will consist 
of quinine and cinchonidine. Five times this weight gives 
the percentage of these alkaloids. 

II. Ibr total alkaloids. — This consists in precipitating the 
other alkaloids by adding ammonia in excess to the mother 
liquor of I. Five times the weight of these, added to the 
percentage weight of quinine and cinchonidine, gives th© 
percentage of total alkaloids. 

Incompatihles. — Ammonia, lime water, metallic salts and 
gelatin. May be combined with mineral acids. 

A. From Cinchonce Rubrce Cortex are prepared : 

1. Extractum CinchonsB Liquidnm. — Made by ex- 
tracting with Hydrochloric Acid, Glycerin, and Water; 
evaporating to a definite strength ; and adding Alcohol, 
90 per cent., and Water. Standardised to contain 5 
per cent, of alkaloids. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 

2. Infusum Cinchona Acidum.— 1 in 20 of boiling 
Water, with -25 of Aromatic Sulphuric Acid. Dose, | 
to 1 fl.oz. 

312 QuiNiNM Sulphas. 

3. Tinctura Cinchonae. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol, 70 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Standardised to contain 1 per 
cent, of total alkaloids. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

From Tinctura Cinchonce is prepared: 

Tinctura Cinchonae Composita.— Tincture 
of Cinchona, 50 ; Bitter-Orange Peel, 5 ; Ser- 
pen tary Rhizome, 2*5; Saffron, -63 ; Cochineal, -32; 
Alcohol, 70 per cent, , to make 100. By maceration. 
Standardised to contain -5 per cent, of total 
alkaloids. Bose^ ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

B. From the Cot-tex of various species of Cinchona 
and Remijia are mude : 

1. Quiiiinse Sulphas.— Quinine Sulphate 
[(C2oH24N202)2, H^SO^l^loH^O. 

Source. — Obtained from the bark of various species 
of Cinchona and Remijia. 

Characters and tests. — Filiform, silky, white 
crystals, of an intensely bitter taste. Solubility. — 1 
in about 800 of water, imparting to it a fluorescent 
tint ; entirely soluble in water acidulated with a 
mineral acid. Solution of Ammonia gives with solu- 
tions a white precipitate of quinine, soluble in excess 
and in ether. In mixtures, 1 min. of a diluted mineral 
acid will dissolve one grain. 

Impurities.— hime, chalk, magnesia, starch, and 
other white powders. Should not yield more than 
3 per cent, of impure cinchonidine. Should not re- 
spond to tests for cinchonine, cupreine, quinidine, or 
amorphous alkaloid. Inxompatihles. — Alkalis and their 
carbonates, astringent infusions. JDose, 1 to 3 gr., as a 
tonic ; 5 to 20 gr., as an antipyretic and antiperiodic. 
See page 317. 


a. Ferri et QuininsB Citras. — 16 in 100. See page 
84. Dose, 5 to 10 gr. 

h. Pilula QuininsB Sulphatis. — 30 ; Tartaric Acid, 
1 ; Tragacanth, 1 ; Glycerin, 4. Dose, 2 to 8 gr. 

0. Tinctura Quinina Ammoniata.— 2 ; Solution 
of Ammonia, 10 ; Alcohol, 60 per cent., 90 ; by solution. 
1 in 51. Dose, ^ to I fl.dr. 

Qui NINE. 3^3 

Sulphate of Quinine is also contained in : 

d. Syrupus Ferri Phosphatis cum Quinina et 
Strychnina. — | gr. in 1 fl.dr. See page 85. 

2. Qiiininse Hydrochloridum.— Quinine 

Hydrochloride. C2oH24N202,HCl,2H20. 

Source. — Obtained from the bark of various species 
of Cinchona and Kemijia. 

Characters. — Crystals resembling those of Quinine 
Sulphate, but generally somewhat larger. Solubility. 
— 1 in 35 of cold water ; 1 in 3 of alcohol, 90 per cent. ; 
^ery soluble in the boiling liquids. Dose, 1 to 10 gr. 


a. Tinctura Quininse. — 1 in 50 of Tincture of 
Orange ; by solution. Dose, | to 1 fl.dr. 

h. Vinum Quininae. — 2 ; Orange Wine, 875. Dose, 
i to 1 fl.oz. 

3. QuiiiinsB Hydrochloridum Acidiim. 

—Acid Quinine Hydrochloride. C2oH24N202,2HCl,3H20. 

Source. — Obtained from the bark of various species 
of Cinchona and Kemijia. 

Characters. — A white crystalline powder. Solubility. 
— In less than its own weight of water, yielding a 
somewhat acid liquid. Dose, 1 to 10 gr. 


The actions and uses of the Cinchona Barks will be de- 
scribed along with those of Quinine, their most important 
active principle. 


Externally. — Quinine arrests some kinds of fermentation 
and decomposition, and might therefore be used as a local 
jmtiseptic and disinfectant to wounds and ulcers, but for its 
cost. A solution of 2 gr. of the Sulphate to 1 fl.oz., appKed 
as a spray to the nose, relieves hay asthma. A solution of 4 
gr. to 1 fl.oz., with a minimum of Diluted Sulphuric Acid, is 
recommended as a constant application in diphtheritic con- 
junctivitis, and to wash out a foul bladder. 

J^l^^nwWy.— Quinine is freely absorbed by the mucoug 

314 Quinine. 

membranes, and may be given either by the mouth, by the 
rectum as suppository, or subcutaneously. In the mouth, 
stomach and intestine it acts as a powerful bitter, possessing 
all the important influences on the secretions of the digestive 
tract described under Calumha (page 219). The stomachic 
effect of Quinine is obtained from small doses, ^ to 2 grains, 
and must be kept entirely distinct from the specific effects 
to be presently described, otherwise confusion as to the 
actions and value of this important drug will be the result. In 
small doses, like all other bitters, it improves the appetite and 
digestion, stimulates the heart and circulation, and increases 
the sense of comfort and Hen etre produced by a meal ; and its 
continued use will thus increase the bodily strength, that is, 
will be tonic in its effects. Quinine is extensively used for 
this purpose, especially during convalescence, in debilitated 
subjects, and in patients taking depressing remedies such as 
mercury. Larger doses (10 to 30 gr. or more) have the 
opposite effect, interfering with digestion, and so causing 

In the stomach Quinine or its salts become the hydro- 
chloride, a soluble and diffusible salt which readily enters 
the blood. Little or none escapes unabsorbed in the faeces. 


Quinine or its hydrochloride may be found in the blood within 
a few minutes of its administration. Here the alkaloid pro- 
duces several definite effects, namely : (1) It binds the oxygen 
more firmly to the haemoglobin, so that oxygenation is less 
easy and less active. (2) It causes enlargement of the in- 
dividual red corpuscles. (3) It paralyses the leucocytes, 
when given in large doses, thus checking diapedesis; and 
reduces the number of visible leucocytes very greatly (to 
one-fourth). In blood freshly drawn, it (4) retards the for- 
mation of acid (loss of oxygen and increase of carbonic acid) 
which naturally occurs in blood removed from the vessels ; 
and (5) it reduces the ozonising power of blood, e.g. on 
guaiacum and turpentine. Altogether, Quinine manifestly 
interferes with oxygenation, the giving up of oxygen by the 
red corpuscles. The outcome of these effects will be pre- 
sently considered. Given in malaria, Quinine quickly causes 
the Plasmodium to disappear from the general circulation; 
but it seems to have no effect on the crescent bodies, nor to 
interfere with their evolution into the flagellated organisms. 
Thus malaria is remarkably benefited by Quinine, which is an 
tntiperiodic or direct specific, whether given to persona 

Quinine. 3^5 

exposed to the morbid influence as a prophylactic measure, 
or to the subjects of ague. It acts best in fresh cases, the 
first dose of 10 gr. being given at any time in relation to 
the attack (excepting during the early stages of a paroxysm), 
and 5 gr. every five or six hours for the next two or three 
days. Ail forms of malarial fever are benefited by Quinine, 
as well as many diseases and disorders of malarial origin, 
such as neuralgia, hepatic disturbances, etc. The functions 
of the liver and bowels must be maintained during this 
treatment ; and the Quinine may be combined with Morphine 
if its effects are not well marked. If there be any diflficulty 
in administering the drug, it is to be given hypodermically 
or by the bowel. The Acid Hydrochloride in 10-gr. doses 
dissolved in sterilised water is the most suitable form for 
subcutaneous use. 


Quinine passes through the tissues without decomposition, 
quickly making its appearance in them, but not being com- 
pletely excreted for several days, especially in fever. The 
maximum effect of large doses is produced in about five 
hours. If, therefore, the full specific effect be desired, a 
single large dose (15 to 30 gr.) must be given, and this may 
have to be repeated once or twice within the hour: small 
doses given over a length of time do not sufficiently ac- 

The obvious phenomena produced by a full dose (15 to 30 
gr.) of Quinine are not by any means its most important 
effects. It acts most strikingly upon the nervous centres, 
and causes confusion of the mental faculties, noises in the 
ears and deafness, disorders of vision, headache, giddiness, 
vomiting, and possibly prostration from involvement of the 
cord and circulation. Of infinitely greater interest and im- 
portance are certain concomitant effects of Quinine which 
require careful investigation for their discovery. These 
effects may be arranged as follows : — 

(1) Quinine lowers the body temperature, very moderately 
in the healthy subject ; very markedly in the pyrexia of many 
acute specific fevers. It appears to be difficult to lower the 
normal temperature by drugs, as compensating mechanisms 
are probably brought into play ; but the rise of temperature 
and the perspiration normally produced by muscular exercise 
are prevented by Quinine. In malarial fevers, typhoid, acute 
pneumonia, and some forms of hectic and other periodic 
fevers, the defervescept effect of Quinine is unquestionable. 

3^6 Quinine, 

(2) Quinine appears to reduce the amount of nitrogenoui 
excretions, i.e. urea and uric acid, and probably also of 
carbonic acid, as determined both in healthy and fevered 
animals, and in man. 

These two sets of effects taken together point to a power- 
ful action of Quinine in reducing the metabolism of the body, 
of which heat and the excretions are the two most measurable 
products. This conclusion is supported by other facts, ob- 
served out of the body, namely, that : (3) a solution of albumen 
cannot be converted into peptone in an atmosphere of ozone 
if Quinine be present. (4) Healthy pus and fresh vegetable 
juices lose their ozonising power if mixed with Quinine. 

(5) Phosphorescent infusoria (rapidly oxydating protoplasmic 
masses) lose their phosphorescence in the presence of Quinine. 

(6) Fungi absorb oxygen less readily, and many forms of 
fermentation are arrested, in the presence of Quinine. These 
facts indicate that Quinine so combines with living cellular 
protoplasm as to render it less able to incorporate oxygen, 
and more resistant of vital change (metabolism). We have 
already seen that the oxygen actually in the corpuscles is 
bound more firmly to them by Quinine. We may therefore 
conclude that the effect of Quinine in the body is to check 
metabolism by interfering with the oxydation of protoplasm 
generally, with oxygenation, and with the associated actions 
of ferments. Thus tlie fall of temperature produced by 
Quinine is due to diminished production of heat in the body, 
not to increased loss of heat; it is effected through the 
tissues, not through the cerebral thermogenetic centres, as 
far as is known ; and the fever-causing processes themselves 
(probably allied to fermentations) are also controlled by the 
drug, which affects their organic causes, whether living 
organisms or complex chemical substances. 

An action such as this upon the processes of nutrition, 
though it might escape the notice of an ignorant observer, 
is more " powerful " even than the action of Morphine upon a 
highly-sensitive nervous mechanism such as the convolutions. 

Turning to the other systems, we find that whilst small 
doses of Quinine accelerate the heart and raise the pressure, 
as we saw when considering its action on the stomach, full 
doses diminish the force and frequency of systole, lengfthen 
diastole, and lower the pressure ; effects due to a direct 
action on the cardiac ganglia and muscle, and on the vessel 
walls and their centre. Respiration is accelerated by medium 
doses, depressed by large doses ; and death, should it occur, 
is referable to respiratory and cardiac failure. The spleen ui 
reduced in size, and hardened. 

Quinine. 317 


The uses of Quinine, which have been mainly established 
by experience, are in accord with these physiological results. 
Its specific actions may be employed in the following diseases, 
in addition to malaria : — 

1. Febrile conditions in general are relieved by the anti- 
pyretic effect of Quinine, for instance, acute pneumonia, 
typhoid fever, puerperal fever and septicaemia, the exanthe- 
mata and acute rheumatism ; but generally in very different 
degrees, so that its value is questioned in some or all of them. 
To be of use, the Quinine must be very freely given (10 to 
20 gr.) as single doses when the temperature reaches a 
definite height, say 104° F. Even if apyrexia do not 
follow, the drug may be of much benefit. In hectic fever 
Quinine is rarely of much service ; and in purely symptomatic 
fever, of still less. 

2. In splenic enlargement of malarial origin Quinine is 
given v/ith success, and in some cases of splenic leuksemia. 

3. In painful nervous affections, especially neuralgia, 
headache and face-ache, its effect is well marked. Some of 
these cases are malarial (brow ague) ; but ordinary facial 
neuralgia and toothache will frequently yield to it. Yet 
Quinine possesses no direct action on peripheral nerves. 

4. In certain cardiac diseases a combination of Quinine 
and Digitalis may be of great service, diastole being pro- 
longed and strengthened whilst systole is left unaffected. 

5. The tonic effect of Quinine has been already referred 
to. This is also due in part to the removal of fever, and thus 
of restlessness, sleeplessness and want of appetite. It also 
increases the movements of the uterus, causing natural con- 
tractions, and is frequently used for uterine inertia during 


Quinine is excreted chiefly in the urine, as the amorphous 
alkaloid ; partly as resinoid and crystalline derivatives. In 
passing through the urinary organs it is slightly diuretic, and 
may irritate the passages. It also escapes by the skin, 
diminishing perspiration, and very rarely causing an itching 
eruption which resembles that of scarlatina or of measles. All 
secretions, the milk, and pathological fluids may contain 

Actions and Uses of the Cinchona Barks. 

The Cinchona Barks contain but a small percentage of 
alkaloids, and are far too bulky for use as antiperiodics and 

3 1 8 /P£CA CVANHA. 

antipyretics it Quinine can be obtained. They are therefore 
given only as bitter stomachics and tonics. The amount of 
tannic acid contained in them suggests that they may be used 
when an astringent efiEect is also desired, either locally, as in 
passive diarrhoea, or possibly remotely, as in sweating and 
chronic mucous discharges ; and are to be avoided in consti- 
pation, dyspepsia, or irritabihty of the bowels. The Red Bark 
is especially astringent. 

Actions and Uses of the other Cifuhona Alkaloids. 

Cinchonine and other alkaloids and products of Bark may 
be employed as substitutes for Quinine, their actions being 
very similar. Cinchonine is from ^ to ^ as powerful as 
Quinine. Cinchonidine is said to cause epileptiform convul- 
sions in animals. 

Ipecacuanha. — Ipecacuanha Root. The dried 
root of Psychotria Ipecacuanha. 

Characters. — Somewhat tortuous pieces, not often exceed- 
ing 6 inches in length, or ^ inch in thickness. Varies in 
colour from dark brick-red to very dark brown ; distinctly 
annulated externally, the annulations not taking the form of 
narrow raised ridges (distinction from Carthagena ipecacu- 
anha). Fracture short, exhibiting a thick greyish cortex, 
usually of a resinous but sometimes a starchy appearance, 
and a small dense wood. Odour slight ; taste bitter. 

Composition. — Ipecacuanha contains three alkaloids: one- 
tine, Ci4Hi9(CH3)N02, about 2%, amorphous, white but 
turning yellow, comparatively insoluble in water, forms 
soluble but unstable salts; eephaeline, Cj4HjoNO,, more 
powerfully emetic but less expectorant than emetine, about 
1 % ; and psychotrine ; a glucosidal acid, ipecacuankio amd, 
CjiHigO?; calcium oxalate and starch. 

Dose, as expectorant, ^ to 2 gr. ; as emetic, 15 to 30 gr. 


1. Extractum Ipecacuanhse Liquidum. — Alcoholic, 
with Calcium Hydroxide. Standardised to contain 2 
to 225 per cent, of the alkaloids. Dose, as expectorant, 
^ to 2 min. ; as emetic, 15 to 20 min. 

From the Liquid Extract are prepared : 

a. Acetum Ipecacuanhae. — 1 ; Diluted Acetic 
Acid, 17 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., 2. Contains -1 per 
cent, of total alkaloids. Dcse, 10 to 30 miiL 

Ipecacuanha, ^^9 

h. Vinum Ipecacuanhae.— 1 ; Sherry, 19. Con- 
tains •! per cent, of total alkaloids. Dose, 10 to 30 
min. as an expectorant ; as an emetic 4 to 6 fl.dr. 

2. Pulvis IpecacuanhsB Compositus. — Dover's 
Powder. 1 ; Opium, 1 ; Potassium Sulphate, 8. A 
light fawn-coloured powder. 1 in 10. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 

From Dover's Powder U prepared : 

PiLULA Ipecacuanha cum Scilla. — Com- 
pound Powder of Ipecacuanha, 3 ; Squill, 1 ; Am- 
moniacum, 1; Syrup of Glucose, q.s. 1 in 20. 
Dose, 4 to 8 gr. 

3. Trocliiscus Ipecacuanhse.— J gr., with Fruit 

4. Trochiscus Morphinae et IpecacuanliSB.— Ipe- 
cacuanha, ^ gr. ; Morphine Hydrochloride -^ gr., 
with Tolu Basis. See Opium, page 227. 



Externally, Ipecacuanha powder is irritant to the skin, or 
even pustulant, but it is never used to produce these effects. 
Exposed mucous membranes are similarly affected by it. If 
taken as snuff it causes irritation of the nerves, sneezing, and 
reflex mucous secretion ; and the same effects follow its appli- 
cation as smoke or spray to the pharynx, larynx, or lower 
air-passages. In some persons it excites asthma. In the 
form of a spray of the diluted Vinum, or inhaled as the 
smoke of the burning powder, it is used to relieve cough 
due to dryness or deficient secretion of the throat and 
respiratory organs. 

Internally. — Reaching the stomach. Ipecacuanha in very 
small doses (gr. \) is a gastric stimulant, doubtless increasing 
the local circulation and secretion. It is therefore a useful 
addition to bitter stomachic and tonic mixtures, and will 
even arrest vomiting due to certain obscure conditions of the 
gastric nerves. The Compound Powder is of great value in 
ulceration of the stomach, and in some forms of dyspeptic 
vomiting. In doses of 15 to 30 gr., Ipecacuanha acts as an 
emetic, partly by a direct effort upon the stomach, partly by 
exciting the vomiting centre in the medulla (central emetic). 
This subject will be discussed under the heading of the 
Bpecific action of the drug. 

320 Ipecacuanha, 

In the intestines, Ipecacuanha is still a stimulant, in- 
creasing the flow of mucus ; in large doses an irritant. A 
remarkable tolerance of the drug is, however, readily estab- 
lished in many persons suffering from dysentery, in which 
disease Ipecacuanha has the power of arresting the inflam- 
matory action in the bowel, checking the liquid and bloody 
evacuations, and often effecting a complete cure. For this 
purpose enormous doses (30 to 90 gr.) are given, or large 
doses frequently repeated. 


Passing through the blood, from the alimentary canal to 
the tissues. Emetine acts on the vomiting centre in the 
medulla, i.e. is a central emetic, this effect being added to 
the local (gastric) action already mentioned. Ordinary 
doses (15 to 30 gr. of the powdered root, 3 to 6 fl.dr. of the 
Vinum for adults) produce free evacuation of the stomach 
and respiratory passages in 20 to 30 minutes, the dose often 
having to be repeated in 15 minutes, and vomiting occurring 
probably but once. But little nausea precedes the emesis, 
and moderate depression follows it. The circulation and 
respiration are disturbed and finally depressed, chiefly 
through the vomiting. 

Ipecacuanha is suitable as an emetic in cases where the 
necessity for evacuation of the stomach is not very urgent, 
and the subject likely to be benefited by moderate, but injured 
by great depression. It must not be given, therefore, in 
poisoning by alkaloids, such as Morphine, but to children and 
weakly subjects in cases where the after effects of the drug 
wiU also be useful. It thus occupies a position amongst 
emetics between Zinc or Copper Sulphate and Tartar Emetic. 
Ipecacuanha may be used to empty the stomach in the early 
stages of sthenic fevers (less commonly than before) ; in 
croup, whooping cough, and the bronchitis of children, to 
expel membranes or mucous products from the air-passages ; 
and in acute dyspepsia with biliousness and heat of skin. 

The skin is stimulated to increased secretion by Ipecacu- 
anha, which is used as a diaphoretic, combined with Opium 
(Dover's Powder), in colds, sore throat, and mild rheumatic 


Emetine is excreted by the various mucous membranes, 
including those of the bronchi, stomach, and bowels, and by 
the liver. On the bronchi it produces the same remote as 
immediate local actions, namely, stimulation of the nerves. 

Catechu. 321 

reflex cough, increased secretion, and, in large doses, even 
inflammation of the mucous membrane and lungs. Ipegacu- 
anha is thus an expectorant, increasing at once the expulsive 
acts, and the amount, that is the liquidity, of the sputa. It 
is the most generally used of all this class of measures, being 
given in acute and chronic bronchitis, in phthisis, and in 
most cases of cough when the phlegm is scanty and tough. 
Its special advantages are, that, if taken in excess, it causes 
sickness, which is often beneficial in the bronchitis of chil- 
dren ; and that as a diaphoretic and moderate depressant of 
the circulation, i.e. a sedative expectorant, it controls the 
accompanying fever. 

Acting remotely on the liver, this drug is a direct chola- 
gognie, increasing the secretion of bile ; and has long been a 
favourite constituent of some purgative pills and aperient 
draughts for chronic biliousness and gouty dyspepsia. 

Catechu,— Catechu. Catechu Pallidum. An extract 
of the leaves and young shoots of Uncaria Gambler. 

Churacters. — Cubes, separate or agglutinated, about 1 inch 
square ; deep reddish-brown externally, pale cinnamon- 
brown internally ; porous, friable ; microscopically presenting 
myriads of acicular crystals. No odour ; taste bitter, very 
astringent, then sweetish. Solubility. — Almost entirely in 
boiling water ; 70 per cent, in Alcohol 90 per cent. 

Composition.— Q2i.teGhu chiefly contains a crystalline bitter 
substance, catechin or cateclmio acid, C15HJ4O8.4H2O, prob- 
ably inactive ; and catechu- tannic acid, the active principle, 
C38H34O15, formed from it by losing water and itself yielding 
a red body, catecliu-red ; and gamMer-flU'Orescein. Both 
acids give a gveen precipitate with ferric salts. In^om- 
patihles. — The alkalis, metallic salts, and gelatin. Impurity. 
— Starch. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 


1. Pulvis Catechu Compositus. — 4; Kino, 2; 
Krameria, 2; Cinnamon, 1; Nutmeg, 1. Dose, 10 to 
40 gr. 

2. Tinctura Catechu. — 4 ; Cinnamon Bark, 1 ; 
Alcohol 60 per cent., 20 ; by maceration. Dose, h to 
1 fl.dr. 

3. TrochisouB Cateohn.— 1 gr., with Simple Basis. 

32 2 Caffeina. 

actions and uses. 

Catechu acts like Tannic Acid, and is used for the same 
purposes {see page 394). It is a favourite astringent application 
to sore throat in the form of the Lozenge and the Compound 
Powder and Tincture are very commonly prescribed for 

Caffeina.— Caffeinb. Theine. C5H(CH3)3N402,H20. 
Source. — Usually obtained from the dried leaves of Camellia 
Thea, the tea plant (N.O. Ternstromiaceae), or the dried seeds 
of Coffea arabica, the coffee plant. 

Characters.— CoIovltXqss, silky, acicular, inodorous crystals. 
Solubility. — 1 in 80 of cold water, the solution faintly bitter, 
and neutral ; easily soluble in boiling water, alcohol 90 per 
cent., or chloroform ; sparingly in ether. Treated with a 
crystal of KClOg and HCl, and the mixture evaporated to 
dryness in a porcelain dish, a reddish residue results, which 
becomes purple when moistened with NH^HO. In aqueous 
solution, tannic acid gives a white precipitate, soluble in 
excess ; but no precipitate is caused by solution of potassium 
iodide containing Mercuric iodide (distinction from other 
oflBcial alkaloids). 

Tea contains 1 to 4 per cent, of Caffeine, with tannic acid, 
volatile oil, etc. ; Coffee, about 1*3, with volatile oil, sugar, 
tannic acid, etc. ; Mat6, 1"2 ; Guarana 5 per cent. It is closely 
allied to theobromine, C6H2(CH3)2N402, dimethyl-xanthine, 
being, in fact, trimethyl-xanthine, wliich can be made syn- 
thetically. IncovipatihlcB. — Tannic acid, potassium iodide, 
and salts of mercury. Dose, 1 to 5 gr. 

From Caffeina is inade : 

Caffeina Citras.— Caffeine Citrate. CgHioN^Oj, 
CgHgO?. An unstable compound prepared from Ca^eine 
and Citric Acid. 

Source. — Made by dissolving Citric Acid and 
Caffeine in hot water ; evaporating to dryness ; and 

Characters. — A white inodorous powder, with an 
acid, faintly bitter taste ; reaction acid. Solubility. — 
1 in 32 of water ; 1 in 10 of a mixture of 2 of chloro- 
form and 1 of alcohol 90 per cent. With 3 of water it 
forms a clear syrupy solution, which on dilution yields a 
white precipitate of Caffeine, redissolving in excess of 

Caffeina. jaj 

water. Keactions otherwise as of Caffeine. Dose, 2 
to 10 gr. 


Caffeinffl Citras Effervescens. —Effervescent 
Caffeine Citrate. Made like Sodii Citro-tartras 
Effervescens (page 42), with the addition of 
Caffeine Citrate. Dose, 60 to 120 gr. 


Coffee stimulates most of the digestive glands, being 
sialagogue, stomachic and slightly laxative. So far it is 
dietetically wholesome. 


Caffeine is absorbed into the circulation unchanged ; and 
acts chiefly upon the central nervous system. The cerebrum 
is first stimulated both directly and through the blood- 
pressure, whence the clearness of intellect and the sleepless- 
ness familiar after a cup of strong tea or coffee. Larger 
doses cause a species of narcotism ; but there are great per- 
sonal differences in this and other respects. In the lower 
animals the spinal centres are simultaneously affected to such 
a degree that tetanic convulsions may occur, not unlike those 
caused by Strychnine; in man these effects on the lower 
centres are quite subsidiary. The sensory and motor peri- 
pheral nerves are not certainly affected. The muscle curve 
is altered in character, and muscular contraction seems more 
easily executed. Caffeine first strengthens and lengthens the 
cardiac systole, whilst diastole is shortened. Finally, it 
arrests the heart in diastole. When taken in excess or by 
certain susceptible individuals, coffee or tea gives rise to 
cardiac distress. The renal vessels are dilated. The blood- 
vessels are first constricted, then dilated, and finally con- 
stricted. Respiration is temporarily increased, then de- 
pressed. Metabolism is little influenced ; the temperature L<j 
raised. Habit markedly weakens the influence of Coffee. 

Coffee or Caffeine may be used as a nervine stimulant and 
restorative in fatigue and in narcotic poisoning. Megrim la 
frequently relieved by either. It is given with benefit in cardiac 
disease, especially failure of compensation with dropsy ; being 
more rapid and less irritant than Digitalis. The Citrate, being 


a weak salt, should be combined with Sodium Salicylate or 
Benzoate, to form a more stable compound. Large doses 
must be avoided. CJoffee often relieves asthma. 


But a small proportion of Caffeine is excreted unchanged 
in the bile and urine. In passing through the kidneys, it or 
its products appear to stimulate the cells ; and in this way, 
as well as by its influence in dilatinsr renal vessels, it acts asa 
diuretic. The Citrate is a powerful but somewhat uncertain 
remedy in dropsy, whether cardiac or hepatic, occasionally 
producing a profuse flow of urine when all other means have 
failed. It is best given after or with a stimulant diuretic, 
such as Digitalis ; for a short time only ; and in moderate 


Valerianae Rhizoma. — Valerian Rhizome. 
Valerian Root. The dried erect rhizome and roots of Valeriana 
officinalis. Collected in the autumn. 

Characters.— '^YiOxX, erect, entire, or sliced ; dark yellowish- 
brown externally ; with numerous slender brittle roots, 3 or 4 
inches long, of the same colour ; rhizome and roots whitish 
or yellowish internally. Odour on drying, strong, character- 
istic, disagreeable ; taste unpleasant, camphoraceous, slightly 
bitter. Substances resembling Valerian : Serpentary and 
Ajnica, known by odour. 

Composition. — The active principle is the volatile oil, present 
in 1 per cent., which contains bomyl isoi-alerianate, formats, 
butyrate, and acetate^ mixed with l-pinene, l-caviphene, and 
terpineol. By ferment decomposition iso-valerianic ai-id, 
C5H10O2, an oily liquid with a powerful valerianic odour and 
acrid burning taste, is formed : two alkaloids, chathiine and 
valerianine, a qlneosid^, and a rcsioi have been recorded. 


A. Of ValcriajiO! Rhizoma: 

Tinctura Valerianae Ammoniata. — 20 ; Oil of Nut- 
meg, '31 ; Oil of Lemon, 21 ; Solution of Ammonia, 
10; Alcohol GO per cent.. 90; by maceration. Dose, ^ 
to 1 fl.dr. 

pYRETHRi Radix. 325 

B. Containing Valerianic Acid : 

Zinci Valerianas. — Zinc Valerianate. Zinc Iso- 
valerianate. Zn(C5Hg02)2- 

Source. — Made by saturating Iso-valerianic Acid 
with Zinc Carbonate, or by the interaction of Zinc 
Sulphate and Sodium Iso-valerianate. ZnS04 + 
2(NaC5H902) = Zn(C5H902)2 + NaaSO^. 

Characters. — White pearly tabular crystals, with a 
disagreeable odour and a metallic taste. Solubility. — 
Very slightly in cold water or in ether ; soluble in hot 
water, and alcohol 90 per cent. Incompatibles. — All 
acids, soluble carbonates, most metallic salts, vegetable 
astringents. Impurities. — Sulphate and butyrate of 
zinc. Dose, 1 to 3 gr. 


Valerian acts essentially like other substances containing 
volatile oils, but its pungent taste and peculiarly disagreeable 
odour increase the effect on the central nervous system. The 
stomach and intestines, heart, circulation and brain are in- 
fluenced as they are by Cloves (see page 291), and the oil is 
excreted in the urine, breath and sweat, as is also the acid. 

Valerian is used as a powerful carminative, circulatory 
stimulant and antispasmodic, in hysterical flatulence, fainting, 
palpitation, convulsions and contractures. It is now but rarely 
given in other spasmodic affections, such as epilepsy. 

Zinc Valerianate was introduced to combine the specific 
action of the metal on the nervous system with the anti- 
spasmodic influence of the plant, and has been given in 
hysteria and epilepsy ; but Valerianic Acid does not appear 
to possess the action of the volatile oil just described. 


Pyretlirl Radix,— Pyretheum Boot. Pellitory 
Root. The dried root of Anacyclus Pyrethrum. 

Characters. — In unbranched pieces, from 2 to 4 inches 
long, and ^ inch or more thick ; nearly cylindrical, or fre- 
quently tapering towards both apex and base, the latter often 
bearing a tuft of nearly colourless hairs. Outer surface 
brown, and longitudinally wrinkled. Fracture short, showing 
the wood traversed by large medullary rays in which, as in 
the jcortex, numerous dark resin-ducts are scattered. Odour 
distinct, characteristic; taste pungent, the root exciting a 

326 Pyrethri Radix. 

copious flow of saliva when chewed. Siibstamce resembling 
Pellitory : Taraxacum, which is darker and of different taste. 
Composition. — Pyrethrum contains an iiVs.d\o\di, pyrethrine 
or pellitorine (allied to Piperine, see page 385), got in colour- 
less needle-like crystals having a pungent taste and causing 
salivation ; 50 per cent, of imdin, CeHjoOg ; with a volatile oil 
and resin. 


Tinctura Pyrethri.—! in 5 of Alcohol, 70 per cent. ; 
by percolation. 


Pellitory causes a sharp burning sensation in the mouth 
followed by persistent tingling and numbness, and a profuse 
flow of saliva, stimulating as it does the local nerves and 
vessels, and afterwards depressing the former. It is used 
chiefly as a sialagogue in dryness of the throat ; and to give 
a " clean " taste to flat dentifrices, such as chalk, 

Pyretlirum 'Roseum^-^C^Not official.}. The powder 
of the flower-heads. — Used as insect powder, its active in- 
gredient being a resin soluble in ether. 

Santoninum,— Santonin. CisHigOj. 

<Sin^rc(?.— ^Prepared from Santonica, the dried unexpanded 
flower-heads or capitula of Artemisia maritima, var. Stech- 

Characters. — Colourless flat rhombic prisms, feebly bitter, 
fusible and volatile when gently heated. Solubility. — Scarcely 
in cold, sparingly in boiling, water ; 1 in 4 of chloroform ; 1 in 
40 of cold, and 1 in 3 of boiling, alcohol 90 per cent. Sun- 
light renders it yellow. Added to warm alcoholic solution of 
potassium hydroxide, it yields a violet red colour. Santonin 
forms Santonates with alkalis, from which HCl liberates San- 
tonic Acid, readily reconverted into Santonin. Dose, 2 to 5 gr. 

Trochiscus Santonini.— 1 gr,, with Simple Baaia. 



Santonin acts as a poison on the Ascaris lumbricoides or 

round worm, which infests the intestine ; decidedly less on 

the Ogyurit vermicularis or thread-worm. It is used as an 

Anthemidjs Florss. 327 

anthelmintic against the former parasite, combined with a 
purgative vermifuge, such as Pulvis Scammonii Oompositus, 
or followed in a few hours by a laxative, such as Castor Oil. 


Santonin is absorbed into the blood as sodium santonate ; 
enters the tissues ; and produces peculiar disturbances of 
vision, and of the brain and spinal cord. Objects appear first 
blue and then yellow (chromatopsia) ; and finally colour 
vision is almost lost. Consciousness is disturbed, with a kind 
of intoxication, aphasia, tremors, and convulsions after large 
doses. Respiration is enfeebled, and the pulse reduced in 
frequency. These effects must be carefully avoided. Santonin 
is excreted by the kidneys as an obscure product of its oxy- 
dation in the system, which colours the (acid) urine greenish- 
yellow (alkaline urine red or purple) and causes some diuresis ; 
it is also excreted by the bowel. It is said to relieve the 
lightning pains of locomotor ataxy. 

Antliemidis Flores, — Chamomile Flowers. The 
dried expanded flower-heads of Anthemis nobilis. Collected 
from cultivated plants. 

Characters.— Khowt ^ to | inch in diameter, hemispherical ; 
white or nearly white. Involucre composed of several rows 
of oblong bracts with membranous margins ; receptacle solid, 
conical, densely covered with concave, blunt, narrow, scaly 
bracts ; florets mostly ligulate, white. Odour strong, aromatic ; 
taste bitter. 

Composition. — Chamomile Flowers contain 0-2 per cent, of 
the official volatile oil, and a Utter extractive. 


Extractmn Anthemidis. — A concentrated decoc- 
tion, with the addition of Oleum Anthemidis. Dote 
2 to 8 gr. 

From Anthemidis Flores is mude : 

Oleum Anthemidis. — The oil distilled from 
Chamomile Flowers. 

Characters. — Pale blue or greenish- blue, becoming 
yellowish-brown ; of aromatic odour and taste. Sp. gr., 'gOo 
to '915. It consists of estei's of aiigelic and tiglic acids, 

328 Taraxaci Radix. 

CgHgOa, with lutyl smdi aviyl alcoliols ; an alcohol, antliemol, 
CjoHieO ; and antJwmene, CjgHgg. Dose, ^ to 3 min. 

Oil of Chamomile is used in preparing Extractum 


Externally. — Warm infusions or decoctions of Chamomile, 
or the Flowers in bags soaked in hot water, possess the 
general properties of fomentations and poultices, the high 
temperature being apparently the active influence. They are 
much used as a domestic application to painful parts. 

Internally. — Chamomile belongs to the class of aromatic 
bitter stomachics. A warm infusion, freely drunk, is a mild 
simple emetic, which may be used in biliousness, ague, etc. 
The Oil or the Extract is usefully combined with purgative 
pills as a stomachic and carminative. 

Taraxaci Radix.— Dandelion Root. The fresh 
and dried roots of Taraxacum officinale. Collected in the 

Characters. — Fresh root a foot or more long, | an inch or 
more in diameter ; smooth, yellowish-brown externally ; 
whitish within. Fracture short ; juice milky ; the surface 
presenting faint concentric rings. Dried root shrivelled, 
deeply wrinkled longitudinally, dark brown or blackish ; 
fracture short; exposed surface showing a yellow porous 
woody axis, and a thick whitish cortex with irregular con- 
centric rings. Inodorous ; taste bitter. Substance resembliTiff 
Taraxacum : Pellitory ; pungent when chewed. 

Composition. — Taraxacum Koot contains a crystalline 
bitter principle, laraxacin ; potassium and calcium, salts ; 
inulin ; and resinoid bodies, which give the milky appearance 
to the juice. The relative richness of the constituents varies 
with the season and situation. 


1. Extractum Taraxaci. — The juice of the fresh 
root evaporated to a soft consistence. Dose^ 5 to 
15 gr. 

2. Extractum Taraxaci Liquidum. — 1 of the dried 
root in 1 of Alcohol 60 per cent, and Water. Dote, 
i to 2 fl.dr. 

3. Succus Taraxaci. — Fresh juice, 3; Alcohol 90 
per cent., 1. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr. 



Taraxacum combines the properties of its two principal 
constituents, the bitter taraxacin and the alkaline salts, i.e. 
it is at once a simple bitter and a mild laxative. It is 
therefore indicated, and was formerly extensively given, in 
atonic dyspepsia attended by habitual constipation ; and 
its preparations may be added to stomachic mixtures and 
laxative pills. Until recently Taraxacum was believed to be 
a cholagogue ; but this effect, if it exist at all, appears to be 
indirect only. 

Arnicse Rliizoma. — Abnica Rhizome. Arnica 
Root. The dried rhizome and roots of Arnica montana. 

Characters. — Cylindrical, horizontal, dark brown, 1 to 2 
inches long ; |^ to ^ inch in thickness ; curved, rough from 
scars and remains of fallen leaves ; giving off numerous 
brittle wiry roots, and usually terminated by hairy remains of 
stem and leaves. Odour peculiar, faintly aromatic ; taste 
acrid, bitter. Substances resemlling Arnica : Valerian, known 
by odour ; Serpentary, by odour. 

Composition. — Arnica contains a small quantity of volatile 
oil, of complex composition, and said to yield trimethylamin ; 
tannic acid; and a bitter, acrid crystalline body, arnicin, 


Tinctura AmicBB. — 1 in 20 of Alcohol 70 per cent, 
by percolation. 


Externally. — Arnica, applied to the skin, sometimes causes 
hyperaemia, eczema and even spreading erysipelas. It would, 
therefore, appear to increase the activity of the circulation in 
the skin ; and the Tincture in water is a popular application 
to bruises, preventing swelling and hastening the absorption 
of effused blood. It must be used with caution. 

Internally. — Arnica is a stimulant to the alimentary canal, 
like volatile oils in general ; in over-doses it is a powerful 
irritant. Probably by reflex action from the stomach (see 
Caryophyllum, page 291) it stimulates the heart and circula- 
tion, the brain and spinal cord, in moderate doses. Arnica 

33® Lobelia. 

has been used in low fevers, delirium tremens and mental 


The active principles of Arnica enter the blood and thence 
the tissues, where its effects somewhat resemble those of 
Turpentine. If the dose be considerable, the reflex stimulant 
effect from the stomach is overcome by its depressing action 
on the circulation and nerve centres ; headache, unconscious- 
ness and convulsions being induced, and the body temperature 
lowered. Arnica cannot be said to be used now as an 


Like its allies. Arnica is a remote stimulant of the kidneys 
and skin, and has been given in some cutaneous diseases such 
as eczema, and in chronic rheumatism. 


Lobelia. — Lobelia. The dried flowering herb of 
Lobelia inflata. 

Characters. — Stems angular, channelled, with narrow 
wings ; often of a purplish tint, with one-celled hairs and the 
scars of alternate leaves. Leaves irregularly toothed and 
hairy. Capsules inflated, two-celled; containing when 
mature minute, oblong, reticulated brown seeds. Odour 
somewhat irritating ; taste at first not marked, but burning 
and acrid after chewing. 

Composition. — It contains loheline, CiglljaNO,, an oily, 
liquid, volatile alkaloid, with a pungent taste, and an odour like 
tobacco. Lohelic acid is united with the lobeline. Incompa- 
tihles : The caustic alkalis, which decompose lobeline. 


Tinctura Lobeliffl iEtherea.— 1 in 5 of Spirit of 
Ether ; by percolation. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 


Lobelia is a gastro -intestinal stimulant ; in large doses an 
irritant, causing vomiting, pain, purging and the ordinary 
symptoms of depression. It is not to be employed as an 

Uv^ Ursi Folia. 331 

emetic, but is believed to be sometimes useful in obstinate 


The active principles of Lobelia appear to enter the blood 
and tissues, where severe specific effects are produced by free 
doses, including general depression, muscular tremors and 
weakness, giddiness, headache, failure of the heart and 
breathing, and cold perspirations : a condition resembling 
collapse. The exact mode of action of the drug is not known. 
It appears to depress the convolutions secondarily only ; to 
lower the activity of the motor centres in the cord, and cause 
muscular relaxation ; to depress the respiratory centre and 
relax the bronchial muscles; and to diminish the force of 
the heart and the tension of the vessels, after brief increase 
of the latter. Lobelia kills through the respiratory centre, 
like its ally Tobacco, and not through the heart. 

Lobelia is a favourite remedy with some practitioners for 
the paroxysm of asthma, for which it should be given at the 
commencement in doses of \ fluid drachm of the Tincture, 
repeated every thirty minutes until nausea is produced. In 
10 min. doses, it is a useful addition to expectorant mixtures 
for bronchitis with spasm and very scanty tough sputum. 


Lobeline is probably excreted by the kidneys and skin, and 
acts as a diuretic and diaphoretic. Except indirectly, these 
effects are not taken advantage of in medicine. 


Uv8B Ursi Folia.— Bearbeery Leaves. The dried 
leaves of Arctostaphylos Uva ursi. 

Characters. — Yellowish-green, obovate or spathulate, 
coriaceous leaves, about | inch in length ; entire, very 
shortly petiolate. Upper surface glabrous, shining, reticulate ; 
the veinlets are depressed. No marked odour ; taste very 
astringent. Substances resembling Tlvce Ursi Folia: Senna 
and Buchu, q.v. 

Co^mposition. — Uva Ursi contains a bitter crystalline gluco- 

side, arbutin, CiaHjgOj, soluble in water, yielding glucose and 

a mixture of hydrochinon {see page 198) and methyl-hydro- 

' chinon ; a second glucoside, ericolin, C34Hj5,0„ ; 33 per cent 

332 Caoutchouc. 

of tannic and gallic acids ; and a crystalline neutral body, 
urson. IncompatiMes. — Iron, lead and silver salts ; alkaloids ; 


Infusum Uv89 Ursi. — 1 in 20 of boiling Water. 
Dose, ^ to 1 fl.oz. 


Uva Ursi possesses much the same actions as Pareira and 
Buchu, but it is more astringent in virtue of the tannic acid 
which it contains. The arbutin appears in the urine partly 
as hydrochinon-sulphuric acid (see page 198). Uva Ursi 
is used as a remote astringent, stimulant, diuretic and disin- 
fectant in diseases of the urino-genital tract, such as chronic 
catarrh of the pelvis of the ureter, bladder and urethra. 


Caoutchouc. — India-rubber. The prepared milk- 
juice of Hevea brasiliensis and probably other species. 
Known as pure Para rubber. 

Characters. — Brownish-black elastic masses varying in 
thickness, somewhat mottled internally. Odour characteristic, 
somewhat empyreumatic ; nearly tasteless. Sohihility.—ln- 
soluble in water, ethylic alcohol, alkaline solutions, or dilute 
acids ; soluble in chloroform, oil of turpentine, carbon bisul- 
phide, benzol and petroleum spirit. 

Composition. — Caoutchouc yields 50 per cent, of a hydro- 
carbon, caoutclionc (CioHij^n, ^ wliite amorphous substance ; 
40 per cent, of gelatinous material ; with resins, fats, etc. 

Liquor Caoutchouc. — 1, dissolved in a mixture of 
10 each of Benzol and Carbon Bisulphide. 
Solution of India-rnhher is vsed in preparing Charta 


India-rubber is employed for making surgical instruments 
and apparatus. The Solution is used as a vehicle for a variety 
of external applications. 

Bbnzoinum. 333 


Benzoin uin. — Benzoin. A balsamic resin obtained! 
from Styrax Benzoin, and probably from other species of 
Styrax. Known as Siam and Sumatra benzoin. 

Characters. — In flat or curved tears varying' in size, but 
seldom exceeding 2 inches in length and ^ inch in thickness ; 
yellowish- or reddish-brown externally, milky white in- 
ternally ; or in masses composed of tears closely agglutinated 
owing to the presence of a reddish-brown translucent, or 
greyish-brown opaque, resinous substance. It is brittle but 
softens readily when warmed, and when further heated yields 
fumes of benzoic acid. Odour agreeable, recalling that of 
vanilla in the case of Siam benzoin, and storax in the case of 
Sumatra benzoin. Solubility. — Almost entirely soluble in 
alcohol 90 per cent., and in solution of potassium hydroxide. 

Substances resembling Benzoin : Gum-resins and resins ; 
distinguished by odour and taste. 

Cotrvpofition. — Benzoin contains 12 to 38 per cent, of the 
of&cia\ benzoic acid ; a trace of cinnamic acid; two resins, 
benzoresinol and siareslnotannol, C18H20O4; vanillin and 


1. Adeps Benzoatus. — 3 to 100 nearly of Lard. 

2. Tinctura Benzoini Composita.— Friar's Balsam. 
10 ; Prepared Storax, 75 ; Balsam of Tolu, 2-5 ; Soco- 
trine Aloes, 1*83; Alcohol 90 per cent., to make 100. 
By maceration. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. (in emulsion). 

Benzoin is also contained in Unguentum Cetacei. 

From Benzoinum is made : 

AcidumBenzoicunL-BenzoicAcid. CgHg-COOH, 

Source. — May be obtained from Benzoin by 
sublimation. It is also obtained from toluene, 
hippuric acid, and other organic compounds. 

Characters and Tests. — In light feathery 
crystalline plates and needles ; flexible ; nearly 
colourless ; and odourless when quite pure, but 
when obtained from benzoin with an agreeable 
aromatic odour, due to traces of volatile oils. 
Solulility.—l in 400 of cold, 1 in 17 of boiling, 
water ; 1 in 1 of absolute alcohol ; 1 in 3 of alcohol 
90 per cent. ; 1 in 2-5 of ether ; 1 in 7 of chloro- 
form, and in the fixed and volatile oils ; also in 
Bolutions of the alkalis and of caJ cium hydroxide, 

334 Benzoinum. 

forming benzoates, and precipitated from these on 
the addition of hydrochloric acid unless the solu- 
tions be very dilute. Volatilises in the vapour of 
water. Sodium phosphate or borax aids its 
solubility in water (1 of borax and 1 of acid soluble 
in 100 of water). Impurities. — Hippuric, cinnamic, 
oxalic and chlorobenzoic acids. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 


Trochiscus Acidi Benzoici. — i gr., with 
Fruit Basis. 

Benzoic Acid is also contained in Tinctura 
Camphorse Composlta and Tinctura Opii Ammoniata. 
See Opium, page 226. 

From Acidum Benzoioum are made : 

1. Ammonii Benzoas. — Ammonium Benzoate. 
CgHg-COONH^. Source. — Made by neutralising 
Benzoic Acid with Solution of Ammonia. 

Characters. — Colourless lamellar crystals, with 
the fragrant odour of Benzoic Acid. Solubility. — 
1 in 6 of water ; 1 in 30 of alcohol 90 per cent. ; 
1 in 8 of glycerin. Sublimes without residue. Im- 
purities. — Chlorides and sulphates ; free acid. 
Incompatihles. — Ferric salts, liquor potassae and 
acids. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 

2. Sodii Benzoas. — Sodium Benzoate. CjHj 
•COONa. Source. — Made by neutralising Benzoic 
Acid with Sodium Carbonate. 

Characters. — A white crystalline or amorph> 
ous powder ; odour none, or faintly benzoic ; 
taste unpleasant, sweetish, saline ; reaction faintly 
alkaline. Solubility. — 1 in less than 2 of cold 
water ; 1 in 24 of cold, 1 in 12 of boiling, alcohol 
90 per cent. Impurities. — Many metals ; and 
other salts. Dose, 5 to 30 gr. 


Externally. — Benzoin and its preparations are antiseptic 
and disinfectant, and at the same time slightly stimulant to 
the vessels. The Compound Tincture, Friar's Balsam, has 
long been used as an application to ulcers and foul wounde, 
and also to promote the healing of freshly incised wounds. 

Benzoinum. 335 

Internally. — Benzoin and its Acid cause sneezing and 
coughing when inhaled or applied in the solid form to the 
nose ; much diluted with watery vapour, they are mild stimu- 
lants. The Compound Tincture is thus a useful substance 
for inhalation or spray in many laryngeal diseases. 

Taken by the mouth, Benzoic Acid causes slight heat and 
irritation in the stomach ; the salts are less irritant. 


Benzoin and Benzoic Acid enter the blood in the form of 
sodium benzoate ; and here, as well as in the kidneys, the acid 
is partly converted into hippiiric acid by combination with a 
molecule of glycocoll, thus : C^HgOa + CHa-COOH-NHa 
(glycocolO^COOH-CHaNH-COCeHg (hippuric acid)+H20. 
The exact source of the glycocoll is obscure. It is not 
derived from the urea or uric acid, as was once suggested. 


Benzoic Acid and its salts are antipyretic, and are said to 
Increase metabolism. 


Benzoic Acid is excreted by the kidneys, partly un- 
changed, partly as hippuric acid, and occasionally as succinic 
acid, increasing the flow of urine ; by the skin and salivary 
glands, unchanged, stimulating their secretions ; and probably 
by the respiratory organs, decidedly increasing the amount of 
expectoration. These remote local effects are turned to useful 
account. The Acid and its Ammonium salt are extremely 
valuable in inflammation of the bladder with alkalinity of 
the secretion and phosphatic deposits, by acidulating the 
urine and stimulating and disinfecting the mucous surfaces. 
As an expectorant, Benzoic Acid, chiefly as the Compound 
Tincture, or contained in Tinctura Camphorse Composita, 
Tinctura Opii Ammoniata, and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru, 
is very useful in chronic bronchitis, when the bronchial pro- 
ducts are abundant, thick and possibly foul, the mucous 
membrane chronically inflamed and weak, and reflex activity 


Oleum Olivae.— Olive Oil. The oil expressed from 
the ripe fruit of Olea europaea. 

336 Sapo, 

CJiaracters. — Pale or greenish-yellow, with a faint odonr 
and a bland taste ; Sp. gr. -914 to -919 ; congeals partially at 
32° F. 

Composition. — Olive Oil consists of 72 per cent, of a fluid 
oil, olein, C3H5(Ci8H3302)3, and 28 per cent, of a solid oil or 
stearoptene, pahnitin, C3H5,(Cj6H3i02)3. These are compounds 
of a radical, glyceryl, C3H5, with" oleic acid, HC18H33O2, and 
palmitic acid, HOigHgjOa, respectively. Impurities. — Cotton- 
seed oil. 


Many Emplastra, Linimenta and Unguenta. It is 
also the source of Hard and Soft Soaps and of Glycerin. 

Sapo Durus.— Hard Soap. Sodium Oleate. So^trce.— 
Made with Olive Oil and Sodium Hydroxide. C3H6(Ci8H3302)3 
+ 3NaH0 = SNaCjgHaaCa + C3H5(OH)3. " Castile Soap." 

Characters. — Greyish- white, dry. Inodorous. Horny and 
pulverisable when kept in warm dry air. Solubility. — Soluble 
in alcohol 90 per cent. ; 1 in 20 of cold, and 1 in 1^ of hot, water. 
Impurities. — Excess of alkaline hydroxide or carbonate, de- 
tected by the phenol-phthalein test. 


Pilula Saponis Composita. — Opium, 1 ; Hard Soap, 
3 ; Syrup of Glucose, 1. Dose, 2 to 4 gr. See Opium, 
page 225. 
Sapo Lurus is also used in the preparation of many other 

Sapo mollis,— Soft Soap. Potassium Oleate. 

<Sowrc<9.— Made with Olive Oil and Potassium Hydroxide. 

Characters. — Yellowish-white or -green, almost inodorous, 
of unctuous consistence. Soltcbility. — Keadily soluble in 
alcohol 90 per cent., especially on warming. Impurities. — 
Correspond with those of Hard Soap ; also oil and copper. 


Linimentum Saponis. — 8; Camphor, 4; Oil of 
Rosemary, 15 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., G4 ; Water, 16. 

Sapo Mollis is contained in Linimentum Tere- 
binthinae ; Linimentum Saponis in Linimentum Opii. 

[Sapo Animalis, Curd Soap, is made with animal 

fat. See page 428.] 

Oleum Oliv^. 337 

actions and uses. 
1. immediate local actions and uses. 

Externally applied, Olive Oil renders the skin smoother, 
softer, and more flexible. It is used to facilitate friction 
over enlarged bones or stiff joints ; and in the form of lini- 
ments, to bring active bodies, such as Ammonia and Lime, 
more thoroughly into contact with the surface in a mild form. 
It is also an excellent mechanical application to burns and 
certain skin diseases, by coating the surface and excluding 
air, and in the treatment of the effects of corrosive acids and 
alkaloids. Inunctions with Olive Oil to which -^ part of 
Phenol has been added are ordered in the desquamative 
stage of scarlet fever as a disinfectant measure. Oil rubbed 
into the skin is absorbed by the lymphatics, and has a dis- 
tinctly nutritive effect, of which use may be made in wasted 
children when the stomach rejects food. 

Internally, Oils may be similarly given in corrosive 
poisoning. In the stdmach they are not specially changed ; 
in the intestines they are partly emulsified, mainly saponified, 
glycerin bemg set free, and their fatty acids combining with 
free alkalis to form soaps. With many persons excess of Oil 
causes dyspepsia and loathing, especially in warm weather ; 
with most subjects some relaxation of the bowels or diarrhoea. 
As an enema, Olive Oil is laxative, and is used in faecal 
Impaction and obstruction of the bowels. 


Olive Oil enters the blood from the lacteals or lymphatics 
and may be traced in it if given in excess. Thence it reaches 
all the cells of the body, especially those of the connective 
tissues, the amount varying with a number of circumstances. 
Here it is fully oxydised into carbonic acid and water, and 
constitutes a food, increasing the amount of fat in the tissues, 
furnishing force, and thus saving the waste of nitrogenous 
tissue, and the necessity of consuming quantities of nitro- 
genous food, but unable of itself to support life. 

Oils and fats are used in many forms (Olive and other 
vegetable oils, Butter, Cream, Cod-liver Oil, etc.) in wasting 
diseases, such as scrofula and phthisis, as is fuUy discussed 
under Oleum Morrliuce, page 436. Olive Oil is rarely used in 
Great Britain, but may be taken by some patients, in the form 
of Sardine Oil, when Cod-liver Oil is rejected. 

Oils are excreted as carbonic acid and water, but excess 

333 Glycerinum, 

will appear unchanged in the urine. Olive Oil is not a special 
renal irritant like Linseed Oil. 

Olycerinum.— Glycerin. Glycerol. A trihydric 
alcohol, 03115(011)3, containing a small percentage of water. 

Source. — Obtained by the interaction of alkalis, or of 
superheated steam, with fats and fixed oils. 

Cliaracters. — A clear colourless syrupy liquid, without 
odour, of a sweet taste ; miscible with water and alcohol 
90 per cent. ; neutral ; insoluble in ether, chloroform, and 
fixed oils. It absorbs moisture when exposed to the air. 
When decomposed by heat it evolves intensely irritating 
vapours. Sp. gr. 1260. It is the trihydroxyl derivative, or 
alcohol, of a hydrocarbon radical glyceryl, C3H5, which, in 
combination with fatty acids, forms fixed oils. It is separated 
in the hydrated form when oils are decomposed by alkaline 
hydrates (saponification), or by water (hydrogen hydrate) at 
high temperatures ; and is thus a by-product in making soaps 
and Lead Plaster (see page 65). Impurities. — Lead, copper, 
arsenium, iron, calcium, potassium, sodium, ammonium, 
chlorides and sulphates ; cane and grape sugars ; foreign 
organic matter ; butyric acid ; and fixed mineral matter. 
Do8c\ I to 2 fl.dr. 


1. Glycerinum Acidi Borici. — 14 in 20 ; heated. 

2. Glycerinum Acidi Carbolici. — Glycerin of 
Phenol. 5 in 6 ; by solution. 

3. Glycerinum Acidi Tannici. — 5 in 6 ; by solution. 

4. Glycerinum Aluminis. — 6 in 7 fully, with Water ; 
gently heated. 

5. Glycerinum Amyli — 6^ in 9 with Water ; heated 
until a jelly is formed. 

6. Glycerinum Boracis. — 6 in 7 ; by solution. 

7. Glycerinum Pepsini. — 12 in 20 ; by maceration. 
See Pejysinum, page 41:51. 

8. Glycerinum Plumbi Subacetatis.— 20 in 32'7, 
boiled and evaporated. See Plnmhum, page 67. 

9. Glycerinum Tragacanthse. — 3 in 5, with Water ; 
by solution. See Tragacantha, page 267. 

10. Suppositoria Qlycerini — 70 per cent, by 
weight ; with Gelatin and Water. 

Glycerin is also used in preparing Linimentum 
Potassii lodidi cum Sapone, Mel Boracis, all the 
Lamellae ; and in mimy other preparations. 

Glycerinum. 339 

actions and uses. 
1. immediate local actions and uses. 

Externally. — Glycerin is a slightly stimulant, antiseptic, 
hygroscopic and adhesive substance, which forms a useful 
addition to lotions and other applications for the skin, when 
a desiccant effect is not undesirable. Rubbed freely into the 
hands at night it effectually prevents dryness and chapping of 
the skin in cold weather. Its remarkable powers mechani- 
cally and as a solvent also render it invaluable in lotions. 

Glycerin is readily absorbed by the unbroken skin, and 
will carry in with it alkaloids or other active substances, such 
as the atropine in Extract of Belladonna. 

InterTUblly. — Glycerin is very sweet, and imparts a smooth, 
sweet agreeable taste to nauseous or astringent mixtures, 
rendering the addition of sugar unnecessary. As a topical 
stimulant and demulcent, it is an excellent vehicle of such 
applications for sore throat as Tannic Acid. In the stomach 
it has no special action. In the form of Suppository or 
enema it is laxative. 


Glycerin is freely absorbed by all surfaces, and is one of 
the normal products of the digestion of oils and fats in the 
intestines. In large quantity it is said to cause the solution 
of the red corpuscles, the diffusion of the haemoglobin in the 
plasma, and consequent haemoglobinuria. 


Glycerin has been supposed to be nutritive, and may con- 
tribute to the formation of adipose tissue, as a portion of the 
fats and oils of food are decomposed in intestinal digestion, and 
the glyceryl again united with the fatty acid in the process 
of absorption by the villi. The results obtained from the 
administration of Glycerin instead of oils in phthisis have 
been very divergent, and on the whole not encouraging. The 
same may be said of its use in diabetes mellitus. 


Glycerin is decomposed in the system, and passes out as 
propionic, formic and other acids. The urine of persons 
taking Glycerin contains a reducing body which gives the 
copper and fermentation tests for sugar, but is not sugar. 

340 AciDVM Oleicum. 

Acidum Oleiciim.— Oleic Acid. Hydrogen Oleate. 
CH3(CH2)7CH:CH(CH2)7COOH. /&?^rc«.— Obtained by the 
saponifying action of alkalis and subsequent action of acids, 
or by the action of superheated steam, upon the olein of fats 
Usually not quite pure. See page 338. 

Characters. — A straw-coloured liquid ; odour occasionally 
faintly rancid ; and with only a very faint acid reaction. 
Exposed to air it becomes brown and more acid. Sp. gr. 
•890 to -910. It becomes semisolid at 40° to 41° F. Solubility. 
— Insoluble in water ; readily soluble in alcohol, chloroform, 
and ether. Impurities. — Stearic and palmitic acids, giving 
with lead acetate a precipitate insoluble in ether. 


Hydrargyri Oleas. — See page 97. 

Oleic Acid is also contained in Unguenta Aconitinse, 
Atropinse, Cocainae, and Veratrinae. Emplastrum 
Plumbi contains Lead Oleate (page 65) ; and Un- 
guentum Zinci Oleatis contains Zinc Oleate 
(page 75). 


Oleic Acid penetrates the skin more readily and thoroughly 
than fixed oils or fats, entering the cutaneous tissues not 
through the vessels, but through the natural openings, by 
which it reaches the follicles. It is therefore emploved as a 
solvent and vehicle of active remedies, including alkaloids, 
for application to the skin, in the form of Oleates, a number 
of which are now employed. 


Nux Vomica.— Nux Vomica.— The seeds of Strychnog 

Characters.— ^QKxly disc-shaped, ash- or greenish-grey 
seeds, | to 1 inch in diameter, \ inch thick, concavo-convex, 
nearly flat, or sometimes irregularly bent, rounded or some- 
what acute at the margin, from a small prominence on 
which a raised line passes to the central hilum. Surface 
covered with short, satiny, radiately arranged, closely ap- 
pressed hairs. Endosperm large and horny ; cotyledons 
small and leafy. No odour ; taste extremely bitter. 

Composition. — Nux Vomica seeds contain two alkaloids : 
•2 to "5 per cent, of strychnine, which is official, and 12 to 1-0 

Nux Vomica. 341 

per cent, of hrucine, united with a crystalline acid, strycJinic, 
igasuric, or caffcotannw acid ; and a glucoside, loganin. 

Brucinc, C23H20N2O4, occurs in colourless prisms, pearly 
flakes, or masses. It is soluble in alcohol, much more soluble 
in water ; less bitter, 88 times weaker, and 3 times slower 
physiologically, than Strychnine. It gives a red colour with 
HNO3. Base of poivdercd Nux Vomica, 1 to 4 gr. 

Extractum Nucis Vomicse Liquidum.— Alcoholic. 
Standardised to contain 1-5 gr. of Strychnine in 110 min. 
Dose, 1 to 3 min. 

From Extractiini Nucis Vomica; Liq^iiidwni are 
prepared : 

a. Extractum Nucis Vomica. — Made by eva-^ 
porating the Liquid Extract and adding Milk Sugar. 
Standardised to contain 5 per cent, of Strychnine. 
Dose, ^ to 1 gr. 

b. TiNCTURA Nucis VOMICSI. — Liquid Extract, 10; 
Water, 15 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., to make 60. Contains 
\ gr. Strychnine in 110 min. JDose, 5 to 15 min. 

From Nux Vomica are made : 
1. Strychnina.— Strychnine. C21H22N2O3. 

Source. — Obtained from Nux Vomica and from 
other species of Strychnos. 

Characters and tests. — Trimetric prisms ; colourless 
and inodorous. Solubility. — Very sparingly in water, 
but communicating to it an intensely bitter taste ; 1 in 
150 of cold, but in less of boiling, alcohol 90 per cent. ; 
slightly in cold absolute alcohol ; readily in 40 parts of 
boiling absolute alcohol ; 1 in 6 of chloroform ; nearly 
insoluble in ether. Sulphuric acid forms with it a 
colourless solution, which on the addition of potassium 
bichromate acquires an intensely violet hue, speedily 
passing through red to yellow. When sulphuric acid 
containing -j^oo P^^*' ^^ potassium permanganate is 
brought into contact with a minute particle of strych- 
nine, a violet coloration results. 

Impurities. — Brucine ; mineral matter. 

Dose, -^ to yV gr. (best given in solution). 


Syrupus Ferri Phosphatis cum Quinina et Strych- 
nina. — ^ gr. Strychnine in 1 fl.dr. See page 85. 

342 Strychnina. 

2. Strychninse Hydrochloiidiiin,— 

Strychnine Hydrochlobidb. C2iH22Nj03,HCl,2HaO. 

Scnirce. — The hydrochloride of an alkaloid obtained 
from Nux Vomica and from other species of Strychnos. 

Characters. — Small, colourless, trimetric prisms, 
which readily effloresce in the air. SoluHlity. — 1 in 
35 of water, 1 in 60 of alcohol 90 per cent. , forming a 
solution which is neutral to litmus and intensely bitter 
to the taste. Impurities. — Sulphates. Dose^ •bV to -^^ gr. 


Liquor StrychninsB Hydrochloridi.— 1 ; Alcohol, 

90 per cent., 25 ; Distilled Water, to make 100. 1 gr. 
Strychnine Hydrochloride in 110 min. Lose, 2 to 8 min. 


Externally. — Strychnine is a powerful antiseptic, but is 
too poisonous to be applied to wounds. Brucine is anaesthetic. 

Internally. — Nux Vomica and Strychnine possess all the 
properties of bitters described under Calumha (p. 219). The 
use of them is not different from that of other bitters, 
excepting that whilst unpleasant from the intensity and 
persistency of their taste and the absence of flavour, they are 
very convenient on account of their small bulk. 

Strychnine is believed to increase the peristaltic action 
of the intestines, and is given with purgatives, especially 
Aloes, in chronic constipation from atony of the bowels. 


Strychnine enters the blood from mucous surfaces, or when 
given hypodermically. Here it affects both the red corpuscles 
and the plasma, reducing the absorptive power of the former 
for oxygen, and the discharge of carbonic acid from the latter. 
These effects are not, however, the cause of the specific actions 
of the drug immediately to be described. 


Strychnine quickly finds its way into the viscera, especially 
the nervous system ; and is peculiar in remaining so long with* 
in them that it is not wholly excreted for several days. It 

SrJi YCHNINA . 343 

therefore accumulates in the body if the dose, however small, 
be very frequently repeated, and is said to have a " cumulative 
action." Some persons are very susceptible to this drug. 

In medicinal doses Strychnine produces a tonic influence. 
as described under Calumba and Quinine, with a sense of in- 
creased strength and spirits. Therewith its specific actions 
are soon developed, namely, fijst, increased sensibility of 
touch, sight, and hearing, with some disorder of the senses, 
such as of colour vision and smell. Repeated or larger doses 
next lead to sudden twitchings of the muscles of the limbs, 
a constricted feeling in the chest and some dysphagia, with a 
sense of anxiety. Poisonous doses produce violent convul- 
Bions and rapid death by exhaustion and asphyxia from 
spasmodic arrest of the respiratory muscles. The phenomena 
resemble tetanus, but differ from it in the complete relaxa- 
tion of the muscles between the convulsive seizures, in the 
great rapidity of their course, and in the comparative absence 
of trismus. Strychnine has little action on the convolutions. 
The motor centres of the cord are powerfully irritated, or, 
more correctly, it removes the normal reshtance of the sensory 
paths in the cord to the conduction of stimuli : thus a 
slight stimulus spreads easily through the cord, acts as a 
stronger stimulus on the motor cells, and causes exagger- 
ated reflexes. The slightest stimulation of the skin, 
such as a breath of air, a loud sound or a bright light, 
is suflScient to originate reflex muscular spasms. The muscles 
of respiration are manifestly involved in this effect, and the 
vigour of their action is greatly increased ; and this is carried 
so far that their contraction in inspiration remains, and gives 
rise to asphyxia. 

The medulla is stimulated by Strychnine in all its im- 
portant centres. The respiratory centre is increased in 
activity, and transmits powerful impulses downwards to the 
already excited cord, thus causing increased frequency and 
depth of the movements of the chest. The cardiac centre 
and the cardiac ganglia and nerves appear to be stimulated 
by Strychnine ; but the violent contractions of the voluntary 
muscles completely modify the direct effect of the alkaloid, 
which is said actually to cause slowing of the heart (in animals 
paralysed by curare). Death does not occur through the 
heart, which beats after respiratory death and remains con- 
tracted. The vaso-motor centre is increased in vigour, an 
effect which is heightened by the muscular spasm, and finally 
by the asphyxial state of the blood : thus the pressure rises 
enormously for a time. 

The motor nerves and mutcles are comparatively unaffected 

344 Strychnina. 

by Strychnine ; but its local application in moderate doses 
stimulates them, and the same may be said of the sensory 
nerves, vision being improved by injections of Strychnine 
in the temple, and the senses of smell and touch rendered mora 
acute. The lody temjyerature naturally rises during the 


Strychnine is indicated in paralysis, especially paralysis 
from disease or disorder of the cord, but is not of much real 
service in this class of cases. Its function in cerebral disease 
is mainly to sustain the activity of the spinal centres, nerves, 
and muscles until the higher centres are restored ; but elec- 
tricity has in a measure displaced it for this purpose. It 
appears, however, to be remedial in so-called " reflex " or 
" functional " paralysis ; in diphtheritic paralysis ; and in 
peripheral paralysis (of the fore-arm, eyes, larynx, sphincters, 
etc.), often toxic in origin, e.g. due to lead, tobacco or alcohol. 
For these local cases Strychnine may sometimes be given in 
the form of hypodermic or intramuscular injections. In sen- 
sory paralysis Strychnine is useless, but it appears to relieve 
some forms of blindness (amaurosis) when applied locally, 
i.e. hypodermically in the temple. In chronic nervous dis- 
orders, such as chorea, epilepsy, neuralgia, alcoholism, in- 
somnia and asthma, it is of benefit as a bitter stomachic and 
tonic, an effect more generally available than the specific 
actions of the drug. 

As a respiratory stimulant, strychnine is used with great 
benefit in bronchitis, emphysema and pneumonia, to increase 
the vigour both of the respiratory centre and the respiratory 
movements. It is advantageously combined with expectorants, 
its tonic action being further useful ; but in acute cases hypo- 
dermic injection is the best method of administration. From 
its stimulant and tonic actions on the heart and vessels, it is 
invaluable in cardiac failure, given either internally or 
hypodermically (1 to 3 min. of the Liquor). 

Strychnine is a physiological antagonist of Chloral Hydrate, 
Morphine and Physostigmine, and may be given both in 
poisoning by these substances (whilst all the ordinary methods 
of recovery are persevered in) and to correct their unfavour- 
able effects as remedies. 


Strychnine is excreted in tho urine, sweat and saliva, as 
we have seen, very slowly. The practical importance of this 
fact has already been insisted on. 

Gels EMU Radix. 345 

Oelsemii Radix.— Yellow Jasmine. The dried 
rhizome and roots of Gelsemium nitidum. 

Characters.— In nearly cylindrical pieces, 6 inches or more 
long, i to I inch thick ; occasionally with fibrous roots 
attached. Fracture splintery. The transverse section ex- 
hibits a thin cortex and a porous yellowish wood, rendered 
distinctly radiate by the presence of numerous conspicuous 
straight medullary rays. The rhizome has usually a brown 
or dark brownish-violet cork, often much fissured ; is nearly 
straight^ and exhibits silky fibres in the bast. The root is 
yellowish-brown, finely wrinkled and somewhat tortuous. 
Odour slightly aromatic ; taste bitter. ''^ ' - - .? 

Composition. — Alkaloids : gelsemine, C12H14NO2, acting like 
strychnine ; gelseminlne, C22H2eN203, a potent poison acting 
like coniine ; gelsenwidine ; gelsemic acid,C^\i^{GY{^0^', oils, 
resins, and fats. 


Tinctura Gelsemii. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 60 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, 5 to 15 min, 


Gelsemium is a powerful depressant of the motor parts of 
the cord, causing paralysis, which is followed later by sensory 
depression and anaesthesia. The pupil is dilated if the drug 
be applied locally ; but it is contracted by gelsemium 
internally administered, and the ocular and levator palpebrsa 
muscles are paralysed, all through the third nerve. Kespira- 
tion fails, and death occurs by asphyxia. The heart is also 
depressed. The skin is stimulated. 

Gelsemium has been given in tetanus, asthma, whooping 
cough and other convulsive diseases, with uncertain results. 
It appears to relieve some cases of facial neuralgia. In 
sick headache (megrim) it may produce great relief if the 
dose be cautiously pushed. 


Strophantlii Seniina. — Strophanthus Seeds, 
The dried ripe seeds of Strophanthus Kombe, freed from the 

Characters. — Oval acuminate seeds, about f inch long and 
\ inch broad, greenish-fawn, covered with silky appressed 

346 Strophanthi Semina. 

hairs, flattened, narrowed towards the base which is obtuse, 
with a longitudinal ridge on one side running from the centre 
to the apex of the seed. Nucleus white, oily ; cotyledons 
straight, surrounded by a thin endosperm. Sulphuric Acid 
colours the latter, and sometimes the cotyledons, dark green 
(presence of strophanthin). Odour characteristic ; taste 
very bitter. 

Composition. — The active principle is a glucoside, stro- 
phanthin, C4oHg60i9, crystalline, very bitter, neutral, very 
soluble in water, less so in spirit ; it gives a dark green 
colour with Sulphuric Acid. Other constituents are Tionibic 
acid, clwline, trigonelline, fat and colouring matter. (JDose of 
StroplioMtldn, ^\^ to f J^ gr. hypodermically.) 


1. Extractum Strophanthi. — 1 in 2. Prepared by 
percolating the dried seeds first with ether and then 
with alcohol, evaporating, and adding Milk Sugar. 
Hose, \to\ gr. 

2. Tinctura Strophanthi.— 1 in 40 of Alcohol 70 
per cent. ; by percolation. Dose, 5 to 15 miu. 


Strophanthus is closely allied to Digitalis in its action on 
the heart (jicc page 365), but does not aflfect the arterioles 
directly. It is extensively used as a cardiac stimulant and 
diuretic in the same class of cases. It is a powerful and 
valuable remedy, which may be employed in cases of heart 
disease where digitalis fails or disagrees. 


Heiiiiclcsmi Radix.— Hemidesmus Root. The 
dried root of Hemidesmus indicus. 

Cha/racters. — Long, rigid, nearly cylindrical, tortuous, and 
longitudinally furrowed ; seldom exceeds \ inch in thickness ; 
reddish or dark-brown. On one side of the root the cork is 
frequently separated from and raised above the cortex, and 
is transversely fissured. Odour fragrant ; taste somewhat 
sweet. Substances resembling Hemidesmus : Sarsaparilla, 
Ipecacuanha, Senega. Hemidesmus has cracks. 

Gentianm Radix. 347 

Composition. — Hemidesmus contains co^imarin ; other con- 
stituents unknown, 

Syrupns Hemidesmi. — 4 in 42. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 


Hemidesmus is used in India in lieu of Sarsaparilla. 
The same obscurity exists respecting the actions and value of 
this as of the other drug. See SarscB Radix, page 411, 


Oentiaiiae Radix.— Gentian Root. The dried 
rhizome and roots of Gentiana lutea. 

Characters. — In nearly cylindrical pieces, entire or longi- 
tudinally split, varying in length, but seldom exceeding 1 in. 
in thickness, yellowish-brown externally, longitudinally 
wrinkled. It also bears closely approximated encircling leaf 
scars, and is frequently terminated by a bud. Tough when 
slightly moist ; brittle when dried. Fracture nearly uniform 
reddish yellow. Neither wood nor cortex yields the charac- 
teristic reactions with the tests for starch. Odour character- 
istic ; taste at first slightly sweet, afterwards bitter. 

Composition. — Gentian contains -1 per cent, gf a bitter 
^ixxQoside, gentiepicrin, CaoHgoOja, crystalline (present in the 
fresh drug but decomposed on drying), yielding glucose and 
gcntiogenin. It contains also the giucosides gentiin and 
rjentiauiarin, gentiamic acid, sugar, gum, and a trace of a volatile 
oil. Incompatihles. — Iron Sulphate, Silver Nitrate, and Lead 


1. Extractum Gentiaiua. — Aqueous. Dose, 2 to 

2. Infasnm Gentiana Compositum. — 1 ; Dried 
Bitter-Orange Peel, 1 ; Fresh Lemon Peel, 2 ; boiling 
Water, 80. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.oz. 

3. Tinctora Gentianae Composita.— 10 ; Dried 
Bitter-Orange Peel, 3-75 ; Cardamom Seeds, 1-25 ; 
Alcohol 45 per cent., to make 100. By maceration. 
Dose, i to 1 fl.dr. 

348 Chirata, 


Gentian possesses the actions of bitters, as described 
under Caluvibce Radix (page 219), The uses made of it cor- 
respond. It is perhaps the most extensively used and most 
popular of all bitters, because (1) it is agreeable, being very 
slightly aromatic ; (2) its bitter is not intense, and its as- 
tringency but slight ; and (3) it is more stimulant to the 
bowels, and more disinfectant than some bitters. A draw- 
back to its usefulness is the liability of the sugar which it 
contains to ferment in simple infusions. 

Chirata. — Chiretta. The dried plant, Swertia 
Chirata. Collected in Northern India when in flower. 

Characters. — Stem 3 ft. or more long, smooth, brown or 
purplish-brown, slightly winged and much branched above, 
rounded below, containing a large, continuous, easily separ- 
able pith. Branches slender, elongated, decussate. Leaves 
opposite, ovate, glabrous, entire, usually with 3 to 7 lateral 
veins. Flowers small, numerous, panicled. Fruits superior, 
bicarpellary, unilocular. No odour ; taste extremely bitter. 
Impurity.— M.\xr\]eet (Rubia cordifolia) ; without pith and the 
leaves petiolate. Substance resembling Chiretta : Lobelia ; not 

Composition.— Chitcttdi contains an active bitter principle, 
chiratin, C26U48O15, and ophelic acid, CiallooOjo: no tannic 


1. Infusum Chirata. — 1 in 20 of boiling Water. 
Lose, ^ to 1 fl.oz. 

2. Liquor Chiratse Concentratus. — Alcoholic. 1 in 
2. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

3. Tinctura Chiratse.— 1 in 10 of Alcohol 60 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, | to 1 fl.dr. 


Chiretta is an axomatic bitter, very similar in its action 
and uses to Gentian ; but may be given with Iron. 


Scammonine Radix.— Scammont Root. The dried 
root of Convolvulus Scammonia. 


Characteri. — Brownish or yellowish-grey, tapering or 
nearly cylindrical roots, from 1 to 3 inches or more in diameter, 
contorted; the surface longitudinally furrowed. It is en- 
larged at the crown, and bears the remains of slender aerial 
stems. Fracture very coarsely fibrous ; internally the colour 
is light or dark grey. Odour characteristic ; taste at first 
somewhat sweet, afterwards slightly acrid. It yields to 
alcohol (90 per cent.) a resin having the properties of Scam- 
mony Kesin. Suhstance resemMing Scammony Root: Bella- 
donna Root, which is smaller. 

Scammoniuni. — Scammony. Virgin Scammony. 
A gum-resin, obtained by incision from the living root of 
Convolvulus Scammonia. 

Characters. — In flattened cakes or irregular pieces of vary- 
ing sizes, brown, dark grey or nearly black externally ; some- 
times covered with a greyish-white powder, very brittle, the 
freshly exposed surface glossy, resinous, porous, uniformly 
dark brown or nearly black ; in thin fragments the drug is 
brown and more or less translucent. It is easily reduced to 
an ash-grey powder, and forms an emulsion with water. 
Odour characteristic ; taste acrid. Impurities. — Chalk, 
starch and guaiacum resin. 

Connnmtion. — Scammony contains 70 per cent, of the 
official resin, and 10 to 20 of gum. The root, the gum-resin, 
and the resin contain an active glucoside, scanwionin, 
C34H58OJ6, identical with jalapin. See Jalajj, page 350. 
Dose, 5 to 10 gr. 

From Scammonia Radix is made : 
Scammonia Resina.— Scammony Resin. 

Source. — Made from Scammony Root by preparing 
a tincture, precipitating this in water, washing and 

Characters. — Brownish translucent pieces, brittle, 
resinous in fracture, of a sweet fragrant odour. Soluble 
in ether. Does not, alone, form an emulsion with water. 
Impurities. — Guaiacum Resin, giving blue with potato, 
with solution of ferric chloride, or with solution of 
hydrogen peroxide; Jalap Resin, insoluble in ether. 
Dose, 3 to 8 gr. 


1. Pilula Scammonii Composito.— 1 ; Jalap 
Reein, 1 ; Curd Soap, 1 ; Tincture of Ginger, 8. 

350 JALAPA, 

This is the only aperient pill in the vegetable 
materia medica that does not contain Aloes. Dose^ 
4 to 8 gr, 

2. Pulvis Scammonii Compositus. — 4; Jalap, 

3 ; Ginger, 1. Ikjse, 10 to 20 gr. 

ScamnionicB Resma is also an important ingre- 
dient of : Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum, 
Pilula Colocynthidis Composita, and Pilula Colo- 
cynthidis et Hyoscjami. 


Preparations of Scammony are powerful stimulants of the 
intestinal glands, and to a less degree of the liver, causing 
free purgation within a few hours, attended by griping. 
Scammony begins to act in the duodenum on meeting the 
bile, and will not purge if injected into the blood. 

Scammony is used chiefly as a smart purgative and anthel- 
mintic in children, in cases unattended with irritation of the 
stomach and bowels. As a hydragogue. Jalap is preferred. 

Jalapsi. — Jalap. The dried tuberculesof Ipomoea purga. 

Characters. — Dark brown, irregularly oblong, ovoid, napi- 
form or fusiform roots, from 1 to 3 inches or more long, the 
larger being frequently incised ; hard, compact, and heavy ; 
externally furrowed, wrinkled, and marked with transverse 
scars ; internally yellowish-grey or dingy brown. The trans- 
verse section usually exhibits irregular dark concentric lines. 
Odour characteristic ; taste at first sweet, afterwards acrid. 

Conqyosition. — Jalap yields 9 to 11 per cent, of official resin, 
which contains two glucosides : jala/pin (scammonin), 
CsiHgeOje. 10 per cent., soluble in ether ; and convolmdin, 
CaiHggOie, ^0 per cent., insoluble in other. 


1. Extractum Jalapse. — Alcoholic and aqueous. 
Dose, 2 to 8 gr. 

2. Pulvis JalapsB Compositus. — Jalap, 5 ; Acid 
Potassium Tartrate, 9 ; Ginger, 1. Dose, 20 to 60 gr. 

3. Tinctura Jalapae. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 70 per cent. ; 
by percolation. Standardised. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

Jalap is also an important ingredient of Pulvia 
Scammonii Compositus. — 3 in 8. 

Capsici Fructus. 35 t 

From JaUvpa is made : 

Jalapse Besina. — Jalap Resin 

Source. — Made by precipitating a tincture of 
Jalap in water ; washing, and drying. 

Characters.— Baxk-hrown opaque fragments, 
translucent at the edges ; brittle, with a resinous 
fracture ; odour sweetish ; taste acrid. Solubility. 
—Readily in alcohol 90 per cent. ; insoluble in 
water and oil of turpentine. Impurities. — Resins 
of Tampico Jalap, scammony and guaiacum. 
SubstoTice resembling Jalap Resin : Aloes, which 
is bitter. BosCy 2 to 5 gr. 

Jalap Resin is contained in Pilula Scam- 
monii Composita. 


The actions of Jalap closely resemble those of Scammony, 
but it is less irritant or less likely to gripe. Like it, Jalap does 
not purge unless in the presence of the duodenal fluids ; it is 
also a powerful stimulant of the intestinal secretion, less so of 
the bile. Small doses produce a laxative effect ; large doses 
act within two hours, causing several watery stools, attended 
by some pain unless the drug be combined with carminatives. 

Jalap is extensively used in the form of the Compound 
Powder, as a hydragogue purgative, to drain off water by the 
bowel in dropsy, and occasionally as an ordinary smart purga- 
tive. The Resin in small doses may be used in laxative pills 
for habitual constipation. As an anthelmintic, Jalap is given 
in Pulvis Scammonii Compositus. This drug must be avoided 
when the alimentary canal is inflamed or irritable. 


Capsici Fructus.— Capsicum Feuit. The dried 

ripe fruit of Capsicum minimum. 

Churacters. — Dull orange-red, oblong-conical, obtuse, 2- 
celled fruits, ^ to I inch long, \ inch in diameter ; sometimes 
attached to a 5-toothed inferior calyx, and long, straight, 
slender peduncle. Pericarp somewhat shrivelled, glabrous, 
translucent, leathery, containing from 10 to 20 small flat seeds, 
either loose or attached to a thin reddish dissepiment. Odour 
characteristic ; taste intensely pungent. 

352 Belladonna. 

Composition. — Capsicum yields a crystalline pungent body, 
capsaicin, C-^^^\i2i^^z'' a volatile alkaloid; capsiciji, an olco- 
resin ; and fatty matter. Ivqniritics. — Red lead 'and other 
coloured substances. Dose, ^ to 1 gr. (in pill). 


1. Tinctura Capsici.— 1 in 20 of Alcohol 70 per 
cent. ; by maceration. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 

2. Unguentum Capsici.— 12 ; Spermaceti, 6 ; Olive 
Oil, 44. 

Tinctura Capsici is an ingredient of Tinctura 
Chloroform! et Morphinae Composita. 


Externally, Capsicum has a comparatively powerful local 
action, closely resembling that of volatile oils ; and the 
Ointment may be applied as a stimulant and counter- 
irritant. An ethereal tincture is an excellent preparation in 
alopecia areata, 

Interyially, it is used as a condiment (cayenne pepper) ; 
and medicinally in stimulant gargles, and as a pungent 
stomachic, carminative and stimulant, to dispel flatulence 
and rouse the appetite, especially in alcoholic subjects. 

Belladonnse Folia.— Belladonna Leaves. The 
fresh leaves and branches of Atropa Belladonna; collected 
when the plant is in flower. 

Characters. — Leaves alternate below, in unequal pairs 
above ; shortly stalked ; 3 to 8 inches long ; broadly ovate, 
acute, entire, nearly glabrous. Corolla gamopetalous, cam- 
panulate, of a dingy purple colour. The expressed juice, or 
an infusion, dropped into the eye, dilates the pupil. 

Substances resembling Belladonna Leaves : Stramonium 
Leaves, more wrinkled; Hyoscyamus Leaves, which are 

Belladonna; Radix.— Belladonna Root. The 
root of Atropa Belladonna ; collected in the autumn and 

Characters. — In nearly cylindrical pieces, entire or longi- 
tudinally split, varying in diameter from f to j inch, and 

Belladonna. 353 

from 6 to 12 inches or more in length ; externally pale greyish- 
brown ; IBnely wrinkled longitudinally. Fracture short. In- 
ternally whitish and starchy. Within, mostly near to the 
cambium ring, numerous scattered groups of vessels and 
fibres, which do not exhibit a prominently radiate arrange- 
ment. Substances resembling Belladonna Root : Pyrethrum 
and Scammony Root. q.v. 

Composition. — Belladonna Leaves and Root contain two 
alkaloids, (1) hyoseyamine, Ci7H23N03, which is unstable and 
readily forms its isomer, (2) atroinne ; a fluorescent body, 
/8-methyl-gesculin, and, in the root, scopolamiiie or hyoscine, 
Ci7H2iN04, are also found. 


A. 0/ Belladonnce Folia : 

1. Extractnm BelladonnsB Viride. — A. green extract 
{see page 14). Dose, ^ to 1 gr. 

2. Succus Belladonnas. — Juice, 3 ; Alcohol 90 per 
cent., 1. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 

B. Of Belladonna Radix : 

Extractum Belladonnaa Liquidum. — Aqueous and 
Alcoholic. Standardised to contain | gr. of alkaloids 
in 110 min. 

Irom the Liquid Extract of Belladonna is 
prepared : 

a. Extractum Belladonna} Alcoholicum. — 

The Liquid Extract evaporated, and Milk Sugar 
added. Standardised to contain 1 per cent, of 
alkaloids. Dose, ^ to 1 gr. 

From the Alcoholic Extract are prepared: 


Oil of Theobroma, to make 15 gr. ^^ gr. of 
alkaloids in each. 

b. Emplastmm Belladonnse. — Liquid Extract, 
4, evaporated to 1 ; Resin Plaster, 6. Contains 
0-5 per cent, of alkaloids. 

c. Linimentmn Belladonna.— Liquid Extract, 
10 ; Camphor, 1 ; DistiUed Water, 2 ; Alcohol 90 
per cent., to make 20. -38 per cent, of alkaloids. 

d. Tinctura Belladonnse. — Liquid Extract, 1 ; 
Alcohol 60 per cent., to make 15. Standardised 


to contain about '05 per cent, of alkaloids. Dose, 
5 to 15 min. 

e. Unguentum Belladonnse. — Liquid Extract, 
2 ; Benzoated Lard, 2 -25. Contains -6 per cent, of 

From BelladonncB Folia or Radix is made : 
.Itropiiia, — Atropine. C17H23NO3. 

Source. — Obtained from Belladonna Leaves or Root. 
Cliaracters. — Colourless acicular crystals. Solubility. — 
1 in 300 of water ; readily in alcohol 90 per cent, and in 
chloroform and ether. Readily decomposed in solution. Its 
aqueous solution is alkaline, bitter ; powerfully dilates the 
pupil ; and yields with solution of auric chloride a citron- 
yeUow precipitate, which when recrystallised from boiling 
water acidulated with hydrochloric acid has a minutely 
crystalline character, and when dry a dull pulverulent appear- 
ance (distinction from hyoscyamine). It can be chemically 
resolved into tropine, CsHjgNO, and tropic acid, CgHnjOj ; and 
reconstructed by the synthesis of these bodies. Atropine 
is optically inactive ; both kcvo- and dextro-rotatory hyos- 
cyamine exist, and all three alkaloids show differences in 
pharmacological action. IncompatihU's. — Caustic alkalis 
decompose it. Morphine, Physostigmine and Strychnine 
are in various respects and degrees physiological antagonists. 
See Opium, page 239, and Physostigma, page 275. Dose, 
nits to rU gr- 


Unguentum Atropinaa. — 1 ; dissolved in Oleic 
Acid, 4 ; with Lard, 45. 

- From Atropina is made : 

Atropinse Sulphas. — Atropine Sulphate. Source. — 
Obtained by neutralising Atropine with Diluted Sul- 
phuric Acid. Characters. — Nearly colourless, crystal- 
line. Solubility. — 1 in 1 of cold water ; 1 in 10 of 
alcohol 90 per cent. ; insoluble in ether and chloro- 
form. Solution neutral. Jhse, t^-q to -j^ gr. 


1. Liquor ATRoriN^ Sulphatis. — 1 ; 
Salicylic Acid, -12 ; Distilled Water, to make 100. 
1 gr. in 110 min. Dote, ^ to 1 min. 

Belladonna and Atropine. 3S5 

2. Lamella Atropine.— Discs of Gelatin, 
with some Glycerin, each weighing about -^ gr., 
and containing yJ^^ gr. of Atropine Sulphate. 


Externally. — Belladonna and Atropine, as such or in 
aqueous suspension or solution, are not absorbed by the un- 
broken skin ; but alcohol, chloroform, camphor or glycerin, 
with which they are generally combined, readily conveys the 
Atropine through the epidermis. Exposed mucous membranes 
and inflamed areas of skin still more readily absorb the 

Belladonna depresses the sensory nerve-endings, thus act- 
ing as a local anaesthetic and anodyne ; the blood-vessels are 
first somewhat contracted, and then relaxed ; and the motor- 
nerve filaments to underlying muscles are reduced in activity. 
Any other special nerve-endings with which the Atropine may 
come in contact are similarly depressed, e.g. the nerves of the 
sudoriparous and mammary glands 

Belladonna is used locally in Liniment, Plaster or Oint- 
ment, and Atropine more rarely in Ointment, to relieve the 
pain and spasm of muscular rheumatism, and of neuralgia 
(less useful) ; as an anodyne and antiphlogistic in acute gout, 
bolls, erysipelas and some kinds of phlebitis, in all of which 
a Glycerin of Belladonna, or a Glycerin or Flexible Collodion 
of Atropine, freely applied, is of great service, although it 
sometimes produces eczema ; in pruritus and certain skin dis- 
eases, to relieve itching ; and as an anti-galactagogue. 

internaliy .—The action of Belladonna on the mouth ia 
not a local but a specific one, to be presently described. In 
the stomach it produces a slightly anodyne effect, and has 
been used to relieve some forms of gastralgia and sickness. 
Its action on the bowels is also specific, as will be seen. 


Atropine very rapidly enters the blood as such, and leaves 
it for the tissues. It does not alter the corpuscles. 


Atropine reaches the organs with remarkable rapidity, and 
sets up a train of characteristic phenomena. After moderate 
doses of an efficient preparation of Belladonna, patients com- 
plain of dryness in the throat with difficulty of swallowing ; 
the pupils are dilated and vision is confused ; possibly the 

356 Belladonna and Atropine, 

bowels are relaxed ; the pulse is reduced in frequency , the 
conjunctivae and face are flushed ; the balance and gait may 
be uncertain. Larger doses aggravate these phenomena, but 
the pulse now becomes frequent instead of the reverse ; rest- 
lessness or even convulsions may occur ; and the patient 
becomes delirious. These symptoms occasionally follow the 
incautious application of Belladonna to wounds or erupted 
areas of skin. Physiological analysis of these phenomena 
yields the following results : 

Convolutions. — ^The delirium caused by Belladonna is rarely 
seen after medicinal doses. It is followed by dulness, somno- 
lence and insensibility, all evidences of cerebral depression. 

Spinal cord. — Belladonna acts by no means powerfully on 
the cord, beyond slightly increasing and afterwards diminish- 
ing its reflex irritability. 

Medulla. — The three great vital centres are markedly 
affected. The respiratory centre is powerfully stimulated 
by Belladonna, so that the movements of the chest become 
more frequent and more deep. This effect is independent 
of the blood-pressure. Poisonous doses paralyse the same 
centre. The cardiac centre is for a time stimulated and the 
heart slowed. This is but a small part of the effect on the 
heart, as will be immediately seen. It is said that the vaso- 
motor centre is first stimulated and then depressed by Bella- 
donna, that is, that the systemic arteries are contracted and 
the blood-pressure is raised for a time, but that the vessels 
afterwards are relaxed and the pressure lowered, causing the 
flushing of the skin. According to other authorities vaso- 
constriction occurs in certain regions, vaso-dilatation in others 
— the result of stimulation of the vascular centres. 

The irritability of the motor nerves is diminished, but not 
lost, except after large doses. The voluntary muscles remain 
unaffected. The sensory nertfes, which, as we have seen, are 
locally depressed, are also depressed specifically. Thus pain 
is prevented or relieved. 

Special efferent nerve terminations. — A markedly depressing 
action is exerted by Belladonna upon the terminations of cer- 
tain special motor and secretory nerves in connection with the 
viscera, or upon the " terminal apparatus " between these 
fibrils and the active protoplasm. 

a. The endings of the third nerve are paralysed in the 
sphincter of the pupil and in the ciliary muscle, giving rise 
to the dilatation of the pupil and the disturbance of accom- 
modation. The effect on the pupil is purely local in its cause ; 
the muscle itself is also unaffected ; possibly the sympathetic 
is somewhat stimulated. The amount of confusion of yision 

Belladonna and Atropina. 357 

produced by the paralysis of accommodation will depend on 
the normal refraction of the patient's eye, long-sighted 
persons siiffering most. The intra-ocular pressure is not 
diminished, as is sometimes stated ; it is increased even by 
moderate doses. 

b. The terminations of the chorda tympani in the sub- 
maxillary gland are paralysed by Atropine, the results being 
an arrest of saliva and the dryness of the mouth and throat 
already mentioned. The sympathetic remains unaffected, so 
that the vessels in the gland dilate as usual under stimulation, 
and the " sympathetic secretion " can be obtained as before. 
Probably the mucous glands of the mouth are also paralysed. 

c. The ends of the sudoriparous nerves in the sweat 
glands are depressed by Atropine, which is the most powerful 
of all anhidrotics. Therewith the skin is flushed, as we saw ; 
overspread sometimes by a scarlatinoid redness or rash. The 
temperature rises at first, but afterwards falls 

d. On the secretion of the mammary gland atropine has 
recently been proved to have no effect. 

e. The ends of the vagus (inhibitory apparatus) in the 
heart may be briefly stimulated by Atropine, thus increasing 
its slowing action on the cardiac centre in the medulla, 
already seen ; but they are quickly paralysed, the pulse rising 
in frequency to twice its previous rate after full doses ; and 
this frequency cannot be reduced by faradising the vagus. 
Therewith the force of the systole is not reduced after moderate 
doses. Very large (poisonous) doses depress the ganglia, and 
finally even the muscle ; and death occurs through cardiac 
failure, with the ventricle in diastole. The depressor and the 
accelerator filaments are not affected. 

It will be convenient to complete here the account of the 
action of Belladonna on the circulation. The vaso-motor 
stimulation noted under the medulla coincides with the 
cardiac acceleration, and thus the blood-pressure is decidedly 
raised, the heart emptying itself more frequently into tense 
vessels. Large doses, however, depress the vaso-motor centre ; 
the peripheral vessels are also directly relaxed ; the pressure 
falls ; and if this be extreme, it coincides with the paralysis 
of the cardiac ganglia and muscle, and contributes to the 
final arrest of the circulation. 

/. The terminations of the vagus in the bronchial walla 
are paralysed by Atropine, the tension of the muscular coat 
of the bronchi is diminished, and the air current is thus 
facilitated. The afferent branches of the vagus in the same 
parts are also paralysed, the drug thus diminishing sensi- 
bility and reflex action, that is, dyspnoea and cough. These 

358 Belladonna and Atropina. 

effects are in addition to the stimulation of the respiratory 
centre already noticed. 

g. On the movements of the stomach and intestine Atro- 
pine acts as a sedative and allays violent contractions, but 
does not interfere with normal peristalsis. The vagus and 
splanchnic nerve-endings are not affected ; the explanation is 
obscure. It is a sedative to the uterus and spleen. 

li. Atropine paralyses the secretory fibres of the vagus to 
the stomach and pancreas. 

i. Atropine appears to affect the terminaticcis of the 
nerves of the urethra, bladder and vesicula seminales ; but 
this part of its action is still obscure. Frequent desire and 
inability to pass water is a symptom of over-doses. 

Metaholum and temperature. — Nutritive activity is in- 
creased by Belladonna, obviously through the increased circu- 
lation and respiration ; and most of the solid excretions are 
increased, as will be seen under the urine. The temperature 
is correspondingly raised ; but it sinks with the failure of the 
circulation after large doses. 

Children are less readily affected by this drug. 


From its sedative effect on the convohitions, Belladonna in 
full doses has been given in the low delirium of fevers, mania 
and alcoholism, especially if Opium fail. Neither for this 
purpose nor as a hypnotic can it be said to be in general use. 
It has also been recommended in such neuroses as, 
chronic alcoholism, chorea and megrim ; in some cases it 
relieves the symptoms of these without effecting a cure. 

Belladonna has been given with apparent success in many 
forms of disease of the spinal cord, including paralysis with 

Liquor Atropinas Sulphatis is extensively instilled into the 
eye as a mydriatic or pupil dilator, for ophthalmoscopic ex- 
amination, and to prevent or break down adhesions in iritis ; 
also to paralyse accommodation before determining refrac- 
tion. The routine employment of Atropine in all kinds of eye 
disease is, however, to be deprecated, as it may sometimes 
precipitate glaucoma. See Physostigma, page 275. 

Atropine occasionally relieves the salivation of pregnancy 
and of cerebral disease, but is necessarily uncertain, as the 
pathology of such cases is often obscure. 

Belladonna and Atropine are much used bb anhidroti^s, to 
check the sweats of phthisis and other hectic conditions. The 
Extracts are generally ordered, in pill at bedtime, or the 
Solution of Atropine Sulphate when the case can be watched. 

Belladonna and Atropina. 359 

Applied in the form of f*laster, Liniment, or Ointment of 
Belladonna, or as a lotion of Atropine, this drug is often 
used as an anti-galactayogue, but, as stated above, recent 
work shows that Atropine does not influence the secretion. 
The benefit observed may be due to the relief of pain. 

Belladonna is a valuable remedy in some cases of disease 
of the heart and vessels, where the indication is to empty the 
left ventricle quickly and relax the vessels, without diminish- 
ing the cardiac force. Such cases cannot be further particu- 
larised here, but it may be said that Belladonna is frequently 
given, either alone or combined with Digitalis, thus securing 
certain advantages of both drugs, whilst otherwise they may 
antagonise each other. Belladonna is clinically believed to 
relieve cardiac pain and palpitation, and is sometimes to be 
preferred to Opium for this purpose ; probably this effect is 
chiefly an indirect one, referable to more frequent, i.e. more 
sufficient, emptying of the ventricles, with lowering of the 
vascular tension and prevention of distension of the heart. 
The Plaster, or the Extracts mixed with Glycerin, applied to 
the praacordia, the Extracts internally, and Atropine subcu- 
taneously, are trustworthy forms for this purpose. A com- 
bination of Morphine and Atropine subcutaneously is especially 
valuable in cardiac distress. See Opium : Combinations cj 
Morphine and Atropine, page 239. 

Belladonna is used in diseases of the respiratory organs, 
both for the prevention and for the relief of spasm of the 
bronchi (asthma), spasmodic cough of any kind, and es- 
pecially pertussis. It is difficult to overestimate the value of 
this drug as a sedative to the respiratory nerves, as compared 
with Opium. The latter also relieves spasm and cough, but 
tends to paralyse the respiratory centre, and has always to be 
given with particular care. Whilst Belladonna soothes the 
afferent and efferent nerves of the bronchi, it strengthens the 
respiratory centre, and may be given with confidence. 

Some torms of chronic constipation are relieved by Bella- 
donna, which is usually given as the Alcoholic Extract in com- 
bination with Aloes and other purgatives, its carminative effect 
also being valuable. Fissure of the anus and spasm of the 
sphincter are benefited by its local use as a suppository. 

Belladonna is useful in diseases of the genito-urinary 
organs, such as chordee, spermatorrhoea, some cases of re- 
tention of urine, the nocturnal incontinence of children, and 
all forms of painful spasm of the bladder, as in calculus, 
cystitis, and prostatitis. It is best given as suppository, or 
applied to the perinaeum. 

Belladonna or Atropine may be used in poisoning by opium 

360 Stramonii Semina. 

(see page 239), and by calabar bean (see page 2t5). Atropine 
is given in combination with Morphine to prevent certain 
unpleasant effects of the latter (see page 239). 


Atropine is excreted unchanged in the urine, almost im- 
mediately on its administration : in 10 to 20 hours the last 
traces have left the body. It increases the urea, phosphates, 
sulphates and water, but not the chlorides of the urine ; that 
is, is diuretic. It cannot be said to be much used for this 
purpose. In flowing over the ureters, bladder and urethra it 
may again relieve local pain and .spasm, as indicated in the 
last section. 

Stramonii Semina.— Stramonium Seeds. The 
dried ripe seeds of Datura Stramonium. 

Characters. — Dark brown or nearly black seeds, about 
^ inch long, reniform in outline, flattened ; the surface marked 
with reticulate depressions and minutely pitted. Embryo 
curved, embedded in a white, oily albumen. They have no 
marked odour ; taste slightly bitter. 

Stramonii Folia. — Stramonium Leaves. — The 

dried leaves of Datura Stramonium. Collected from plants 
in flower, cultivated in Britain. 

Characters. — Ovate, petiolate, 4 to 6 in. long, smooth, 
acuminate, unequal at base ; sinuate-dentate margin ; minutely 
wrinkled ; dark greyish-green, upper surface the darker. 
Odour characteristic ; taste unpleasant and bitter. 

Substances resembling Stramonium Leaves : Belladonna 
Leaves, less wrinkled ; Hyoscyamus Leaves, hairy. 

Coviposition. — Both Seeds and Leaves contain the alka- 
loids atropine, hyoscyamine, and hyosrine (scopolamine) {see 
pages 353 and 8G1). Daturine, CijHjjNOa, the name 
previously applied to the principal alkaloid, is probably a 
mixture of atropine and d- orl-hyoscyaniine. Jneovipatibles. 
— Caustic alkalis, metallic salts, and mineral acids. 


A. Of Stramonii Semina : 

Extractum Stramonii — Alcoholic. Boa,',, | to 1 gr. 

Hyoscyami Folia. 361 

B. Of Stramonii Folia : 
Tinctura Stramonii. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 45 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 

Stramonium has an action almost exactly similar to that 
of Atropine, but is more depressant to the nerves of the bronchi. 
The use of Stramonium is almost confined to the treatment 
of spasmodic affections of the respiratory organs, such as 
bronchitis and asthma. The Extract in doses of \ gr. :nay 
be given to prevent or lessen attacks ; the smoke of the 
burning Leaves may be inhaled from cigarettes or fuming 
powders during the paroxysm. 

Hyoscyami Folia.— Hyoscyamus Leaves. Hen- 
bane Leaves. The fresh leaves and flowers, with the branches 
to which they are attached, of Hyoscyamus niger ; also the 
leaves and flowering tops, separated from the branches, 
and carefully dried. Collected from the flowering liennial 

Characters. — Leaves of various lengths, seldom exceeding 
10 inches ; mostly sessile ; alternate ; exstipulate ; triangular- 
ovate or ovate-oblong, acute ; undulated, irregularly toothed, 
sinuate, or pinnatifid ; midrib conspicuous ; pale green and 
glandular - hairy, particularly beneath. Branches subcy- 
lindrical, glandular-hairy. The fresh herb has a strong 
characteristic odour ; a bitter and slightly acrid taste. The 
juice dropped into the eye dilates the pupil. Substances 
resembling Hyoscyamus : See Belladonna and Stramonium. 

Composition. — The active principles are (1) liyosoyaviine, 
C]7H23N03. a crystalline alkaloid, isomeric but not identical 
with atropine; (2) hyoscine or scopolamine, Ci7H2iN04, a 
syrupy alkaloid forming crystalline salts ; and (3) atropine. 
See Stramonii Folia, page 360, and Belladonnce Folia, 
page 353. 

Incompatibhs. — Vegetable acids, Silver Nitrate, Lead 
Acetate, and Liquor Potassae. 


1. Extractnm Hyoscyami Viride. — A green extract 
from the fresh plant (see p. 14). JDose, 2 to 8 gr. 

From the Extract is prepared : 


—1 in 3. See page 297. 

362 Hyoscyami Folia. 

2. Succus Hyoscyami. — 3 of frtih juice to 1 of 
Alcohol 90 per cent. Dose, ^ to 1 tl.clr. 

3. Tinctura Hyoscyami. — 1, dried, in 10 of Alcoho] 
46 per cent. ; by percolation. Bom, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

From Hyoscyamiis Leaves are made : 

1. Hyoscinsa Hydrobromidum. — Hyoscine Hy- 
drobromide. Scopolamine Hydrobromide. C17H,, 

Source. — Obtained from Hyoscyamus Leaves, 
different species of Scopola, and possibly other 
golanaceous plants. 

Characters. — Colourless, transparent rhombic 
crystals, permanent in the air; odourless; taste 
acrid, slightly bitter. Solubility. — 1 in 1 of cold 
water ; 1 in 13 of alcohol 90 per cent. ; very 
slightly soluble in ether or chloroform. Aqueous 
solution slightly reddens litmus. Aqueous solution 
precipitated by solution of mercuric chloride, solu- 
tion of iodine, and also by solution of potassium 
hydroxide, but not by solution of ammonia or 
solution of potassium bichromate. It forms with 
auric chloride a crystalline salt having a melting- 
point of 388-4° F. Dose, ^^-^ to ^-^ gr. 

2. HyoscyaminsB Sulphas. — Hyoscyamine Sul- 
phate. (Ci7H23N03)2,H2S04,2H20. 

Source. — Obtained from Hyoscyamus Leaves 
and possibly other solanaceous plants. 

Characters. — A crystalline powder, deliques- 
cent, odourless, having a bitter acrid taste. Solu- 
hility. — 1 in 0*5 of water; 1 in 2-5 of alcohol 90 
per cent. ; very slightly in ether or chloroform. 
Solution in water acidulated with hydrochloric 
acid yields no precipitate with solution of platinic 
chloride, but affords with solution of auric chloride 
a yellow precipitate soluble in boDing water acidu- 
lated with hydrochloric acid, and again deposited 
as the solution cools in brilliant, golden-yellow 
scales (distinction from atropine). Dose, ^^ to 


These closely agree with the action and uses of Belladonna 
and Stramonium. The special points to be noted in conneo- 
tion with Hyoscyamus are as follows : (1) The pharmacuutiuil 


preparations of the plant are decidedly weaker in their action 
and must be given in larger doses. (2) The calmative effect 
of the atropaceous plants on the convolutions is more rapid 
and pronounced with Hyoscyamus, which is used in insomnia 
and maniacal excitement. The result appears to be due 
to the Hyoscine, which is a powerful cerebral sedative, con- 
trolling restlessness and inducing several hours' deep sleep. 
Hyoscine Hydrobromide is given hypodermically in doses of 
iW to -y^^ gr. or more, particularly for delirium. Scopolamine 
hydrobromide -^\-^-^ gr., with Morphine \ gr,, given at the end of 
the first stage of labour, is recommended as a narcotic in ob- 
stetric work. (3) The laxative and carminative effects on the 
bowel are decided ; and Extract of Hyoscyamus is often com- 
bined with more active purgatives in pills. (4) The remote 
local action on the urinary organs is more marked, and 
the Tincture is in general use to relieve irritability of the 
bladder. (5) Hyoscine is sometimes used as a mydriatic. 

Homatropinae Hydrobromidum. — Hom- 
ATROPINE Hydrobromide. CjeHaiNOa.HBr. 

Source. — Propared from tropine. 

Characters. — A white crystalline powder or aggregation 
of minute trimetric crystals. Solubility. — 1 in 6 of cold 
water ; 1 in 133 of absolute alcohol ; solutions neutral. Dilute 
aqueous solution powerfully dilates the pupil. Treated with 
fuming nitric acid and potassium hydroxide, no reddish- 
violet coloration is developed (distinction from atropine), 
the residue becoming coloured reddish-yellow. Dose, -^ to 


Lamellae Homatropinae. — Discs of Gelatin, with 
some Glycerin, each weighing about -g^j gr., and con- 
taining -ji^ gr. Homatropine Hydrobromide. 


The actions of Homatropine are similar to those of Atro- 
pine, but weaker. It is used only in ophthalmic practice, its 
advantage being that whilst it acts on the eye as promptly 
as Atropine, though not so energetically, its effects subside 
in one-fourth the time. 

3^4 Digitalis Folia. 


Dignitatis Folia. — Digitalis Leaves. Foxglove 
Leaves. The leaves of Digitalis purpurea, collected from 
plants commencing to flower. 

CJiaracters. — From 4 to 12 or more inches long, sometimes 
as much as 5 to 6 inches broad, with a winged petiole ; 
broadly ovate or oval lanceolate, subacute, crenate ; or crenate- 
dentate, somewhat rugose, hairy, dull-green above ; densely 
pubescent, paler beneath. Odour faint ; taste very bitter. 
Substance resemlUng Digitalis Leaves : Matico ; more deeply 

Composition. — The active principle of Digitalis, known as 
digitalinum, or digitalin, occurs in two forms : (a) Homolle 
and Quevenne's digitalin, a yellowish-white, amorphous or 
scaly, intensely bitter substance ; and (J) Nativelle's digitalin, 
in crystalline prisms, also very bitter. It is now known to be 
a compound of four glucosides, namely, (1) JJigitoxin, 
C34H54O11, insoluble in water, most active and poisonous, 
chief constituent of Nativelle's digitalin ; (2; Digitalin, 
CagHggOi^. insoluble in water, forms bulk of Homolle's digi- 
talin ; (3) Digitaleln, indefinite compound, soluble in water ; 
(4) Digitophyllin, C32H52O10, crystalline; and Digitonin, 
C56H94O28, a saponin which suspends the insoluble glucosides 

IncompatibLes. — Ferric salts, which give a slightly ink> 
colour with Digitalis (tannates) ; lead acetate ; preparations 
of cinchona. Dose of the powdered leaf, i to 2 gr. 


1. Infusum Digitalia.— 1 in 160 of boiling Water. 
Dose, 2 to 4 fl.dr. 

2. Tinctura Digitalis.— 1 in 8 of Alcohol 60 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 


Externally, Digitalis has a slightly irritant action ; it Is 
probably not absorbed by the unbroken skin. 

I7itemally, in full doses, it deranges the stomach and 
bowels ; dyspepsia, vomiting and occasionally diarrhoea 
following its continued use. These effects are partly 
local, partly specific, and to be avoided or checked in 

Digitalis Folia. 365 


The active principles of Digitalis enter the blood freely. 
Thence they reach the tissues more quickly than they leave 
them ; and doses, however small, tend to accumulate in the 
body if closely repeated. The action of Digitalis is mainly 
confined to the circulatory organs, its effects on other parts 
being chiefly secondary. Both the heart and vessels are 
influenced by the drug, the action of which occupies foiir 
stages, the first stage being shorter, the other stages more 
marked, as the dose is increased. 

In the first stage the heart falls in frequency (say to sixty 
per minute), from stimulation of the vagus in the heart and 
medulla ; and beats with increased force, from stimulation of 
the muscular tissue. Therewith the arterial pressure rises, 
both from increased cardiac force, and from direct stimula- 
tion of the muscular coat of the arterioles. The result of 
all this is that the ventricles are well tilled (diminished 
frequency, i.e. lengthened diastole) ; the ventricles are 
thoroughly emptied (increased force) ; the arteries are thus 
well filled; and they are kept filled (vaso-motor action). 
The condition is that of a perfect circulation, which empties 
the veins and fills the arteries. 

Tlie second stage begins in about 48 to 6) hours. The 
excretion of urine is increased, due to dilatation of the renal 
arteries causing increased blood-flow through the kidneys, and 
to the improved circulation. Later the heart becomes slow 
from increased vagus activity ; irregularity and loss of force 
may occur from excess of vagus over muscular stimulation ; 
blood-pressure is thus lowered; and the larger dose now 
constricts the renal vessels. Hence less urine is excreted. 

In the third stage the heart rises in frequency, since Digi- 
talis now causes such an increase in the excitability of the 
heart muscle that the vagus is unable to control it. During 
this the output again increases] and blood-pressure rises: 
frequently arrhythmia is seen. Soon the contractions become 
irregular in force, and the blood-pressure shows rapid varia- 
tions. Thus the circulation begins to fail. •. 

In the fourth stage the action of the heart becomes 
irregular, frequent and weak from inhibitory disturbance and 
failure of the myocardium ; and it is finally arrested in diastole. 
Therewith syncope, vomiting, diarrhoea and anuria are pro- 
minent phenomena. Death occurs by general circulatory failure. 

Ilespiratmi fails at last, but only through the circula- 
tion ; and the voluntary muscles, which are stimulated at 
first, are paralysed directly, and also from a curare effect 

366 Digitalis Folia. 

on the nerve-endings. The litems is said to be stimulated by 
moderate doses. The hody tcmperatvre is briefly raised 
through increased vigour of the circulation ; it is then 
lowered by the increased blood-flow in the skin ; and falls 
still more in the last stages, in an irregular uncertain way, 
from causes still obscure. Digitalis is thus a refrigerant. 
The central nervous system is affected primarily, and second- 
arily through the blood supply. Headache, giddiness and 
disturbances of vision are frequently induced by medicinal 
doses of Digitalis, with a sense of faintness, depression, 
nausea or sickness that may necessitate some modification of 
administration. All forms ofinvohmtary miiscle are influenced 
by Digitalis : their tone is increased, and their automatic 
contractions become more active. The movements of the 
stomach and intestinal peristalsis are augmented, and the 
tone of the bronchial muscles is also increased. 

The effects of Digitalis on the iirinary water in tiie 
healthy individual are uncertain ; the period at which the 
renal structures begin to be affected, the duration of the 
second stage, and the relation of the action of the drug on 
the heart to its action on the vessels, being all variable. As 
a rule, the amount of urine is not increased in health ; but 
the drug is a powerful diuretic in some cases of dropsy to 
be referred to presently. 


Digitalis is one of the most valuable of medicinal remedies, 
and is employed in the following conditions : — 

Digitalis is indicated in diseases of the heart, when the 
nervo-muscular structures of the cardiac walls fail, so that 
the circulatory force declines, the cavities are insuflSciently 
emptied, the arteries ai'e incompletely filled, the veins im- 
perfectly drained, and the blood accumulates behind the seat 
of disease. Such a condition is characterised by cardiac 
distress or pain ; a small, weak, and often irregular pulse ; 
distension of the veins, haemorrhage, dropsy, and visceral 
disorder ; and often by congestion of the lungs and great 
dyspnoea. It occurs under a variety of circumstances which 
demand separate consideration. 

The disturbances of the circulation produced by disease 
of the valves of the heart are removed by a natural process of 
compensation, consisting of hypertrophy of the muscular 
walls, with or without dilatation of the cavities. If this 
compensation do not occur, or if it fail after having been 
established, and the circulation be disordered as described. 
Digitalis may give relief, by increasing the force of the car- 

Digitalis Folia. 367 

diac wall ; lengthening diastole, so that the venous flow and 
ventricular rest and anabolism, are all prolonged ; and 
sustaining arterial pressure, thus driving the blood in a steady 
stream into the veins. All the symptoms are thus removed, in- 
cluding dropsy, the fluid being absorbed and excreted by the 
kidneys as a profuse diuresis, which sets in about the third day. 
Mitral disease, tricuspid incompetence, and aortic obstruction 
are the forms of valvular disease in which imperfect or failing 
hypertrophy is relieved by Digitalis. It has been maintained 
that in aortic incompetence the drug is contra-indicated as 
prolonging diastole and thus permitting longer reflux ; but this 
consideration is not to be abused, and Digitalis may be given 
in this as in every other form of valvular disease if the ven- 
tricle fail. In cases when little more than a tonic effect on 
the heart is desired, small doses (min. 5) of the Tincture are 
prescribed. When dropsy is present, and the patient confined 
to bed, the Tincture in doses of 10 to 15 min. every four hours, 
the Infusion, or the powdered leaf should be given, and the 
effect carefully watched. Without nourishing, digestible and 
digested food Digitalis can only exhaust the heart, and atten- 
tion must therefore be paid to the stomach, liver and bowels. 
Iron, and occasionally Quinine, may be combined with advan- 
tage, but only after the excretory and digestive functions have 
been restored. Let it be carefully observed that Digitalis is 
not to be given in a routine fashion for valvular disease, but 
with reference to the state of the muscular wall of the heart 
associated ivith the lesion. 

Digitalis is of great service in failure of the heart from 
primary disease of the walls, as in chronic myocarditis ; in 
the granular degeneration of acute myocarditis, pericarditis 
and endocarditis, occurring in scarlet fever and acute rheuma- 
tism ; and in acute alcoholism. In fatty degeneration it may 
have to be withheld, lest irregular contraction and rupture 
occur. Digitalis restores the vigour of the heart in failing 
hypertrophy of chronic Bright' s disease, when it is breaking 
down against excessive peripheral resistance ; until the heart 
begins to fail, the drug is contra-indicated, but when dilatation 
sets in, it must be given. In functional or nervous palpitation, 
pain or irregularity, with debility and dyspepsia. Digitalis is 
often valuable, as also in reflex cases with gastric disorder, 
where small doses control the vagus ; but it must be given 
intermittently, the dyspeptic effect of the drug also being 
remembered. Digitalis is harmful in pure hypertrophy. In 
disease of the right ventricle from chronic bronchitis or pul- 
monary disease it is also useful. In exophthalmic goitre it is 
very often given, but is of doubtful value. In cardiac 

368 Digitalis Folia. 

dilatation Digitalis is a thoroughly rational and highly suc- 
cessful remedy. In renal dropsy it is of great service when 
this is acute, complicating scarlet fever, or when due to failure 
of a hypertrophied heart. In dropsy from chronic tubal 
nephritis (large white kidney) it is rarely of use, as it has no 
influence on the renal cells. Digitalis is used in haemorrhage, 
but therapeutics is notoriously uncertain here. It will relieve 
haemoptysis due to mitral disease, or to the congestion of 
incipient phthisis with languid circulation. For menorrhagia 
it may be useful by stimulating the uterine wall, or in the 
subjects of heart disease. In doses of several drachms, the 
Tincture has been found useful in delirium tremens, but is 
unquestionably dangerous. Moderate doses are invaluable in 
subacute or chronic alcoliolism, to stimulate the heart, relieve 
low sinking feelings and rouse the appetite. 

Untoward Actions on the Heart. — Irregularities of the 
heart-beat may occur during the use of Digitalis, e.g. 
extrasystoles, or a prolonged diastolic pause succeeded by a 
tumultuous beat. The former condition arises from increased 
excitability of the muscle ; the latter from excessive vagus 
stimulation. In both cases a diminished dose or cessation of 
treatment is indicated. Again, where auriculo-ventricular 
conduction is diminished from disease, digitalis aggravates 
the condition, since the vagus stimulation further lessens the 
conductivity of the fibres. 


Traces of some of the active principles of Digitalis have 
been detected in the urine. The action of the drug upon the 
urine, let it be carefully noted, is due to its influence not 
on the cells of the kidney but on the heart and vessels 


Digitalis is given by hypodermic, intramuscular or intra- 
venous injection, either when the stomach is irritable or when 
a rapid effect is called for. Thenon-q^cial preparations thus 
employed are: Digitalin Solution (Nativelle), dose 1 c.c. 
GJ^gr.); Digitalinum Purum Gerraanicum, dose ^V gr. ; and 
Digalen, dose 1 c. c. 


Oleum Rosniarini.— Oil of Rosemary. 

Sourrr. — Distilled from the flowering tops of Rosmarinus 

Oleum Lavandula. 369 

Cha/racters. — Colourless or pale yellow ; odour of rose- 
mary ; taste warm, camphoraceous. Sp. gr., -900 to -915. 
Soliihility. — 1 in 2 of alcohol 90 per cent. 

Composition.— Oil of Kosemary contains terpenes, CjoHu, 
horneol and its esters, CioHjsO. Impm'ity. — Oil of turpen- 
tine. Dose^ I to 3 min. 

Spiritus Rosmarini. — 1 in 9 of Alcohol 90 per 
Oil of Rosemary is also contained in Linimentam Saponis 
and Tinctura Lavandulae Composita. 


Rosemary resembles the other aromatic oils in its actions 
and uses. It is a favourite component of stimulating lotions. 

Oleum LiavandiilsB.— Oil of Lavender. 

Source. — Distilled from the flowers of Lavandula vera. 

Characters. — Nearly colourless or pale yellow, with the 
fragrant odour of the flowers, and a pungent bitter taste. 
Sp. gr. not below -885. Solubility. — 1 in 3 of alcohol 70 per 
cent. Impurities. — Oils of spike and turpentine. 

Composition. — Oil of Lavender is a mixture of a terpene, 
CioHja, and alcohol linalool, CjQHjgO. JJose, ^ to 3 min. 


1. Spiritus Lavandulae. — 1 in 9 of Alcohol 90 per 
cent. Dose, 5 to 20 min. 

2. Tinctura Lavandulae Composita. — 4-7 ; Oil of 
Rosemary, "5; Cinnamon Bark, 8*5; Nutmeg, 8'5 ; 
Red Sanders Wood, 17 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., to make 
1000. Dose, I to 1 fl.dr. 

Tinctura Lavandulee Composita is contained in Liquor 
Arsenicalis ; Oleum Lavandulee is also an ingredient of 
Linimentum Camphorae Ammoniatum. 


Lavender possesses the actions of aromatic volatile oils in 
general, and is used in the same way. The Tincture is a 
favourite colouring ingredient of mixtures and lotions. 

37° Menthol. 

Oleum Menfhse Piperitac.— Oil op Pbppebmint. 

Source. — Distilled from fresh flowering peppermint, Mentha 

Characters. — Colourless, pale yellow or greenish-yellow, 
becoming darker by age ; with characteristic odour ; taste 
penetrating and aromatic, succeeded by a sense of coldness in 
the mouth. Sp. gr. -900 to -920. SoluUUty.—l in 6 of 
alcohol 70 per cent. Dose, |^ to 3 min. 

Oleum JTIentliae Viridis.— Oil of Spbabmint. 

Source. — Distilled from fresh flowering spearmint, Mentha 

Characters. — Colourless, pale yellow or greenish -yellow, 
becoming darker by age ; with odour and taste of the herb. 
Sp. gr. -920 to -940. Solubility. — 1 in \ each of absolute alcohol 
and alcohol 90 per cent. 

Composition. — Peppermint Oil consists of mimtlume, 
CioHjgO, terpenes, and the official stearoptene, menthol or 
pi'pjfer mint-camphor {see below). Oil of Spearmint has a 
somewhat similar composition, carvone, C10HJ4O, replacing 
menthol. Dose, ^ to 3 min. 


A. Of Oil of Peppermint : 

1, Aqua Menthse Piperitae.— 1 in 1000, by distilla- 

2. Spiritus Menthae Piperitae.— 1 in 9 of Alcohol 
90 per cent. Dose, 5 to 20 min. 

Oil of Peppermint is also contained in Pilula Rhei Com- 
posita and Tinctura Chloroform! et Morphinae Composita. 

• B. Of Oil of Spearmint : 

Aqua Menthae Viridis.—! in 1000, by distiUation. 

IWcntliol.— Menthol. CfiHjOHCHj-CsHy. Source.— 
Obtained by cooling the oil distilled from the fresh herb of 
Mentha arvensis (vars. piperascens et glabrata), and of 
Mentha piperita. 

Characters.— Co\o\xr\ess acicular crystals, usually moist 
from adhering oil ; or crystalline masses. Has the odour and 
flavour of peppermint, producing a sensation of warmth on 
the tongue, and if air is inhaled, a sensation of coolness. 
Melting-point lOT-G** F., not exceeding 109-4° F. Solubility.^ 
Sparingly in water ; readily in alcohol 90 per cent. ; the 

Thymol. 371 

solution nentral. Boiled with sulphuric acid diluted with \ 
volume of water, it acquires an indigo blue or ultramarine 
colour, the acid becoming brown. Dose, ^ to 2 gr. 


Emplastnun Menthol — 3 ; Yellow Wax, 2 ; 
Resin, 15. 


Peppermint and Spearmint possess in the main the actions 
of other aromatic oils (see Caryopliyllum, p. 292), and are 
used accordingly. They are favourite flavouring agents, with 
powerful carminative effects. In one important respect, 
however, Peppermint Oil is peculiar, for locally, instead of 
dilatation it causes at first acute contraction of the vessels, 
leading to a sense of coldness ; thus it is efficacious when 
applied locally for the treatment of superficial neuralgias and 
muscular rheumatism. 

Menthol is used locally to relieve the pain of rheumatism, 
neuralgia, affections of the throat, and toothache, possessing 
as it does the local anasthetic, vascular stimulant, and 
disinfectant actions of volatile oils, described under Oleum 
TcrebinthincPt page 401. 

Thymol.— Thymol. CgHgOHCHaCaHy. Purified by 
recrystaUisation from alcohol. Source. — Obtained from the 
volatile oils of Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctata, and Carum 
copticum (N.O. Umbellifer£e). 

Characters. — Large oblique prisms, having the odour of 
thyme and a pungent aromatic taste. Volatilised completely 
at the temperature of a water-bath. Solubility. — Almost in- 
soluble in cold water ; freely in alcohol 90 per cent., ether, and 
solutions of alkalis. Solution in half its bulk of glacial acetic 
acid, warmed with an equal volume of sulphuric acid, assumes 
a reddish-violet colour. Dose, ^ to 2 gr. (in pill). 

Nan-official Preparations. 

(1) Thymol Solution.— 1 in 1000 of warm water. 

(2) Thymol Gauze.— Contains 1 per cent, of Thymol 

(3) Thymol Ointments.— From 5 to 30 gr. in 1 oz. 

(4) Thymol Inhalation. 

372 Rhei Radix. 

actions and uses. 
Externally, Thymol is antiseptic, disinfectant and deodo- 
rant, 1 part in 109 killing developed bacteria. Although it is 
more active than Phenol, and has the further advantage of a 
pleasant odour and a less irritant effect on animal tissues, it 
is not much used in the Listerian system. The solution may 
be employed as a lotion, injection or spray ; an alcoholic and 
ethereal solution (1 in 15) as an application in ringworm ; and 
the ointments in various diseases of the skin. Internally, its 
action somewhat resembles that of Turpentine. It is a power- 
ful intestinal antiseptic ; and in 30-gr. doses, a valuable 
anthelmintic in ankylostomiasis. 


Rliei Radix.— Khubaeb Root. The erect rhizome 
or so-called root of Rheum palmatum, Rheum oflSicinale, and 
probably other species, collected in China and Tibet, de- 
prived of more or less of its cortex, and dried. 

Characters. — In cylindrical, barrel-shaped, conical, plano- 
convex or irregularly-formed pieces ; surface sometimes 
covered with a bright yellowish-brown powder ; rounded or 
somewhat angular, usually smooth, and marked, beneath the 
powder, with reddish-brown or dark rusty-brown lines, inter- 
mixed in a yellowish-brown or greyish substance, and nearly 
always presenting small, scattered starlike marks. Frequently 
the pieces are bored with a hole which may contain the 
remains of the cord used to suspend them to dry. Hard, 
compact ; fracture uneven, presenting a marbled appearance, 
and in some cases a rhomboidal network of reddish lines. 
Odour characteristic, somewhat aromatic ; taste bitter, feebly 
astringent ; when chewed it is gritty between the teeth. 

Composition. — Rhubarb Root contains purgative anthra- 
quinone derivatives: cltrysophcmic acid, CgHjoO^, emodin, 
C'lgHioOg, r^ieiri, CjgHioO, {see page 278) ; rheotannic acid, 
composed of glucosides glncogallin, CjgHieOjo, tetrarin^ 
CgjHsaOjo, and an aldehyde, rh(POsm%n, CjoHia^j' ^^ astrin- 
gent. Starch and calcium oxalate are also present. Impnri' 
tics. — English Rhubarb, known by taste, odour, and excess of 
starch. Turmeric, turned brown by boric acid. Dose, as a 
stomachic, 3 to 10 gr. repeated ; 15 to 30 gr. at once. 


1. Extractum Bhei. — Alcoholic ; by percolation 
and evaporation. Hose, 2 to 8 gr. 

Rhei Radix. 373 

2. Infusum Rhei.— 1 in 20 of boiling Water. Dose, 
\ to 1 fl.oz. 

3. Liquor Rhei Concentratus. — Alcoholic. 1 in 2 ; 
by percolation. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

4. Pilula Rhei Composita.— 60 ; Socotrine Aloes, 
45 ; Myrrh, 30 ; Hard Soap, 30 ; Oil of Peppermint, 
3-75 ; Syrup of Glucose, 55. Bo&e, 4 to 8 gr. 

5. Pulvis Rhei Compositus.— " Gregory's Powder." 
2 ; Light or Heavy Magnesia, 6 ; Ginger, 1. Bose, 20 
to 60 gr. 

6. Syrupus Rhei.— 2 ; Coriander, 2 ; Sugar, 24 ; 
Alcohol 90 per cent., 8 ; Water, 24. Bose, | to 2 fl.dr. 

7. Tinctura Rhei Composita. — 2 ; Cardamom Seeds, 
•25 ; Coriander Fruit, -25 ; Alcohol 60 per cent., 16 ; 
Glycerin, 2; by percolation. i>(?^e, | to 1 fl.dr. repeated; 
2 to 4 fl.dr. at onoe. 



The actions of Rhubarb are confined to the alimentary 
canal. In small doses (1 to 5 gr.), the bitter principle and 
rheo-tannic acid are chiefly active, as bitter stomachics and 
intestinal astringents. In larger doses (up to 40 gr.) the 
anthraquinone exerts its influence before the rheo-tannic acid ; 
stimulates the intestinal movements and liver, as in Senna, 
with some griping ; and causes purgation, producing in six 
to eight hours a liquid motion which is of a yellow colour 
from the pigment of the Rliubarb and excess of bile. There- 
after, the effect of the tannic acid becomes evident, and the 
bowels are confined. 

Rhubarb is used in small doses as a bitter stomachic, 
intestinal astringent, and tonic, to correct atonic indigestion 
with diarrhoea, as in dyspeptic, bilious and gouty adults 
and rickety infants and children. Larger doses are given 
as a purgative, in the form of the Compound Powder, com- 
bined sometimes with a mercurial, to sweep out the bowels, 
and then set them at rest, in cases of summer diarrhoea, and 
diarrhoea ah ingestis of children. The Compound Pill is a 
familiar mild laxative for habitual use, suiting some persons 
but demanding constant repetition in the majority. The 
cholagogue action of Rhubarb adds to its value both in 
stomachic and purgative preparations. Its griping effect 
must be remembered. 

374 Myristica. 

2. actions in the blood; specific and remote local 

The ohrysophanic acid is absorbed into the blood, passes 
through the tissues, and is thrown out in the secretions, 
including the urine, which it stains yellow. 


Iflyristica. — Nutmeg. The dried seed of Myristica 
fragrans, divested of its testa. 

Characters. — Oval or rounded ; about an inch long ; 
greyish-brown externally, with reticulated furrows ; inter- 
nally greyish-red with brownish-red veins, so that the trans- 
verse section is marbled. Odour strong, pleasantly aromatic ; 
taste agreeably aromatic, warm, and somewhat bitter. 

Composition. — Nutmeg and mace contain about 30 per 
cent, of a fixed concrete oil, 4 to 9 per cent, of the ofl5cial 
volatile oil, starch, etc. 

Nutmeg is contained in Pulvis Catechu Compositus, Pulvis 
Cretae Aromaticus, Spiritus Armoraciaa Compositus, and 
Tinctura Lavandulae Composita. 

From Myristica is made : 

Oleum Mjrristicae. — The oil distilled from Nutmeg. 
Colourless or pale yellow, having the odour and taste of 
nutmeg. Sp. gr. -870 to '910. Solubility. — 1 in J each 
of absolute alcohol and alcohol 90 per cent. Con- 
sists chiefly of a terpene, d-catu2)licne, C'lollj,, and 
myristicin, CjaHi^Oj. Impurity. — Concrete oil of nut- 
meg. Dose, ^ to 3 min. 

Spiritus Myristica. — 1 in 9 of alcohol 90 
per cent, ; agitated if necessary with powdered 
talc, and filtered. Dose, 5 to 20 min. 

Spiritus Myristica is contained in Mistura 
Ferri Composita. 

Oleum Myristica is contained in Pilula Aloes 
Socotrinae, Spiritus Ammonias Aromaticus, Tinc- 
tura Guaiaci Ammoniata, and Tinctura Vale- 
rianae Ammoniata. 


The Volatile Oil resembles its many aromatic allies. It 
is chiefly used for culinary purposes. The expressed oil has 

CiNNAMOMi Cortex. 


locally the mechanical and stimulant actions of the fixed and 
volatile oils, and is used as an inunction or in plasters to 
relieve the pain and swelling of chronic rheumatism, etc. 


Ciiinamoiiii Cortex.— Cinnamon Bark. The dried 
inner bark of shoots from the truncated stocks of Cinna- 
momum zeylanicum, obtained from cultivated trees. Im- 
ported from Ceylon, and distinguished in commerce as Ceylon 

Characters. — Closely rolled quUls, each about | inch in 
diameter, containing smaller quills. It is thin, brittle, 
splintery, light yellowish-brown externally, with little scars 
or holes and faint shining wavy lines ; darker brown within. 
Odour fragrant ; taste warm, sweet, aromatic. Impurity. — 
Cassia bark ; rougher, thicker, less aromatic, starchy. 

Composition. — Cinnamon Bark contains the official volatile 
oily tannic acid, sugar, and gum. 


1. Aqua Cinnamomi. — 1 in 10 ; by distillation. 

Aqua Cl7inavwmi is contained in Mistura 
Cretae, Mistura Guaiaci, Mistura Olei Ricini, 
Mistura Spiritus Vini Gallici, Syrupus Aromaticus, 
and Syrupus Cascarse Aromaticus. 

2. Pulvis Cinnamomi Compositus. — Compound 
Powder of Cinnamon. Pulvis Aromaticus. 1 ; Carda- 
mom Seeds, 1 ; Ginger, 1. Dose, 10 to 40 gr. 

Pidvis Cinnamomi Compositus is contained in Pilula 
Aloes et Ferri and Pilula Carabogi« Composita. 

3. Tinctura Cinnamomi.—! in 5 of Alcohol 70 
per cent. ; by percolation. Dose, | to 1 fl.dr. 

Cinnamon is also contained in Pulvis Catechu Compositus, 
Pulvis Cretae Aromaticus, Puh-is Kino Compositus, Decoctum 
Haematoxyli, Tinctura Cardamomi Composita and Tinctura 

I Lavandulae Composita. 
From Cinnamomi Cortex is made : 
Oleum Cinnamomi— The oil distilled from Cinna- 
mon Bai'k. 
Clmracters. — Yellow when recent, becoming 
reddish ; odour and taste of Cinnamon Bark. Sp. cr. 

576 CiNNAMOMi Cortex, 

Composition. — Contains (or yields) cinnamic 
aldehyde, CgHg-CaHg-COH, and cinnamic acid, CjHpCH 
•CHCOOH, as well as benzoates. See Storax, page 391, 
and Balsamum Peruvianum, page 272. Impurity. — 
Cinnamon leaf oil, yielding a pale green (not a decided 
blue) coloration with ferric chloride solution. J)ose, 
^ to 3 min. 


Spibitus Cinnamomi.— 1 to 9 of Alcohol 90 
per cent. Dose, 5 to 20 min. 

Spirit of Cinnamon is contained in Acidum Sulphuricum 


Cinnamon, besides possessing the same actions and being 
used for the same purposes, as other aromatic substances (see 
Caryophyllum, page 292), has moderately astringent proper- 
ties in virtue of its tannic acid. It is therefore the favourite 
flavouring and carminative agent in the official astringent 
powders, tinctures, etc. These are chiefly used in diarrhuea. 

Caniphora.— Camphor. CjoHigO. Source.— OhitAnedi 
from Cinnamomum Camphora, and purified by sublimation. 

Characters and Composition. — In solid, colourless, trans- 
parent, crystalline pieces of tough consistence ; also in 
rectangular tablets or in pulverulent masses known as 
"flowers of camphor." Sp, gr. about 0-995. Odour powerful 
and penetrating ; taste pungent, somewhat bitter, followed by 
a sensation of cold. Burns readily with a bright smoky flame ; 
volatilises even at ordinary temperatures ; sublimes without 
residue when heated. Solubility. — 1 in about 700 of water ; 
1 in about 1 of alcohol 90 per cent. ; 1 in j of chloro- 
form ; I in 4 of olive oil ; very soluble in ether. Forms a 
liquid when triturated with chloral hydrate, menthol, phenol, 
or thymol. Borneo Camphor, sometimes substituted for 
Japan Camphor, is obtained from Dryobalanops aromatica ; 
has the formula CjoHisO, i.e. bears the same relation to it as 
alcohol to aldehyde ; and sinks in water. Do$e^ 2 to 5 ^r. 


1. Aqua CamphorsB. — About 1 in 1000 by solution 
wit<h the aid of alcohol 90 per cent. 

Camphor A, 377 

2. Linimentiun CamphorsB. — "Camphorated Oil." 
1 to 4 of Olive Oil. 

3. Linimentum Camphorsa Anunoniatum. — 20; 

Strong Solution of Ammonia, 40 ; Alcohol 90 per cent., 
120 ; Oil of Lavender, 1/ 

4. Spiritas Camphorsa. — 1 to 9 of Alcohol 90 per 
cent. Dose, 5 to 20 min. (in milk or on sugar). 

5. Tinctura Camphorse Composita. — Paregoric 
Elixir. Paregoric. 34 ; Tincture of Opium, 60*9 ; 
Benzoic Acid, 46 ; Oil of Anise, 31 ; Alcohol 60 per 
cent. , to make 1000. 1 fl. dr. contains -^^ gr. of Morphine 
Hydrochloride or \ gr. of Opium. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 

Camjahor is also contained in Linimenta Aconiti, Bella- 
donnae, Chloroformi, Hydrargyri, Opii, Saponis, Sinapis, Tere- 
binthinae, and Terebinthinse Aceticum ; and in Unguentum 
Hydrargyri Compositum. 


Externally. — Camphor closely resembles in its actions the 
volatile oils as described under Oleum Terebinthince (p. 401). 
It is (1) weakly antiseptic ; (2) stimulating to the local cir- 
culation ; and (3) sedative to the nerves after preliminary 
stimulation. The uses of Camphor externally depend on 
these properties : the many liniments and ointments which con- 
tain it are intended to increase the nutrition of indurated or 
stiffened parts, to produce counter-irritation or to relieve pain. 
The compounds with Phenol, Chloral Hydrate and Thymol 
are anodynes. 

Internally. — Camphor combined with Phenol forms an 
antiseptic and anaesthetic dressing for carious teeth. On the 
tongue it produces a peculiar taste, increase of the local cir- 
culation, salivation and mucous flow. Beaching the stomach, 
it causes a sense of warmth ; it is a weak antiseptic ; and 
again acts like Turpentine. Briefly, it is a carminative : its 
purely local action stimulating digestion and relieving flatu- 
lence, and its reflex effects being visible in increased action 
of the heart, in fulness and force of the pulse, and in cerebro- 
spinal excitation. Its carminative properties, whilst generally 
applicable, are specially valuable in hysterical vomiting. 

The intestinal effects of Camphor are similar, and it is 
therefore useful in some forms of diarrhoea, ip the first stage 
of cholera and in meteorism. 



Camphor enters the blood freely from the unbroken skin 
and mucous surfaces, and is found in it unchanged. The 
leucocytes markedly increase in number, apparently from the 
stimulation of the abdominal circulation. 


In the organs and tissues a portion of the Camphor 
administered is found unchanged ; the rest appears to combine 
with glucose. The nervous system is chiefly affected by this 
drug, which in doses above those usually ordered may so act 
on the cerebrum as to produce a kind of intoxication, with 
confusion of mind and speech, excited gait and gesture, and 
thereafter convulsions, probably originating partly also in tlie 
medulla. Moderate doses are said to produce an aphrodisiac, 
followed by an anaphrodisiac, effect. The heart is stimulated 
directly, as well as reflexly from the stomach, as we have 
seen. Camphor has accordingly been used in nervous and 
cardiac prostration, especially in the acute specific fevers, 
such as typhoid and erysipelas ; in poisoning by opium and 
other narcotics ; in alcoholism, including delirium tremens ; 
and in various nervous disorders, dependent probably on dis- 
turbance of the cerebral and spinal centres, such as insanity, 
hysteria, whooping cough, priapism and spermatorrhoea. In 
large doses of particular preparations, and probably in certain 
subjects, Camphor instead of excitement produces rapid 
depression chiefly referable to the heart : namely, failure of 
the pulse, pallor, coldness and moistness of the surface, 
impaired local sensibility and unconsciousness. The respira- 
tion is much disturbed after full doses, in association with 
convulsions and coma. Camphor is a decided diaphoretic 
through its action on the sweat centres. Its action on meta- 
bolism is unknown, except that it lowers the body temperature, 
both in health and in pyrexia. The two effects last named 
may contribute to the value of Camphor in fevers. 


Camphor is excreted unchanged by the respiratory organs, 
on which it probably acts like Turpentine. It is a common 
ingredient of expectorant mixtures, especially as the Com- 
pound Tincture. The skin also throws out Camphor, which 
not only specifically increases the perspiration, but imparts 
its odour to it. This refrigerant action accounts for the 
popular use of the drug in common colds. The kidneys do 
not excrete Camphor as such, but as a complex product. 


Sassafras Radix.— Sassafras Root. The dried 
root of Sassafras officinale. 

Characters. — Large branched pieces, covered with bark. 
Bark rough, greyish-brown externally ; internally smooth, 
glistening, rusty-brown ; odour agreeable, aromatic ; taste 
peculiar, aromatic, somewhat astringent. Wood soft, light ; 
greyish-yellow or greyish-red, with a more feeble taste and 
odour than the bark. 

Composition. — Sassafras contains a volatile oil, consisting 
chiefiy of sassafrol, CjoHjoOa, and a terpene ; a resin ; and a 
neutral crystalline body, sassafrin. 

Sassafras is contained in Liquor Sarsas Compositus 


The physiological actions of Sassafras are unknown. The 
drug is rarely used alone, but in the Concentrated Compound 
Solution of Sarsaparilla. It is supposed to increase the 
actions of the skin and kidneys in syphilis and rheumatism 
and to be useful in these diseases. See Sarsce Radix, 
page 410. 


Serpentariae Rhizoma,— Serpbntary Rhizome. 

The dried rhizome and roots of (1) Aristolochia Serpentaria, 
or (2) Aristolochia reticulata. 

Characters. — (1) The rhizome of Aristolochia serpentaria 
is tortuous and slender ; about 1 inch long and ^ inch in 
diameter; bears on its upper surface the remains of aerial 
stems, and on its under surface numerous wiry interlacing 
roots 3 inches in length. Both rhizome and roots are dull 
yellowish-brown, and have a characteristic camphoraceous 
odour, and a strong aromatic bitter taste. (2) The rhizome and 
roots of Aristolochia reticulata resemble the foregoing, but 
are longer and thicker, and the roots are straighter than 
those of Aristolochia serpentaria. S%ibstances resembling 
Serpentary : Arnica, Valerian (q.v.). 

Composition.— Serpentary contains chiefly a volatile oil, 
and a resin, with a bitter alkaloid, aristolo chine. 


1. Infusum Serpentaria?. — 1 in 20 of boiling Water, 
Dose, I to 1 fl.oz. 

380 Oleum Santalt, 

2. Liquor Serpentarisd Concentratus. — Alcoholic, 
1 in 2 ; by percolation. Dose, ^ to 2 fl.dr. 

3. Tinctura Serpentarise. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 70 
per cent. ; by percolation. Dose, | to 1 fl.dr. 

Serpentary is contained in Tinctura Cinchonse Composita. 

Serpentary possesses local and general stimulant and tonic 
properties, closely resembling those of Valerian and Cas- 
carilla. It is occasionally used in nervous, despondent, or 
excitable conditions, as well as in low fevers and febrile 


Oleum Santali,— Oil op Sandal Wood. Oil of 
Santal Wood. The oil distilled from the wood of Santalum 

Characters. — Viscid, pale yellow ; odour strongly aro- 
matic ; taste pungent, spicy. Solubility. — 1 in 6 of alcohol 
70 per cent. Sp. gr. '975 to -980. Contains an alcohol, santalol, 
CjsHgeO ; and'aldehyde, samtalan, C15H24O. Dose, 5 to 30 min. 


Oil of Sandal Wood resembles Copaiba in its actions and 
uses, but is more easily taken. See page 281. 


Mezerci Cortex. — Mezereon Bark. The dried 
bark of Daphne Mezereum, or of Daphne Lauieola, or of 
Daphne Gnidium. 

Characters. — Long, thin, flattened strips, or small quill.s. 
Very tough and fibrous ; externally olive-brown, deeply pur- 
plish-brown or reddish-brown ; internally nearly white, silky. 
No marked odour ; taste acrid, burning. 

Composition. — Mezereon contains an active acrid reiiti^ 
the anhydride of a resinous acid, mczereie acid ; an inert 

Cascarilla. 381 

fixed oil; and a glucoside, daphnin, CigHjgOa/iHgO, also 
probably inactive. 

Mezereon is an ingredient of Liquor Sarsae Compositus 


Mezereon is a powerful local irritant, like Mustard, 
causing vesication (see page 243). Internally it is stimulant 
and diaphoretic ; in large doses an irritant poison. 


Cascarilla.— Cascarilla. The dried bark ©f Croton 


Characters. — In quills, 1 to 3 inches or more in length, 
^ to ^ inch in diameter ; or in small curved pieces. Outer 
^yer consists of a dull-brown or dark-grey longitudinally 
wrinkled cork, marked with small longitudinal and trans- 
verse cracks, and covered with silvery-grey patches, spotted 
with minute black dots ; it easily separates, disclosing a 
brown or dark-grey inner layer marked with longitudinal and 
transverse furrows. Fracture short and resinous. Odour 
agreeable, aromatic, especially when burned ; taste aromatic, 
bitter. Substance resembling Cascarilla. — Pale Cinchona Bark ; 
less white, smooth, and small. 

Co77iposltion.—Q2iSG?ix\\\si. contains a. volatile oil; alkaloids, 
hetaine and cascarilline ; a crystalline bitter principle, cas- 
earillm, C18H24O5 ; starch, tannic acid, etc. Incompatibles.— 
Lime-water, metallic salts, mineral acids. 


1. Infusum Cascarillse. — 1 in 20 of boiling Water. 
Dose, \ to 1 fl.oz. 

2. Tinctura Cascarillse. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 70 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 


Cascarilla acts in virtue of the aromatic oils and the bitter 
principle which it contains. It is a pleasant and useful 
aromatic bitter 8toma(^c. See pages 292 and 220. 

382 Oleum Crotonis 

OI<eiiiii Crotonis*— Croton Oil. The oil expressed 

from the seeds of Croton Tiglium. 

Characters. — Brownish-yellow to dark reddish-brown ; 
viscid ; odour disagreeable ; taste burning and acrid. Solu- 
hility. — Entirely soluble in absolute alcohol ; freely in ether 
and chloroform. Sp. gr. -940 to -960. 

Characters of the Seeds (non-officiaV). — About the size of a 
coffee bean, oval or oval-oblong, dull brownish-grey, with- 
out odour. Substances resemhliiig Croton Oil seeds. — Castor 
Oil seeds, which are bright, polished, and mottled. 

Composition. — The active principle of Croton Oil xscrotono- 
leic acid, an exceedingly purgative principle. Several fixed 
oils (olein. palmitin, stearin, myristin, and laurin), as well as 
their free acids, can also be extracted from it ; and several 
volatile acids (only 1 per cent, in all), which give its odour 
to Croton Oil, namely, acetic, butyric, valerianic, and tiglic 
(HC5H7O2) acids ; the vesicant principle is a lactone, crotoiu 
resin, Ci3Hi804- Impurities. — Other non-drying oils. 


Linimentum Crotonis. — 1 ; Oil of Cajuput, 3*5 ; 
Alcohol 90 per cent., So. 


Externally. — Croton Oil is a powerful ixritant to the 
skin ; causing a burning sensation and redness, followed by 
a crop of papules and finally severe pustules. These last for 
days, heal by scabbing, and may leave unsightly cicatrices. 
The Liniment is much less used than formerly as a counter- 
irritant in affections of internal parts, especially the lungs 
and joints. The Oil is applied to the scalp in ringworm. 

Internally, also, Croton Oil is a powerful irritant, causing 
burning in the throat, heat in the epigastrium, possibly 
nausea and purgation. It acts as a veiy rapid drastic 
cathaxtic, with some pain, producing a motion within 1 to 2 
hours, which is partly solid ; the effect being repeated several 
times during the next twelve hours in h more liquid form. 
The irritant effect consists chiefly in direct inflammation of 
the mucous membrane, with increased watery transudation, 
heightened peristaltic action, and probably glandular (not 
biliary) hypersecretion. The muscular excitement and con- 
sequent griping, however, commence before the Oil has 

Oleum Ricini. 383 

reached the duodenum, to be acted on by the pancreatic 
juice and bile, and are, therefore, partly reflex acts, origin- 
ating in irritation of the gastric nerves, section of the vagi 
postponing its purgative eflEect in animals. This accounts for 
the rapid action of the drug. 

Croton Oil is used when a speedy and complete evacuation 
of the bowels, and a diminution of the arterial pressure, are 
demanded. It is a proper purgative in some cases of cerebral 
haemorrhage ; in intestinal obstruction from impacted faeces ; 
or in constipation where other purgatives have failed and a 
structural obstacle does not exist. The smallness of the dose, 
which can be put in food, or mixed with a little butter and 
smeared on the back of the tongue, renders it a convenient 
purgative for insane or unconscious patients. Croton Oil 
must be given with great care ; and is inadmissible in feeble 
subjects, in organic obstruction, and in inflammatory states 
of the stomach and intestines. 


Croton Oil or its products are occasionally absorbed, and 
may cause disturbance of the heart and nervous centres. 

Oleum Ricini.— Castor Oil. The oil expressed 
from the seeds of Ricinus communis. 

Characters. — Viscid, colourless or a faint yellow ; odour 
slight ; taste bland at first, then acrid and unpleasant. 
Solubility. — 1 in 1 of " absolute alcohol ; 1 in 5 of alcohol 90 
per cent. Sp. gr. "950 to -970. 

Characters of the Seeds (jion-official). — Oval, compressed, 
smooth, shining, grey, marbled with reddish- or blackish- 
brown spots and stripes. Substance resembling Castor Oil 
seeds. — Croton Oil seeds {q.v.^. 

Composition. — The bulk consists of glyceryl ricinoleate, 
CsHg(Ci8H33 03)3 ; palmitin, stearin, cholesterin, and possibly 
traces of a resin and an alkaloid also occur. Imjmrities. — 
Various fixed oils, including cotton-seed oil. Dose, 1 tc 


Mistura Olei Ricini. — 75 ; Mucilage of Gum 
Acacia, 37"5 ; Orange Flower Water of Commerce (un- 
diluted), 25; Cinnamon Water, 62 5. 3 fl. dr. in 1 fl. ox. 
Dose, 1 to 2 fl. oz.. as a draught. 

384 Oleum Ricini, 

Oleum Ricini is contained in CoUodium Flexile, Lini- 
mentum Sinapis, and Pilula Hydrargyri Subchloridi Com- 


Externally, pure Castor Oil is bland, like Almond Oil; and 
is applied as a local sedative and protective, for example, in 
injury of the conjunctiva by quicklime. 

InternaUy, Castor Oil, if pure, is perfectly non-irritant 
until it reaches the duodenum, where it is decomposed by the 
pancreatic juice, and the ricinoleic acid at once comes into 
action. If the Oil be rancid, it will irritate the stomach and 
cause nausea and vomiting. 

Castor Oil is a simple purgative, at once rapid and 
certain, mild and painless ; producing one or more liquid 
but not watery stools in four to six hours, followed l^ a 
sedative eflFect. It is believed to stimulate the muscular coat 
and intestinal glands, but not the liver. It purges also as 
enema. Castor Oil is used as the best of all simple purgatives 
when only a free evacuation of the bowels is desired. It can 
be given in all conditions where a laxative is permissible ; 
and it is therefore specially employed in the treatment of 
diarrhoea due to the presence of indigestible or undigested 
food in the bowels, in the constipation of typhoid fever, after 
abdominal operations, in pregnancy, and post partum. It is 
a valuable purgative for children and for the old and infirm. 
In some forms of indigestion in infants, small doses (5 min. 
for an infant) may be given three or four times a day for days 
or even weeks, as an emulsion, with the best result. Small 
doses of Tincture of Opium are sometimes combined with 
Castor Oil. 


Ricinoleic acid enters the blood and tissues, and leaves 
the body in the excretions, including the milk, which purges 
infants at the breast. 

The Leaves of the Castor Oil Tree, applied locally to the 
mammsB as a poultice, are said to be galactagogue. 

Piper Nis^rum.— Black Pbppbb. The dried unHp0 
fruit of Piper nigrum. 


Piper Nigrum. 385 

Characteri.—PAmo^t black, nearly globular, inferior, one- 
celled fruits, usually about \ inch in diameter. Pericarp 
deeply and reticulately wrinkled ; containing a single seed 
that completely fills the cavity. Odour aromatic ; taste 
pungent. Substarices resembling Black Pepper. — Pimento, 
which has calyx ; Cubebs, which is stalked, 

Compositiim. — Pepper contains a volatile oil, with odour 
of pepper, coxii^iniug phellandrene ; a pungent resin, chavicin; 
and a tasteless crystalline alkaloid, piperine, CjjHjjNOa (that 
is, isomeric with Morphine), which can be broken up into 
piperic acid and piper Idine, CgHjiN, a liquid alkaloid, homo- 
logous with coniine, with powerful odour and taste. ' 


Confectio Piperis.— 2 ; Caraway Fruit, 3 ; Clarified 
Honey, 15. Pose, 1 to 2 dr. 

Piper Nigrum is also contained in Pulvis Opii Compositua. 


Externally, Pepper is a domestic rubefacient, anodyne and 
counter-irritant, like Mustard. 

Internally, it acts as an aromatic and local stimulant in the 
mouth, stomach and intestine. As a condiment, it assists 
gastric digestion like other substances of the same class. It 
is a useful carminative ; and may be prescribed in pills con- 
taining irritant substances, such as Digitalis. 


The volatile oil of Pepper acts like its allies. Piperine 
is believed to possess the antiperiodic and antipyretic action.s 
of Quinine ; and Pepper was once a domestic remedy for 
ague, which may still be used in cases where the appetite 
fails. Piperidine greatly raises the blood-pressure. 


Some of the constituents of pepper are excreted by the 
kidneys, and probably by the intestinal mucous membrane, 
and act as remote local stimulants of the circulation and 
nutrition in the urethra and rectum. Pepper is occasionally 
used in gleet; but much more extensively for hajmorrhoida 
and other diseases of the rectum. 


CubebsB Fructus.— CuBEBS. The dried, full-grown, 

unripe fruits of Piper Cubeba. 

Characters. — Nearly globular, sometimes depressed at 
the base, about i inch in diameter, greyish-brown or nearly 
black in colour. Pericarp reticulately wrinkled, thin, brittle, 
abruptly prolonged at the base into a slender rounded stalk 
which is \\ times the length of the globular portion ; within 
it are usually the shrivelled remains of a single seed attached 
by the base. Odour strong, aromatic, characteristic ; taste 
warm, aromatic, somewhat bitter. The crushed fruit imparts 
a crimson colour to sulphuric acid (presence of cubebin). 
Substances resembling Cubebs. — Pimento and Pepper, which 
have no stalk. 

Composition. — Cubebs consists of 10 to 18 per cent, of the 
official volatile oil ; 2 per cent, of cubebin, C10H10O3, a neu- 
tral, odourless, and tasteless body, insoluble in water ; 6 per 
cent, of a resin containing cubebic acid, CjgHsoOjjHjO ; a 
fatty oil ; and gum. Uosc, 30 to 60 gr. 


Tinctura Cubebae. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 90 per cent. ; 
by percolation. Dose, a to 1 fl.dr. 

JFro7ii Cuhcbce Fructus is made : 

Oleum Cubeb». — The Oil distilled from Cubebs. 

Characters. — Colourless, pale-green or greenish- 
yellow, with the odour and camphoraceous taste of 
Cubebs. Sp. gr., -910 to -930. 

Composition. — Consists chiefly of cadivLeTie, CJ5HJ4. 
with sesquiterpenes, and a little terpene. Dose, 5 to 20 
min. (with mucilage). 


The actions of Cubebs closely resemble those of commoL 
Pepper, but different parts of the body are affected in different 
degrees. Cubebs is an aromatic stomachic, in small doses ; in 
large doses it is apt to derange the digestion ; in very large 
doses it is a gastro-intestinal irritant. 


The active principles of Cubebs enter the blood, and 
thence the tissues. Large doses probably have actions 

Salicinum. 387 

similar to those of Turpentine, but no use is made of it on 
this account. 


The principal effects of Cubebs Pepper are produced when 
it is leaving the body by the kidneys and urinary passages, 
the skin, and the respiratory organs. In this respect it closely 
resembles Copaiba, and is used in the same class of cases as 
it. Thus, it is a diuretic, acting directly on the renal cells. 
The cubebic acid is excreted in the urine as a salt, from 
which it may be precipitated by nitric acid ; and this 
stimulates and disinfects the genito-urinary passages with 
which it comes in contact. The sweat and the bronchial 
mucus are both increased, and sometimes an eruption appears 
on the skin. 

Cubebs is chiefly used in gonorrhoea and vesical affections. 
It is decidedly less unpleasant than Copaiba, and much less 
liable to disturb digestion. Sometimes it is prescribed for 
chronic bronchitis. 


Salicmiim.— Salicin. C6H„050CeH4CH20H. Source. 

— Obtainable from the bark of various species of Salix and of 

Cliaracters. — Colourless, shining, trimetric tabular crystals ; 
taste very bitter. Solubility. — 1 in 28 of cold water ; 1 in 60 
of alcohol 90 per cent. ; insoluble in ether. A glucoside. 
Sulphuric Acid colours it red. Heated with K2Cr04,Cr03, a 
few drops of H2SO4, and some water, it yields salicylic alde- 
hyde, having the odour of meadow-sweet. Dose, 2 to 20 gr. 

Acidum Salicylicuni. — Salicylic Acid, 

Sov/rce. — Obtained (1) from natural salicylates, such as the 
oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens, N.O. Ericaceae), 
and sweet birch (Betula lenta, N.O. Amentaceae) ; or (2) by 
the interaction of sodium carbolate and carbonic anhydride. 

Characters. — Distinct, prismatic, colourless crystals. Taste 
at first sweetish, then acid, leaving a burning sensation in the 
throat. Solubility. — 1 in about 500 of cold, 1 in 1 5 of hot, water ; 
1 in 3 of alcohol 90 per cent. ; 1 in 2 of ether ; 1 in 200 of 
glycerin ; dissolves in solutions of ammonium citrate, anmio- 
nium acetate, sodium phosphate, or borax ; also in solutions 

388 AciDUM Salicylicum. 

of alkaline hydroxides and carbonates, salicylates being pro- 
duced. Solutions of salicylates, if not weaker than 1 per cent., 
afford a yellowish-brown precipitate with solution of uranium 
nitrate (distinction from carbolates and sulphocarbolates). 
The crystals melt at 312-8° F. to 314-6° F., and below 392° F. 
volatilise without decomposition. Impurities. — Iron, para- 
cresotic acid, colouring matter, and phenol. Incompatible 
with Spiritus ^theris Nitrosi and Quinine. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 


Unguentum Acidi SalicylicL — 1 to 49 of Paraffin 

Ointment, white. 

Salicylic Acid is contained in Injectio GocainsB Hypo- 
dermica and Liquor Atropinae Sulphatis. 

Ih-om Acidum Salicylicum arc mndc : 
Sodii Salicylas.— Sodium Salicylate. (CeH4-0H 
•COONa)2,H20- Source. — May be obtained by the 
interaction of SaUcylic Acid and Sodium Carbonate 
or Sodium Hydroxide. 

Characters. — Small colourless scales, or tabular 
crystals having a pearly lustre ; inodorous ; taste sweet- 
ish, somewhat unpleasant, saline. Solubility. — 1 in less 
than 1 of water ; 1 in 6 of alcohol 90 per cent. ; solu- 
tions neutral or faintly acid. Impurities. — Carbolates, 
sulphocarbolates. Dose, 10 to 30 gr. 

Acidum Acetyl-Salicylicum. — Aspirin. See p. 209. 
From Sodii Salicylas is made : 

Bismuthi Salicylas. — Bismuth Salicylate. 
Sec Bismuthum, page 120. 


Hartcmally. — Salicylic Acid acts as an antiseptic and dis- 
infectant, not inferior to Phenol, 1 part in GO kiUing developed 
bacteria. At the same time it stimulates the local circulation. 
Is extensively used as a surgical dressing in the form of cotton- 
wool impregnated with the Acid by the aid of glycerine. On 
the contrary, Sodium Salicylate has no antiseptic or disinfectant 
power, unless combined with a mineral acid to liberate the 
Salicylic Acid. Salicylic Acid in powder, diluted with talc, 
is an anhidrotic, checking local perspirations of the feet. Used 
as a paint it softens horny epidermis, e.y. corns. 

AcJDUM Salicvlicum. 389 

Internally. — Salicylic Acid causes sneezing and cough when 
applied to the nose or inhaled, like Benzoic Acid ; and when 
admitted to the stomach is also a local irritant, causing heat, 
pain, nausea and vomiting, unless in moderate doses well 
diluted. The Sodium salt is very much less irritant, and may 
be freely administered if pure. The latter drug is used for 
sarcinous vomiting and in some cases of chronic dyspepsia 
with decomposition. Salicin is a useful bitter stomachic. In 
the bowel it is partly converted into saligenin (C7H8O2) and 
elucose ; and the former is in turn broken up into salicyluric 
(HCjHgNO^), salicylic, and salicylous (HC7H5O2) acids. Bis- 
muth and Magnesium Salicylates are intestinal disinfectants. 


Salicylic Acid necessarily exists in the blood as sodium 
salicylate, being taken up with considerable rapidity. The 
Acid is possibly again liberated in part by the free carbonic 
acid of the plasma in inflamed parts of the body, and thus 
exerts its antiseptic action within the body ; but this is 
doubtful. Either in the blood, or in some of the tissues, a 
portion unites with glycocoll (just like Benzoic Acid), and 
forhis salicyluric acid (comparably with hippuric acid), thus : 
HC7H503+C2H3(NH2)Oa (glycocoll)=HC8H8N04 (salicyluric 
acid) -f H2O. 

As regards Salicin, the decomposition begun in the bowel 
is continued in the blood. 


The actions of Salicylic Acid and its Sodium salt in the 
tissues are identical, since the former is converted into the 
latter. A moderate dose causes increased cardiac action, 
flushing and warmth of the surface, perspiration, a full feeling 
in the head, tinnitus, deafness, impairment of vision, and 
possibly a slight fall of temperature ; the heart is directly 
accelerated, and the blood-pressure rises from stimulation of 
the vaso-constrictor centre. Larger doses may cause delirium, 
especially with visual hallucinations ; respiration is tempo- 
rarily disturbed ; the heart is depressed after the primary 
excitation; the vessels are relaxed, and the blood-pressure 
falls ; perspiration is increased ; the peripheral nerves, both 
sensory and motor, are unaffected. 

All these phenomena in the healthy subject, taken to- 
gether, do not account for the remarkable effect of Salicylates 
upon the body temperature in pyrexia or fever, that is, as 
powerful antipyretics. Two or more moderate doses (15 to 20 
gr.) within one or two hours reduce pyrexial temperatures 

390 AciDUM Salicvlicum. 

several degrees, according to the disease and subject. It is 
therefore probable that the Salicylates act by their dilatation 
of the cutaneous vessels combined with an augmentation of 
the output of heat. 

bodium Salicylate is employed in two allied but distinct 
classes of cases : 1. In pyrexia from any cause, such as in- 
fluenza, pneumonia, pyaemia, etc., it is a simple and powerful 
antipyretic. In this respect it is comparable with Quinine ; 
only more rapid in its action, less lasting in its effects, and 
more depressant to the circulation. It might be given in these 
diseases in single full doses when the temperature exceeds a 
certain height, say 103" F. 2. In acute rheumatism. Sodium 
Salicylate is distinctly a specific (much as Quinine is a specific 
against malaria), reducing the temperature, relieving the pain, 
removing the swelling and other local symptoms, and shorten- 
ing the duration of the disease. By thus curtailing the course 
of rheumatism, this drug may indirectly reduce the liability 
to cardiac and other complications ; but it is of no great ser- 
vice directly in this respect. It is of no use in chronic rheu- 
matism ; of doubtful value in rheumatic sciatica. Occasion- 
ally it affords relief in acute gout. It may be given either in 
wafers or in solution ; and is sometimes combined with Potas- 
sium Bicarbonate in free doses (20 gr.). When the pyrexia 
declines, the dose of the Salicylate must be most gradually 
reduced, relapses being common after its discontinuance. 

Some forms of diabetes mellitus are successfully 
treated with Salicylates. The Sodium salt is a direct 

Salicin may be used for the same purposes as the Salicy- 
lates ; its action, if less powerful, being better sustained, and 
the cardiac and vascular depression less marked. 


Salicylic Acid is but slowly excreted in the urine, sweat, 
saliva, bile, and mucous secretions generally : mostly as sali- 
cylates or the free acid, partly as salicyluric acid. Salicin 
and Salicylic Acid occasionally induce a morbilliform eruption. 
Their most important action remotely is on the kidneys and 
urinary passages, where they are stimulant and disinfectant, 
at the same time increasing the acidity of the secretion. 
They are thus adapted for the treatment of chronic in- 
flammatory affections of the bladder with foul alkaline urine 
and phosphatic deposits. Sometimes, however, the Salicyl 
compounds so irritate the kidney as to cause albuminuria, 
and even haematuria ; and they must be used with great 
caution, when given for these or other purposes, if renal or 

Styrax Pr^paratus. 391 

hepatic disease be present, and in aged persons, inasmuch 
as under their influence there is an increase of the amount of 
uric acid excreted, and are apparently not diuretic, Sali- 
cylates are believed by some authorities to be harmful in 

Styrax Prseparatiis.— Prepared Stobax. 

Source. — Obtained from the trunk of Liquidambar ori- 
entalis, and purified by solution in ethylic alcohol, filtration, 
and evaporation of the solvent. 

Characters. — A semi-transparent, brownish-yellow, semi- 
liquid balsam, with a strong agreeable odour and balsamic 
taste. Heated in a test-tube in boiling water it becomes 
more liquid, but gives off no moisture ; boiled with solution 
of potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid, it evolves an 
odour resembling that of essential oil of bitter almonds. 

Composition. — Storax consists of a volatile oil, styrol, CgHg ; 
cinnamic acid; cinnamate of cinnamyl (styracin), CgH^CO, 
OC9H9 ; a. resin, storesioiol. Cinnamic acid, CgHj'CH'CH'COOH, 
which occurs also in Cinnamon and the Balsams of Peru and 
Tolu, is a colourless, odourless, crystalline body, closely 
allied to Benzoic Acid, into which it can be oxydised. 

Storax is contained in Tinctura Benzoini Composita. 


Storax is a local and remote stimulant, antiseptic and 
disinfectant, like Benzoin and the Balsams of Peru and Tolu. 
It is used for scabies and phthiriasis. See pages 272 and 273- 


Hamamelidis Cortex.— Hamamelis Bark. Witch 
Hazel Bark. The dried bark of Hamamelis virginiana. 

Characters. — In curved pieces, 2 to 8 inches long, ^ inch 
thick ; with silvery-grey scaly cork ; externally brownish-red ; 
internally pale reddish-pink, striated ; fracture fibrous, lami- 
nated ; odour not appreciable ; taste slightly astringent. 

Ilamamelidis Folia. — Hamamelis LEAvsti 

392 Hamamelis, 

Witch Hazel Leaves. The leaves fresh and dried of 
Hamamelis virginiana. 

Characters. — Broadly oval in outline, varying in length 
from 3 to 6 inches. Upper surface dark green or brownish- 
green, the under surface paler ; apex obtuse, margin sinuate. 
The leaves are narrowed towards the base, oblique, slightly 
cordate and shortly petiolate. They are pinnately veined, 
the veins being prominent on the under surface, where they 
are furnished with stellate hairs. Odour not marked ; taste 
astringent, slightly bitter. 

Composition. — Hamamelis contains traces of tannic acidy 
bitter and odorous matters, and an unknown active principle. 


A. Of Raviamelidis Cortex : 

Tinctura Hamamelidis. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 45 
per cent, ; by percolation. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 

B. Of Hamamelidis Folia : 

1. Extractum Hamamelidis Liquidum. — 1 of dried 
leaves in 1 ; alcoholic. 2Jose, 5 to 15 min. 

From Extractum Hamamelidis Liquidum it 
prepared : 

Unguentum Hamamelidis. — 1 ; Hydrous 
Wool Fat, 9. 

2. Liquor Hamamelidis. — Made from the fresh 
leaves by maceration in Alcohol 90 per cent., and 
water ; and distillation. 


Hamamelis is an astringent and hfflmostatic both locally 
and remotely. It is useful in hasmorrhoids, and in haemor- 
rhages from the nose, lungs, rectum and uterus. 


Oalla« — Galls. Excrescences on Quercus Infectoria, 
resulting from the puncture and deposition of an egg or eggs 
of Cynips Gallae tinctoriae. 

Characters. — Hard, heavy, sub-globular ; from J to | inch 
or more in diameter; tuberculated on the surface, the 

AciDUM Tannicum. 393 

tnbercules and intervening spaces smooth ; dark bluish-green, 
or dark olive-green externally ; yellowish- or brownish- white 
within, with a small central cavity. No odour ; taste in- 
tensely astringent. 

Composition. — Galls contain from 50 to 70 per cent, of 
tannic acid, and possibly some gallic acid. 


1. Unguentum Gallas. — 1 in 4 of Benzoated Lard. 

From Unguentum Gallce is prepared : 

Unguentum Gall^ cum Opio. — 37 ; 
Opium, 3. Contains 75 per cent, of Opium. 

From Galls is made : 

2. Acidum Taimicum.— Tannic Acid. 

Tannin. CigHjO/COOH. 

Sov/rce. — May be extracted by water-saturated 
ether from Galls which have been subjected to a 
special fermentation. 

Characters. — A light brownish powder consisting 
of thin glistening scales ; odour characteristic ; taste 
strongly astringent ; reaction acid. Solubility . — 1 in 1 
of water, or of alcohol 90 per cent. ; 1 slowly in 1 of 
glycerin. It is precipitated from its aqueous solution, 
and loses its astringency, in the presence of many 
mineral salts and acids. Incomf.atihles. — Gelatin 
(which it precipitates yellowish-white, distinguishing 
it from Gallic acid) ; mineral acids ; alkalis ; salts of 
antimony, lead and silver ; ferric salts (with which it 
aflfords a bluish-black colour) ; most alkaloids ; vege- 
table emulsions. Dose, 2 to 5 gr. 


a. Glycerinmn Acidi Taimici. — 1 in 5; by 


h. Suppositoria Acidi Tannici. — 3 gr. in each 
with 12 gr. of Oil of Theobroma. 

c. Trochiscus Acidi Taimici. — | gr. ; with 
the Fruit Basis. 

From Tannic Acid is made : 

Acidum Gallicum. — Gallic Acid. 
C,Ha (OH)3COOH,H20. A trihydroxybenzoic 

394 AciDUM Tannicum. 

Sov/rce. — May be prepared by the action 
of Diluted Sulphuric Acid on Tannic Acid. 

Characters. — Acicular prisms or silky 
needles, sometimes nearly white, but gener- 
ally of a brownish tinge ; odourless ; of a 
faintly acid taste. Solubility. — 1 in 100 ot 
cold, 1 in 3 of boiling, water ; 1 in 5 of 
alcohol 90 per cent, ; 1 in 40 of ether ; 1 in 12 
of glycerin. Gives a bluish-black precipitate 
with ferric salts, but simply darkens ferrous 
salts. Besemhles Tannic Acid, but has no 
astringent taste, and does not precipitate 
solutions of gelatin. Incompatihles. — Spiritus 
^theris Nitrosi ; metallic salts, including 
ferric salts. Impurities. — Tannic acid, miner^ 
matter, sulphates. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 


Externally. — The actions of Tannic Acid, and of the many 
official substances containing it, depend chiefly upon its 
property of precipitating albumen and gelatin. When applied 
to the broken skin or to exposed mucous surfaces, it con- 
denses or " tans " the albuminous and connective tissues, and 
coagulates the fluids pervading the solid elements (an action 
which in the dead skin converts the whole into leather). At 
the same time the sensibility of the nerves is reduced. The 
vessels of the part are compressed by the constringed con- 
nective tissues to such a degree that their size is indirectly 
reduced ; the circulation through them is diminished ; and 
any hemorrhage from them is arrested by pressure and by 
coagulation of the blood by the Acid. If a "passive" dis- 
charge of plasma and leucocytes be escaping from their walls, 
as in chronic inflammation, the exudation is stopped. Thus 
Tannic Acid is a powerful indirect styptic and a constringent. 
Broken surfaces, such as ulcers, have their superficial layers 
of cells condensed, and the discharge coagulated, with some 
disinfectant effect, the action as a whole promoting healing. 
It is an important fact that Tannic Acid does not actively 
contract blood-vessels, like Adrenalin ; on the contrary, it 
dilates them ; but its indirect constringent influence more 
than neutralises this effect. 

There is hardly a limit to the application of Tannic Acid 
and preparations containing it, as styptics and astringents. 

AciDUM Tannic UM. 395 

Superficial hsemorrhage from small wounds, the nose, gums, 
throat, etc., and chronic or subacute inflammatory discharges 
from the skin, eyes, nose, urethra, vagina, womb or rectum, 
may all be treated with it. The Acid may be used solid, 
being dusted or insufflated on the part ; applied in solution as 
injection, lotion, etc. ; or inserted into canals or cavities as 
bougies or the Suppositories. The two Ointments of Galls 
are favourite applications to hsemorrhoids. 

Internally. — In the mouth. Tannic Acid produces its 
peculiar "taste," with a sensation of astringency, dryness, 
roughness, stiffness of the tongue and throat, and thirst ; the 
parts being constringed and partly anaesthetised, and the other 
effects produced, as described externally. Preparations con- 
taining this drug are in much request in chronic sore throat 
with a relaxed condition of the uvula, pharynx and larynx, 
slight catarrh, cough and occasional slight bleeding. The 
Trochiscus, gargles, sprays, or the Glycerin applied with a 
brush, may be used in different cases. 

In the stomach, Tannic acid precipitates the pepsin with the 
albumens of the gastric juice ; and, if in quantity, will inter- 
fere with digestion by this means, as well as by constringing 
the mucosa, reducing the circulation, and diminishing the 
secretion. On the contrary, if a chronic mucous catarrh be 
present, causing dyspepsia. Tannic acid in the form of Pulvis 
Catechu Compositus, etc., may give relief by arresting the 
morbid process, on the principles already discussed. In the 
stomach another highly important use is made of the drug, 
namely, as an antidote to antimony and such alkaloids as 
morphine or strychnine ; a strong infusion of tea being given 
if no other tannate be at hand. An emetic or purgative should 
afterwards be given in alkaloidal poisoning, as the alkaloid- 
compounds with Tannic Acid are not perfectly insoluble. 

The astringent effect of Tannic Acid is continued in the 
intestines. It and its compounds, including Di-acetyl-Tannin 
or Tannigen (not official) in 5 to 10 gr. doses, are the most 
popular remedies for diarrhoea, whether alone or combined 
with other astringents, with antacids such as Chalk, or with 
anodynes such as Opium. Intestinal haemorrhage may some- 
times be arrested by the same means. During its passage 
along the alimentary canal, part of the Tannic is converted 
into gallic acid, which enters the blood ; the rest is excreted 
in the faeces : 

Tannic Acid + water ■=: gallic acid + glucose + carbonic anhydride 
Ci4Hio09,2H20 + 3H2O = C6H2(OH)3COOH,H20 + CgHiaOs + CO2 

Gallic Acid possesses no local astringent properties, and 
is therefore seldom if ever given for immediate local purposes 

39<5 Ficus. 


Entering the circulation as Gallic Acid, the preparations 
of Tannin are not certainly known to have any further 
astringent effect on the vessels, any antiseptic action, or any 
coagulating influence on the blood. If injected directly into 
the veins, Tannic Acid proves rapidly fatal by clotting and 


The actions of these substances on the tissues must 
depend entirely on the Gallic Acid. This is generally 
regarded as a specific astringent and styptic, arresting chronic 
discharges from internal and distant parts, such as the uterus 
and rectum, and checking bleeding, especially haemoptysis. 
For these purposes Gallic Acid is much used, and should be 
given in full doses, even up to 1 drachm at a time if haemor- 
rhage be urgent. It must be confessed that there is not 
sufficient evidence of this action or of the value of this employ- 
ment of the drug. 


Tannic and Gallic Acids are rapidly excreted, chiefly as 
Gallic Acid, partly as pyrogallic acid, in the urine, which 
is darkened in tint. No remote disinfectant effect is to be 
obtained in the kidneys or bladder ; nor is Gallic Acid now 
believed to diminish the albuminuria of Bright's disease. 
Some hold that it arrests renal haemorrhage ; but in this, and 
in all kinds of haemorrhage, there is a constant possible 
source of error, from the fact that the spontaneous arrest of 
bleeding is extremely common. Gallic Acid has also been 
used in night-sweating, with doubtful success. 


Ficus.— Figs. The dried fleshy receptacles of Ficus 

Characters. — Consists of the enlarged hollow succulent 
receptacle, bearing very numerous achenes on its inner 
surface ; it is compressed, irregular in form, soft, tough, 
brownish or yellowish, with a sweet taste. 

Composition. — Figs contain sugar and mucilaffinout sub- 

Figs are contained in Confectio Senna. 

Cannabis Indica. 397 


The Fig is a very pleasant demulcent and nutritive sub- 
stance with laxative properties, and may be ordered as an 
article of diet in habitual constipation. 

Cannabis Indica. — Indian Hemp. Ganji or 
Gunjah. The dried flowering or fruiting tops of the female 
plant of Cannabis sativa, grown in India ; from which the 
resin has not been removed. 

Characters. — In compressed, rough, dusky -green masses, 
consisting of the branched upper part of the stem, bearing 
leaves and pistillate flowers or fruits, matted together by a 
resinous secretion. The upper leaves simple, alternate, 
1-3-partite; the lower opposite and digitate, consisting of 
5 to 7 linear-lanceolate leaflets, with distantly serrate 
margins. Fruit one-seeded, supported by an ovate-lanceolate 
bract. Both leaves and bracts bear external oleo-resin glands 
and one-celled, curved hairs, the bases of which are enlarged 
and contain cystoliths. 

Composition. — Cannabis Indica has yielded an amorphous 
resin, ca/nnahinone, which contains an active viscous resin, 
camnahinol, C21H30O2 ; alkaloids, choline and perhaps cmina- 
binine ; and a volatile oil, camndbene. Incompatilles. — Water, 
and watery infusions, which precipitate the resin. 

Extractum Cannabis Indicae. — Alcoholic ; by per- 
colation and evaporation. Dosey |- to 1 gr. (in pill). 

From the Extract is prepared : 

TiNCTUBA Cannabis Indict. — 1 of Extract 
in 19 of Alcohol 90 per cent. ; by solution. Dose, 
5 to 15 min. (with 1 fl.dr. of Mucilage). 
Tincture of Indian Hemp is contained in Tinctura Chloro- 
formi et Morphinae Composita. See page 167. 




Positive knowledge on these points is wanting. Cannabis 
Indica is never used externally. Internally the Extract forms 
a useful corrective of some griping purgatives, such as Podo- 
phyllum Resin and Colocynth. It does not derange the 
stomach and intestines like Opium. 

39^ LupuLUs. 


The actions of Cannabis Indica are not well understood. 
The official preparations chiefly affect the convolutions. They 
produce a species of intoxication ; disordered consciousness of 
personality, locality and time ; and exaltation of the feelings, 
with pleasing grandiose ideas and hallucinations. Noisy, 
restless delirium supervenes, with muscular excitement or 
more commonly sleep ; therewith pain may be relieved. The 
heart and the blood-vessels appear to be first stimulated and 
afterwards depressed. The physiological effects of the several 
constituents have not been fully determined. Cannabinone 
and Cannabinol are the most important, the latter especially 
causing the intoxication. 

Cannabis Indica was formerly used as a hypnotic and 
anodyne, when Opium disagreed or had been taken in excess ; 
but, from its uncertainty, it has been generally replaced by 
Chloral Hydrate, Combined with Potassium Bromide, it is 
useful in mania. More frequently it is given in megrim, and 
as an indirect anodyne and antispasmodic in dysmenorrhoea, 
menorrhagia and hysteria. It may also be tried in neuralgia, 
and in spasmodic asthma (as cigarettes), when other remedies 


Nothing is definitely known respecting the excretion of 
Cannabis Indica. It increases the amount of urine, probably 
through the blood-pressure. 

LiUpuluS. — Hops. The dried strobiles of Hamulus 
Lupulus ; collected from cultivated plants. 

Characters. — Strobiles about \\ inch long, oblong-ovoid or 
rounded ; consisting of a number of imbricated greenish- 
yellow membranous stipules and bracts attached to a hairy 
zigzag axis. Each bract enfolds at its base a small rounded 
achene which, like the base of the bract, is sprinkled over 
with brownish-yellow glands. Odour aromatic, characteristic ; 
tjiste bitter, aromatic, somewhat astringent. 

Composition. — Hops contain an aromatic volatile oil, 
hnviulnie, CjgHai, on which their odour depends ; 11 per cent, 
of two crystalline bitter principles, a-hijmmaric acid (humii- 
lone) and ^-Ivpamaric or Ivpnllnic acid; and tannic acid. 
IncompatiUes. — Mineral acids ; metallic salts. 

LtlPULTNUM. 399 


1. Infusum Lupuli.— 1 in 20 of boiling Water. 
Dose, 1 to 2 fl.oz. 

2. Tinctura Lupuli. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 60 per cent.; 
by maceration. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr, 

Liipiilinuin. — Lupulin. Glands obtained from the 
strobiles of Humulus Lupulus. 

Characters. — A granular brownish-yellow powder com- 
posed of minute glands, each consisting of a single hemi- 
spherical layer of cells, the cuticle of which has been raised 
by the secretion of the oil or oleo-resin contained in the 
gland. Odour strong, hop-like ; taste bitter, aromatic. Jw- 
purities. — Dust, yielding more than 12 per cent, of ash. Dose, 
2 to 5 gr. 


The actions and uses of the Hop depend upon the presence 
of its two important constituents, which exert the character- 
istic effects of the class to which they respectively belong. 
(1) The primary stimulant, and secondary sedative and sopo- 
rific effects of the aromatic oil, associated with those of 
alcohol, are seen in ales and beers, less distinctly in the 
official preparations. The stomachic and tonic effect of the 
hop-bitter, lupii marie acid, is equally fjuniliar in wholesome 
bitter ale. Ale is moderately laxative and diuretic, by virtue 
of the essential oil and alcohol. 

The Hop is used medicinally chiefly in the form of pure 
bitter ales, to produce the effects just described, especially to 
rouse and improve the appetite during convalescence and in 
low states of the system, and to promote sleep. The official 
preparations sometimes relieve the craving of alcoholism, and 
act as anaphrodisiacs. Lupulin is given as a hypnotic. 

Oleum Terebintliinse.— Oil op Tubpbntine. 

Source. — Distilled, usually by the aid of steam, from the 
oleo-resin (turpentine) obtained from Pinus sylvestris and 
other species of Pinus ; rectified if necessary. 

Characters. — Limpid, colourless ; odour strong, peculiar, 
varying in the different kinds of Oil ; taste pungent, some- 
what bitter. Boils about .320° F. ; almost entirely distils 

400 Oleum Terebinthinjs. 

below 356° F. Mixes with other volatile and fixed oils, and 
dissolves resins, wax, sulphur, phosphorus and iodine. Solu- 
lility. — 1 in 1 of Glacial Acetic Acid. 

Composition. — The oleo-resin, common turpentine, as it is 
formed on trees, is an impure solution of resin in 15 to 30 pei 
cent, of the official volatile oil. The Oil of Turpentine, com- 
posed largely of d- and 1-pinene, CioHu, readily absorbs 
oxygen on exposure to the air, and is converted into pinol- 
hydrate, C-^qR^^O^, hydrogen peroxide, and camphoric acid. 
This decomposition forms the basis of the " sanitas " group of 
disinfectants. If the oleo-resin is distilled, after agitation 
with lime-water, the volatile oil passes over, leaving the resin. 
Oil of Turpentine is isomeric with a number of volatile oils, or 
of their constituents, already met with in the materia medica. 

Base, 2 to 10 min. ; as an anthelmintic, 8 to 4 fl.dr. 


1. Linimentum Terebinthinse. — 26 ; Camphor, 2 : 
rubbed up with Soft Soap, 3 ; mixed with Water, 10. 

2. Linimentum Terebinthinss Aceticum. — 4 ; 
Glacial Acetic Acid, 1 ; Liniment of Camphor, 4. 

From Oil of Turpentine is made : 

Terebenum. — Teeebene. — A mixture of dipentene 
and other hydrocarbons. 

Source, — Obtained from Oil of Turpentine by agi- 
tation with Sulphuric Acid until it has no longer an 
action on polarised light ; and then distilling in a 
current of steam. 

Characters. — A colourless liquid. Odour agree- 
able ; taste terebinthinate, aromatic. Sp. gr. -862 to '866. 
Inactive to polarised light. Impurity. — Excess" of 
resin. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 

Resiiia.— Resin. Source. — The residue left after dis- 
tillation of Oil of Turpentine from the crude oleo-resin 
(turpentine) of various species of Pinus. 

Characters. — Translucent, light amber, compact, brittle, 
pulverisable ; fracture shining. Odour and taste faintly tere- 
binthinate. Solubility. — Soluble in alcohol 90 per cent., 
ether, carbon bisulphide and benzol. Easily fusible ; burns 
with a dense yellow flame and much smoke, leaving no appre- 
ciable ash. 

Composition,- -l^Qsin consists of three isomeric abietio 

Oleum Trrebinthin^. 401 

acids, a, )8 and 7, C44H84O5, or ahietic cmhydride, C44H62O4 ; 
with traces of volatile oil, and a bitter principle. 


1. Emplastrum Resinse. — Resin Plaster. Adhesive 
Plaster. 4 ; Lead Plaster, 32 ; Hard Soap, 2. 

2. Unguentum Besinsa. — Resin Ointment. " Basi- 
licon Ointment." 4 ; Yellow Beeswax, 4 ; Olive Oil, 4 ; 
Lard, 3. 

Resin is contained in many other plasters. 


Externally. — Applied to the skin or exposed mucous sur- 
faces. Turpentine is antiseptic and disinfectant, and produces 
a sense of heat and redness, followed by burning and vesica- 
tion, the local circulation being stimulated, and the local 
nerves tirst irritated and then depressed. Resin is a mild 
local stimulant and disinfectant. Turpentine is therefore in 
very extensive use as a local stimulant and coimter-irritant : 
(a) In painful affections of a local kind, such as chronic 
rheumatism of muscles or joints and neuralgia, in the form 
of the Liniments, the Resin Plaster, and Turpentine stupes. 
(J/) In affections of deep parts, to act reflexly on the vessels 
and nerves ; for instance, to relieve bronchitis by being rubbed 
on the chest or applied to it in stupes, meteorism by applica- 
tion to the abdomen in stupes, or affections of joints by in- 
unction over them, (c) As a disinfectant and stimulant it 
may be applied to ulcers and wounds, the Unguentum Resinae 
being very useful for this purpose, whilst the pure Oil has 
been employed in hospital gangrene. Turpentine is absorbed 
by the unbroken skin, and its action in meteorism may be 
partly accounted for in this way, as we shall see. Resin also 
gives a consistence and adhesiveness to the many plasters of 
which it is an ingredient. 

Internally. — In the stomach, as externally, Oil of Tur- 
pentine is disinfectant, stimulant to the vessels, sedative to 
the local nerves, and reflexly stimulant, at least for a time. 
In a word, it is a powerful carminative ; but it is little given 
for this purpose, because unpleasant to the taste and often 
disagreeable in its remote effects, and because we have 
abundance of other volatile oils, equally powerful, without 
either of these drawbacks. See Caryopliylluni, page 292. 
Turpentine passes into the bowel, and may be found even 

402 Oleum Terebinth in a;. 

in the colon (which may, however, excrete it also, as will be 
described). Here it acts reflexly as a stimulant to the mus- 
culax coat, causing contraction, expulsion of gas and. faeces, 
and recovery of tone if this has been lost by tympanitic dis- 
tension ; and is also a disinfectant and vascular stimulant. 
In larger doses these effects proceed to purgation. It is 
therefore given, either by the mouth or as an enema, in tym- 
panites, especially when this is associated with constipation ; 
and it has proved useful in some kinds of diarrhoea and in 
dysentery. It may also be advantageously added to enemata 
after some forms of intestinal haemorrhage, being, as will be 
seen, hasmostatic. 

Turpentine proves to be an anthelmintic, and is given 
either by the mouth, for the tape- worm, in doses of 3ij to Sss, 
which sometimes cause unpleasant symptoms ; or as an 
enema, for the thread-worm— an excellent method. 

Another local application of Oil of Turpentine is to the 
respiratory organs, as an inhalation. The diluted vapour in 
steam should be used, or the pure vapour inhaled from a warm 
sponge, but this may prove too irritating. Turpentine enters 
the blood thus, but the chief action desired is a purely local 
one, to disinfect and stimulate the chronically inflamed or 
ulcerated surfaces of the bronchi and lungs, and to correct 
the odour and irritant properties of the products. It is used 
in dilated bronchi, tuberculosis, gangrene of the lung and 
allied conditions. Patients suffering from these diseases may 
possibly be benefited by the air of pine forests, e.g. at Bourne- 
mouth and Arcachon. Terebene, whether internally or in the 
form of an inhalation, is more agreeable than the Oil itself 
for employment in diseases of the respiratory organs. 


Oil of Turpentine is freely absorbed by all surfaces, and 
enters the blood as such. Thus introduced, it produces none 
of the rapidly fatal effects which follow its injection into the 
veins of animals, and which are referable in part to coagula- 
tion. Probably, however, even in medicinal quantities, 
Turpentine is partially oxydised at the expense of the blood. 


Found unchanged in the tissues and organs. Oil of Turpen- 
tine sets up a series of symptoms, mainly depressant in their 
character, which follow the reflex stimulant effects already 
described as referable to its action on the nerves and vessels 
of the stomach. A full dose produces languor, debility, 
nausea, dulness, sleepiness and unsteady gait ; a large dose 
may lead to coma. These sedative effects on the cerebral and 

Oleum Terebinthinm. 4°3 

spinal centres may account for the success of the empirical 
use of Turpentine in painful affections, such as neuralgia, 
obstinate sciatica and hepatic colic. 

At the same time the heart is disturbed by the Oil, and 
the blood-pressure decidedly falls. Here we may find the ex- 
planation, in part, of the unquestionable value of Turpentine 
as a hsemostatic. Of all the means of arresting internal 
haemorrhage, it frequently proves to be the most powerful : 
bleeding from the lungs, stomach, bowels, and uterus will often 
cease after a full dose of Turpentine when every other drug 
has failed. It is specially useful in intestinal hsemorrhage 
from typhoid ulceration. In such cases the Oil must be fear- 
lessly exhibited, since life is at stake, a dose of 5] being fol- 
lowed every two hours by doses of 20 to 30 min, 

TUte temperature is believed to be lowered by Turpentine. 

It seems to act by oxydising as an antidote to phos- 
phorus, and may be used (best in the form of the crude oil) 
either to prevent chronic phosphorus poisoning in workmen, 
or in small repeated doses in acute poisoning, after Copper 
Sulphate. See Cuprum, page 78. 


Oil of Turpentine, like volatile oils in general, is excreted 
mainly as such, by the cutaneous and mammary glands, by the 
lungs and respiratory passages, by the kidneys, and possibly 
by the liver, biliary mucosa and intestines. All these organs 
are influenced by the Oil as it passes through them. Per- 
spiration is slightly increased, and an eruption may appear on 
the skin. In the bronchial walls it acts as a vascular stimu- 
lant, and disinfects both these and their products ; it might, 
therefore, be a valuable drug in chronic bronchitis, dilated 
bronchi and gangrene of the lungs. Its effects as it passes 
through the kidneys account for the comparatively little use 
that is made of Turpentine in these and other diseases. Even 
in moderate doses it may produce symptoms of irritation and 
congestion of the urinary organs, including lumbar pain, 
repeated distressing ineffectual attempts at micturition, a 
sense of heat and spasm in the perinaeum, and frequently 
haematuria. But whilst large doses may cause complete 
suppression, small doses cause diuresis ; and it may occa- 
sionally be used with caution in Bright's disease and even in 
haematuria. Part of the Turpentine is excreted as a fragrant 
violet-smelling body, and this and the unchanged portion 
exert a remote local effect as stimulants and disinfectants in 
the bladder and urethra, so that cystitis and gleet have been 
treated with the Oil. 

404 Terebinthina Canadensis. 

In passing through the biliary passages, Turpentine or its 
products are believed by some authorities to prevent or dis- 
solve gall stones. Its excretion by the colon probably con- 
tributes to its effect in expelling gas and faeces. 

Terebiiitliiiia Canadensis.— Canada Turpen- 
tine. Canada Balsam. Source. — Obtained from Abies 

Characters. — A pale-yellow and faintly-greenish trans- 
parent oleo-resin, of the consistence of thin honey, with a 
peculiar agreeable terebinthinate odour, and a slightly bitter, 
feebly acrid, taste ; by exposure drying very slowly into a 
transparent varnish ; solidifying when mixed with \ its 
weight of Magnesia, moistened with a little water. 

Compoution. — A volatile oil (l-pmene) ; an indifferent resin, 
C21H4QO ; acid resins — canadinic, canadoUc, and canadinolic 

Terebinthina Canadensis is contained in Collodium Flexile. 


Canada Turpentine is chiefly used for its physical pro- 
perties. Internally it produces the effects of Oil of Turpentine. 

Thus Ainericanum.— Fbankincbnsb. The con- 
crete oleo-resin scraped off the trunks of Pinus palustris and 
Pinus Tasda. 

Characters. — A rather soft, yellow, opaque, tough solid 
when fresh, having a terebinthinate odour. Dry, brittle, 
translucent, darker and of fainter odour when kept. 

Composition. — Frankincense has the composition of ordi- 
nary crude turpentines. 

Thta Ainericanum it contained in Bmplastrum Picis. 


Frankincense has the same actions and uses aa resin and 

its allies just described. 

PlX LlQUIDA. 405 

Pix Burg:uiidica,— Burgundy Pitch. 

Source. — The resinous exudation obtained from the stem 
of Picea excelsa, melted and strained. 

Characters. — Hard and brittle, yet gradually taking the 
form of the vessel in which it is kept ; opaque ; dull reddish- 
brown or yellowish-brown ; fracture clean, conchoidal ; odour 
aromatic, especially when heated ; taste sweet, aromatic, not 
bitter. Ivipurity. — A mixture of common resin, oil, and 
water, not completely soluble in glacial acetic acid. 

Composition. — Burgundy Pitch consists of various resinous 
acidSf with volatile oil, as in ordinary crude Resin. 


Emplastnun Picis. — 26 ; Frankincense, 13 ; Resin, 
4-5 ; Yellow Beeswax, 4-5 ; Olive Oil, 2 ; Water, 2. 


Burgundy Pitch has a mildly stimulant action on the 
skin, and is used only for making plasters. 

Pix Liiqiiida. — Tar. Stockholm Tar. A bituminous 
liquid obtained from the wood of Pinus sylvestris and other 
species of Pinus by destructive distillation. 

Characters. — Semi-liquid, dark brown or black, of a 
peculiar aromatic odour. Sp. gr. 1-02 to 1-15. Water agitated 
with it acquires a pale-brown colour, a sharp empyreumatic 
taste, and acid reaction. Solubility. — 1 in 10 of alcohol 
90 per cent. 

Composition. — Tar is a variable mixture of creosote, phenol 
(carbolic acid), toluol, xylol, acetic acid, turpentine and 
resinoid bodies. Dose, 2 to 10 gr. (in pill with lycopodium). 


UngTientum Picis Liquids. — Tar Ointment. 5 ; 

Yellow Beeswax, 2. 


Uxtemally, Tar is more valuable than either Creosote or 

Phenol as a vascular stimulant and absorbent in dry skin 

diseases, c.ff. psoriasis, lichen planus, ichthyosis and certain 

forms of chronic eczema ; and as a nervous sedative in pruritus. 

4o6 Oleum Cadinum. 

Internally, Tar may be given as a remote stimulant, 
disinfectant and deodorant in winter cough and foul dis- 
charges from the bronchi and lungs, by which it is probably 
in part excreted. It is prescribed in the form of pills, cap- 
sules, syrup, or as tar-water, which is made by shaking up 
a pint of Tar with half-a-gallon of water, and decanting 
after settlement. 

Oleum Cadinum. - Oil of Cade. Juniper Tar 
Oil. (JSuile de Cade.') An empyreumatic oily liquid, 
obtained by the destructive distillation of the woody por- 
tions of Juniperus Oxycedrus, and some other species. 

Characters. — A dark reddish-brown or nearly black, 
viscid oily liquid. Odour not unpleasant, empyreumatic ; 
taste aromatic, bitter, acrid. Sp. gr. -990. Solubility.— 
Soluble in ether and chloroform ; partially in cold, com- 
pletely in hot, alcohol 90 per cent. ; very slightly in water ; 
aqueous solution almost colourless, and acid in reaction. 


Oil of Cade is an agreeable form of Tar, applied, com- 
bined with soap and alcohol, in chronic eczema, psoriasis, 
and other diseases of the skin, particularly if attended with 

Oleum Pini.— Oil of Pine. The oil distilled from 
the fresh leaves of Pinus Pumilio. 

Characters. — Nearly colourless ; odour pleasant, aromatic ; 
taste pungent. Sp. gr. -865 to "870. 


In its actions this substance resembles Turpentine, but is 
more agreeable. It is specially useful when administered in 
inhalation (rubbed up with Liglit Magnesium Carbonate) 
as a mild stimulant, antispasmodic and disinfectant in 
diseases of the larynx and bronchi. 

Zingiber. 4° 7 

Oleiiin Juniperi.— Oil of Juniper. The oil dis- 
tilled from the full-grown unripe green fruit of Juniperus 

Characters.— Q>q\o\sx\%'&^ or pale greenish-yellow, of charac- 
teristic odour, and warm aromatic bitterish taste. Sp. gr. 
•865 to -890. Solubility .—\ in 4 of a mixture of equal parts 
of absolute alcohol and alcohol 90 per cent. 

CoTtiposition, — Oil of Juniper contains a terpene, pinene, 
CjoHie. a sesquiterpene, cadinene, C15H24; and Jimiper cavi- 
pliory a crystalline terpene-alcohol. Dose, | to 3 min. 


Spiritus Juniperi. — 1 in 20 of Alcohol 90 per 
cent. ; agitated if necessary with powdered talc, and 
filtered. Dose, 20 to 60 min. 

Spiritus Juniperi is contained in Mistura Creosoti. 


Juniper closely resembles Turpentine in its action, but 
its effects on the kidneys are peculiarly marked, whilst it is 
neither disagreeable nor dangerously powerful. Thus it acts 
as a stomachic, stimulant and anti-spasmodic; is absorbed 
into the blood ; is excreted in the urine, to which it imparts 
an odour of violets ; is a diuretic, being possibly a specific 
stimulant of the renal cells, increasing both solids and 
water ; and in large doses causes strangury and renal in- 

Juniper is used almost entirely as a diuretic in dropsy 
not dependent on acute renal disease, that is in cardiac and 
hepatic dropsy, and in some cases of chronic Bright's 
disease. It is best given combined with saline diuretics, or 
in the form of " Hollands " or Gin. 


Zing^iber.— Ginger. The scraped and dried rhizome 
of Zingiber officinale. 

Characters. — Flattish, irregularly-branched pieces, 3 to 4 
inches long ; a depressed scar at the summit of each branch. 
Externally pale buff, striated, fibrous ; fracture ready, mealy. 

4o8 Cardamom/ Semina. 

short, fibrous, sometimes resiaous. Odour agreeable, aro- 
matic. Taste hot, pungent. 

Composition. — Ginger contains an aromatic volatile oil, 
composed of camphene, x^Jiollandrene, zingiberene, cineol and 
horneol ; a yellow pungent body, gxTigcrol ; resins and starch. 


1. Syrupus Zingiberis.— 1 of a strong tincture 
by percolation ; Syrup, 19. Dose, | to 1 fl.dr. 

2. Tinctura Zingiberis.— 1 in 10 of Alcohol 90 per 
cent. ; by percolation. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 

Ginger and Tincture of Ginger are also contained in 
a variety of preparations of important drugs. 


Ginger acts and is used like other substances containing 
aromatic volatile oils. It is one of the most generallj 
employed of carminatives. 

Cardamomi Semina.— Cardamom Seeds. Car- 
damoms. The dried ripe seeds of Elettaria Cardaraomum. 
The seeds should be kept in their pericarps, and separated 
when required for use. 

Characters. — Fruits from | to | inch in length ; ovoid or 
oblong, bluntly triangular in section, shortly beaked at the 
apex, pale buff, longitudinally striated. Seeds dark reddish- 
brown, about ^ inch in length and the same in breadth and 
thickness, irregularly angular, transversely wrinkled, enclosed 
in a thin, colourless, membranous aril. Odour and taste 
agreeably warm and aromatic. 

Composition. — The active principle is a volatile oily con- 
taining a terpene, C,oH]g, and a camphor. 


Tinctura Cardamomi Composita. — 12*6; Caraway 

Fruit, 12-5 ; Raisins, 100; Cinnamon Bark, 25; Cochi- 
neal, 63 ; Alcohol 60 per cent., 1000. By maceration. 
Dose, ^ to 1 11. dr. 

Cardamom Seeds and the Compound Tincture are contained 
in a variety of important preparations. 

Iris. 409 

ac3ti0ns and uses. 

Cardamom Seeds serve as a highly agreeable, slightly 
stimulant flavouring and carminative agent, allied to the 


Crocus. — Saffron. The dried stigmas and tops of 
the styles of Crocus sativus. 

Characters. — Each entire portion is about 1 inch in length, 
and consists of three orange-red stigmas, thickened and 
tubular above, jagged or notched at the upper extremities, 
and united below to the top of the yellow style. Saffron is 
flexible and unctuous to the touch, unless quite dry ; odour 
peculiar, strong, aromatic ; taste bitter, somewhat aromatic. 
Rubbed on the wet finger it leaves an intense orange-yellow 
tint. Impurities. — Marigold and safflower petals, chalk, 
nitrates, and coloured powders. Oil ; when pressed between 
folds of white filtering-paper it should leave no oily stain. 

Composition. — Saffron contains polychroite, an orange-red 
glucoside, yielding a red colouring matter, crocm; 2i volatile 
oil, C10H14O; and a bitter T^\mc\p\e, picroGrocin, CggHgeOj,. 


Tinctura Croci.— Tincture of Saffron. 1 in 20 of 
Alcohol GO per cent. ; by maceration. Dose, 5 to 
15 min. 
Saffron is contained in : Decoctum Aloes Compositum and 
Tinctura Cinchonas Composita. 


Crocus is used only to flavour and colour pharmaceutical 

Iris.— Blue Flag. QMt official.) The rhizome and 
rootlets of Iris versicolor. 

Characters. — Rhizome 2 to 4 inches long : jointed ; ter- 
minated by a scar ; annulated from the leaf -sheaths ; grey- 
brown. Roots long, simple. Odour slight ; taste acrid, 

Composition. — It contains isophthalic acid, salicylic acid, 
and a number of unidentified substances. 

410 Sarsj^ Radix. 

Non-official PreparatioTis. 

Extractum Iridis (U, S. P.)- — Dose, 1 to 5 gr. 
Extractum Iridis Fluidmn (U. S. T.y—Dose, 5 to 60 
min. Iridin. — A powdered extractive; dark-brown, 
bitter, nauseous, acrid. Dose, 1 to 5 gr. 


Iris is an hepatic stimulant or direct cholagogue, and a 
cathartic ; possibly also diuretic. It is a useful purgative in 
disorders of the liver and duodenum. 


SarssB Radix.— Sarsaparilla. The dried root of 
Smilax ornata. Imported from Costa Rica and commonly 
known as Jamaica Sarsaparilla. 

Characters. — Very long-, nearly cylindrical, tough, flexible 
roots, greyish-brown or dark reddish-brown, folded together 
and bound with a root of the same plant into bundles 18 inches 
in length, and 4 or 5 inches in diameter. The roots are 
usually ^ inch in thickness, deeply wrinkled longitudinally, 
and provided with numerous rootlets. Transverse section 
exhibits a reddish-brown cortex and yellowish-white wood. 
No odour ; taste slightly bitter. Substances resembling 
Sarsaparilla: Senega; twisted and keeled. Hemidesmus, 
cracked transversely. Ivtpurities. — Inferior kinds. 

Composition. — Sarsaparilla contains three saponins — smila- 
sapoimi, (CjoHaaOiq) -f I2H2O ; sarsamponin, (C22H360io)ij-f 
2-iH,0 ; Siiid par illin, CjeH^dOjo; resin, stunk, luuriUujc and 
volatile oil. 


1. Extractum Sarsse Liquidum.— Alcoholic, with 
Glycerin. 2 in 1. Dose, 1 to 4 fl.dr. 

2. Liquor Sarsae Compositus Concentratus. — 
Concentrated Compound Solution of Sarsaparilla. 
Sarsaparilla, 20 ; Sassafras Koot, 2 ; Guaiacum Wood, 
2 ; Dried Liquorice Root, 2 ; Mezereon Bark, 1 ; Alco- 
hol 90 per cent., 4*5 ; Distilled Water q.s. Concentrated 
to make 20. Dose, 2 to 8 fl.dr. 



The physiological actions of Sarsaparilla are unknown, 
the diaphoretic and diuretic effects which follow large 
draughts of its fluid preparations freely diluted being possibly 
due to the water alone. It is tolerated in very large doses by 
the stomach. 

Great diversity of opinion exists as to the therapeutical 
t^alue of Sarsaparilla. Whilst the pharmacological evidence 
is negative, the clinical evidence is discordant, some authori- 
ties considering it a drug of extraordinary value in syphilis 
and chronic diseases of the skin and rheumatism, others as 
entirely worthless. On the one hand, many cases of these 
diseases are greatly benefited by general treatment, with 
rest, good foods, baths and abundance of warm fluids alone ; 
on the other hand, Sarsaparilla is almost always combined 
with other drugs, including Guaiacura, Sassafras, Mezereon, 
Potassium Iodide, and Mercury. If given, it is in old stand- 
ing cases of syphilis in feeble subjects, who have already 
suffered from the abuse of Mercury or Iodine ; and the Con- 
centrated Compound Solution should be freely used. 


Scilla.— Squill. The bulb of Urginea Scilla ; divested 
of its dry membranous outer scales, cut into slices, and dried. 

Characters. — The slices of the inner scales usually present 
the form of curved strips, frequently tapering towards both 
ends ; they are yellowish-white or somewhat pinkish, from 
about 1 to 2 inches long, somewhat translucent, brittle and 
easily pulverisable when quite dry, but tough and flexible 
when moist. Inodorous, disagreeably bitter. 

Substance resembling Scilla. — Tragacanth ; translucent. 

Composition. — Squill yields a bitter non-nitrogenous 
glucoside scillin, also sciUlpicrin and scillitoxin, both very 
loxic, and amorphous ; and much imtcilage. Dose, 1 to 3 gr. 

1. Acetum ScillsB. — 1 in 8 of Diluted Acetic Acid ; 
by maceration. Dose, 10 to 30 min. 

From Acetum Scilla is prepared : 

Sybupus SciLLiE.— Acetum Scillae, 20 ; Re 
fined Sugar, 38. Dose, i to 1 fl.dr. 

412 SCILLA, 

2. Oxymel Scillae.— 5 ; Acetic Acid, 5 ; Distilled 
Water, 16 ; Clarified Honey, q.s. (about 54), to give 
ap. gr. 1-320. Bose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 

3. Pilula Scillae Composifca. — 1-25 ; Ginger, 1 ; Am- 
moniacum, ' 1 ; Hard Soap, 1 ; Syrup of Glucose, 1 or 
q.s. Bose, 4 to 8 gr. 

4. Pilula Ipecacuanha9 cum Scilla.— 1 ; Compound 
Powder of Ipecacuanha, 3 ; Ammoniacum, 1 ; Syrup of 
Glucose, q.s. 1 of Opium in 20. Bose, 4 to 8 gr. 

5. Tinctura Scillae. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 60 per cent. ; 
by maceration. Bose^ 5 to 15 min. 


The actions of this important drug so closely resemble 
those of digitalis that it is unnecessary to give them in detail. 
The student is therefore referred to all that is said respecting 
Digitalis at page 364, and will apply it to Squill. Briefly, it 
produces the same increase of vigour and diminution of fre- 
quency of the cardiac action ; the same contraction of the 
peripheral vessels and rise of pressure, followed by relaxation 
commencing in the renal arterioles ; and therefore the same 
kind of diuresis. 

Squill is employed in the same class of cases as Digitalis, 
and frequently in combination with that drug, diuretics being 
most active when given together. It must not be ordered 
continuously, but with intermissions, when it is more actively 
diuretic and less irritant to the stomach and kidneys. 

Two properties, however, distinguish Squill from Digitalis, 
and have to be carefully observed : (1) Squill is much more 
irritant to the stomach and intestines even than digitalis, 
causing vomiting and purging in full doses, and is very liable 
to produce dyspepsia even in medicinal quantities; thus it 
must often be withheld when most clearly indicated. (2) 
Squill is a powerful expectorant This action is probably a 
remote local one, the scillin stimulating the structures in 
the bronchial wall during excretion, as it irritates the gastro- 
intestinal wall during absorption, in this respect resembling 
Ipecacuanha (emetine) and Senega. It is much employed as 
a stimulant expectorant in chronic bronchitis, where the 
indications are to increase the local circulation and secretion, 
and to accelerate the removal of the products, to strengthen 
the right ventricle, and to promote diuresis. It must be with- 
held in phthisis when the stomach iMid bowels are feeble or 


deranged. The routine use of Squill for cough of every kind 
is to be deprecated. 

Convallai'ia. — {Not official.') The entire plant of 
Convallaria majalis, Lily of the Valley. 

Characters. — Leaves radical, usually two, oblong, tapering 
at both ends, 4 to 6 inches long. Flower-stem leafless, radical, 
shorter than the leaves. Flowers drooping, bell-shaped, in a 
loose raceme. 

Composition. — Lily of the Valley contains two glucosides, 
convalla/rin, C34H62O1J, crystalline, insoluble in water; and 
convallanuirm, C23H41O12, white, crystalline, bitter, and 
soluble in water aud in alcohol. 

Non-official Preparatians. 

Extract of Convallaria. — Aqueous. Dose, 2 to 8 gr. 
Convallamarin. — Dose, ^ to 2 gr. — A Tincture may also 
be used. 


Convallaria has actions very similar to those of Squill 
and Digitalis : in medicinal doses it slows and strengthens 
the heart, raises the blood-pressure, and is a decided 
diuretic. It has proved useful in some cases of cardiac 
dropsy ; but it is a very uncertain remedy. Like the two 
other drugs named, it is at the same time a gastro- 
intestinal irritant, this effect being due to the convallarin, 
whilst convallamarin acts on the circulation. Aqueoug 
preparations and convallamarin are therefore given. 

Aloe Barbadeiisis.— Babbados Aloes. The juice 
that flows from the transversely cut leaves of Aloe vera, Aloe 
chinensis, and probably other species ; evaporated to dryness. 
Imported from the West Indian Islands, and known in 
commerce as Barbados and Cura^oa Aloes. 

Cliaracters. — In hard masses, varying from yellowish- or 
reddish-brown to chocolate-brown or almost black. Fracture 
either dull and waxy, with opaque splinters ; or smooth and 
glassy, with transparent splinters. Opaque variety examined 
under the microscope exhibits numerous minute crystals 
embedded in a transparent mass. Odour disagreeable ; taste 
nauseous and bitter. Solubility. — Almost entirely soluble in 

4^4 Aloe Socotrina. 

alcohol 90 per cent, diluted with half its volume of water. 
Not more than 30 per cent, should be insoluble in cold water. 
Impurities. — Natal Aloes, giving a bright blue coloration if 
the vapour of nitric acid is blown over the powder previously 
mixed with sulphuric acid. Substances resembling Aloes: 
Guaiacum Resin and Resin of Jalap ; destitute of bitter taste. 
Dose, 2 to 5 gr. 

Aloe Socotrina. — Socotrine Aloes. — The juice that 
flows from the transversely cut leaves of Aloe Perryi, and 
probably other species of Aloe ; evaporated to dryness. Im- 
ported principally by way of Bombay, and known in com- 
merce as Socotrine and Zanzibar Aloes. 

Characters. — Socotrine Aloes, as imported, is usually 
more or less viscid and brownish-yellow, but forms, when 
dried, hard dark-brown, or nearly black masses that break 
with a dull waxy uneven fracture. Odour strong but not 
disagreeable ; taste nauseous and bitter. Zanzibar Aloes is 
usually imported in liver-brown masses; the fracture dull, 
waxy, but nearly smooth and even ; odour characteristic ; 
taste nauseous and bitter. Both varieties are opaque even in 
small splinters ; and exhibit when examined under the micro- 
scope numerous minute crystals embedded in a transparent 
mass. Impurities. — Barbados and Natal Aloes. Solubility. — 
Almost entirely soluble in alcohol 90 per cent, diluted with 
half its volume of water ; about 50 per cent, should be soluble 
in water. 

Composition. — Aloes contains : (1) The ofl&cial aloin ; (2) 
aloe resin, a brown translucent body, insoluble in water ; (3) 
aloe-enwdin, Ci^JI^qO^; (4) a rol/itile oil, the source of the 
odour of Aloes ; and various less important bodies. Dose oj 
fit her kind of Aloes, 2 to 5 gr. 

A. 0/ Aloe Barbadensis and Aloe Socotrina : 
Aloinum. Aloin. Ci8Hi60-,3H20. 

Source. — Extracted from Barbados or Socotrine 
Aloes by solvents, and purified by recrystallisation. 

Characters. — Tufts of acicular crystals ; yellow, 
inodorous, having the taste of Aloes. Solubility. — 
Sparingly in cold water ; more soluble in alcohol 90 per 
cent. ; freely in the hot liquids ; nearly insoluble in 
ether. Not readily altered in acidulated or neutral 
eolations ; rapidly altered in alkaline liquids. As 

Aloes. 4 1 5 

obtained from the different varieties of Aloes, the pro- 
ducts differ slightly ; but they are isomeric in the 
anhydrous state, and their medicinal properties are 
similar. Dose, § to 2 gr. 

B. Of Aloe Barhadcnsis : 

1. Extractmn Aloes Barbadensis. — Aqueous. Dose, 
1 to 4 gr. 

Frovi Extract of Barbados Aloes are prepared : 

a. Decoctum Aloes Compositum. — Extract, 
2 ; Myrrh, 1 ; Saffron, 1 ; Potassium Carbonate, 1 ; 
Extract of Liquorice, 8 ; Compound Tincture of 
Cardamoms, GO ; Water, to make 200 (added after 
cooling). Dose, | to 2 fl.oz. 

b. TiNCTURA Aloes. — Extract, 1 ; Liquid Ex- 
tract of Liquorice, 6 ; Alcohol 45 per cent., to 
make 40. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. for repeated adminis- 
tration ; for a single dose 1| to 2 fl.dr. 

Eakractnm Aloes Barbadensis is also an 
ingrcdie^it of Extractum Colocynthidis Composi- 
tum ; 1 in 2|^ nearly. 

2. Pilula Aloes Barbadensis. — 2 ; Hard Soap, 1 ; 
Oil of Caraway, | ; Confection of Roses, 1. Dose, 4 tc 

3. Pilula Aloes et Ferri. — 2 ; Exsiccated Ferrous 
Sulphate, 1 ; Compound Powder of Cinnamon, 3 ; 
Syrup of Glucose, 3. Dose, 4 to 8 gr. 

Barbados Aloes is also an important ingredient of : Pilula 
Cambogipc Composita (1 in 6), Pilula Colocynthidis Co mposita 
(1 in 3) and Pilula Colocynthidis et Hyoscyami (1 in 4^). 

C. Of Aloe Socotrina : 

1. Pilula Aloes Socotrinae.— 2 ; Hard Soap, 1 ; Oil 
of Nutmeg, § ; Confection of Roses, 1. Dose, 4 to 8 gr. 

2. Pilula Aloes et Asafetidse. — Aloes, Asafetida, 
Hard Soap, Confection of Roses : of each, 1. Dose, 
4 to 8 gr. 

3. Pilula Aloes et Myrrhse. — 2 ; Myrrh, 1 ; Syrup 
of Glucose, lo. Dose, 4 to 8 gr. 

Socotrine Aloes is also an important ingredient of : Pilula 
Khei Composita, 1 in 6 ; and Tinctura Benzoini Composita, 
1 in 60. 

4i6 Aloes. 


Aloes acts upon the stomach and intestines as a bitter and 
purgative. The former effect is fully described under Calumbee 
Radix, page 220. As a purgative, Aloes is peculiar in acting 
chiefly upon the colon. Ten to fifteen hours, or even more, 
after an ordinary dose (rarely sooner), a soft, formed or 
slightly relaxed motion is passed. Very large doses may not 
act more quickly, but much more violently, with pain, strain- 
ing and possibly bleeding from the rectum. Aloes is thus the 
slowest of all purgatives. The presence of bile is believed to 
be required to ensure the action of the purgative Aloin, and 
the drug is, in turn, a stimulant of the biliary flow. The 
pelvic circulation generally, as well as that of the rectum, is 
excited by Aloes, which may cause haemorrhoids and haemor- 
rhage from the bowel, increased uterine activity, menstrua- 
tion, possibly menorrhagia, and even abortion, if it be given 
in large doses, to certain subjects, or too frequently. 

Aloes is used as one of our most valuable purgatives in 
suitable cases. It is especially indicated in habitual consti- 
pation due to languor of the colon, with atonic dyspepsia and 
hypocliondriacal despondent feelings. It improves instead of 
deranging digestion, and gains instead of losing in activity 
by repetition ; its laxative effect, too, is of a natural charac- 
ter, if its griping action be covered with carminatives as in 
most of tlie official preparations. It must, however, be 
avoided in irritable states of the rectum, haemorrhoids, 
menorrhagia and pregnancy, unless it be given with special 
care. Aloes is an ingredient of almost all the compound pills 
in ordinary use for habitual constipation, those e.g. of 
Klmbarb, Colocynth and Gamboge ; and the Extract is also given 
with Extract of Belladonna, Nux Vomica, Ferrous Sulphate 
or Quinine, as a dinner-pill. The Compound Decoction is 
perhaps the best preparation, being particularly valuable in 
the constipation of children with hard motions, worms, 
indigestion and derangement of health as a whole. 

The action of Aloes on the pelvic circulation constitutes 
it a uterine stimulant, and it is given with success as the 
Aloes and Myrrh Pill in the amenorrhoea of young women, so 
often associated with chronic constipation and dyspepsia. 
The Aloes and Iron Pill is probably the most valuable of all 
remedies in the anaemia, amenorrhoea and constipation of 
girls at and after puberty. An enema of Aloes is anthelmintic- 

Vera trina, 4 1 7 


Aloin enters the blood and tissues, and is excreted at least 
in the milk. 

Verati'ina.— Veratbinb. (CyoH4eN09). — An alka- 
loid or mixture of alkaloids prepared from Cevadilla, the 
dried ripe seeds of Schcsnocaulon officinale. 

Source. — May be obtained by (1) making and concen- 
trating a tincture of the seeds of Cevadilla ; (2) pouring it 
into water to precipitate resins, and filtering ; (3) precipitat- 
ing crude Veratrine from the filtrate by Ammonia, and 
washing ; (4) purifying by solution in HCl, digestion with 
charcoal, reprecipitation with Ammonia, filtration, washing 
and drying. 

Characters. — Pale grey, amorphous ; odourless, but power- 
fully irritant to the nostrils ; strongly and persistently bitter ; 
intensely acrid. Solubility. — Insoluble in water ; soluble 
1 in 3 of alcohol 90 per cent, or of chloroform ; 1 in 6 of ether ; 
and in diluted acids. With H2SO4 forms a deep-red solution 
exhibiting a yellowish-green fluorescence by reflected light. 
Warmed with HCl, it dissolves, with production of a blood- 
red colour. 

Unguentum Veratrinae. — 1 ; Oleic Acid, 4 ; Lard, 45. 

ACTIONS and uses. 

Externally. — Veratrine is first a powerful irritant and 
then a depressant to the nerves and vessels, causing pricking 
burning sensations and redness of the skin, followed by loss 
of sensibility and vesication. Unguentum Veratrinas is there- 
foie applied to relieve neuralgic and rheumatic pains; but 
the alkaloid is absorbed by the unbroken skin, and may pro- 
duce its powerful specific effects. 

Inhaled or sniffed into the nose, this substance causes 
violent sneezing and cough, manifestly by irritation of the 
nerves. No use is made of this property. 

Internally, reflex salivation, dysphagia, epigastric heat 
and pain, vomiting and diarrhoea are manifestations of the 
irritant effect of Veratrine on the alimentary cauaL 

4i8 Veratrina, 


Veratrine enters the blood rapidly from the skin or mucoaa 
surfaces. Leucocytes (in drawn blood) are paralysed or 
killed by dilute solutions of the alkaloid. 


Veratrine may be found in the various organs after ad- 
ministration. Full doses produce, in addition to the painful 
vomiting of local origin, great muscular prostration, faintness, 
and finally collapse, preceded and accompanied by a slow, 
feeble or irregular pulse, feeble respiration, cold sweats, fall 
of temperature, occasional muscular twitching, and creeping 
and itching sensations on the skin. It has now been proved 
that these phenomena are not referable to the cerebrum, which 
remains unaffected, with perfect consciousness ; nor to the 
motor centres of the cord, nor to the motor nerves, all of 
which are but slightly depressed. The muscles are the organs 
attacked by veratrine, which produces a highly remarkable 
lengthening of the contraction, the descending portion of the 
muscle curve (phase of relaxation) being fifty times its ordinary 
extent. Therewith the force of the contraction is increased. 
In explanation it is suggested that Veratrine increases the 
irritability of the anisotropous fibrils and the sarcoplasm, and 
induces rapid fatigue of the latter which causes the pro- 
longed relaxation curve ; frequent stimuli lead to total 
fatigue and inactivity of the sarcoplasm. 

The heart, after primary acceleration, is affected just 
like the voluntary muscles, its contractions becoming greatly 
lengthened, and thus its frequency reduced (even by 20 to 60 
beats per minute in fever), long pauses occurring at the end 
of systole. Irregularity, acceleration with feebleness and 
finally paralysis are the results of larger doses. The hlood- 
pressure rises at first, falls duiing the stage of infrequency, and 
is then dangerously lowered. The primary stimulation of the 
heart and vessels, and part of the succeeding depression, occur 
through the centres in the medulla, llespiration is first ac- 
celerated, then slowed, and finally arrested through the centre, 
the muscles, and the pulmonary vagus ; the movements exhibit- 
ing expiratory pauses and irregularity. The fall of tempera- 
ture, which may amount to several degrees in fever, appears 
to be referable to the circulatory failure. 

The specific uses of Veratrine depend on its de{»-essing 


action on the heart, vessels and body temperature : that is, it 
is a powerful antipyretic. It has been recommended for the 
same conditions as Aconite, namely, acute febrile processes in 
strong subjects, such as sthenic pneumonia and acute rheu- 
matism. If it be considered safe and desirable to treat such 
cases with powerful depressant measures, Veratrine may be 
used ; but in England, at least, the opposite line of treatment 
is generally followed, and every lowering influence on the 
heart carefully avoided. 

Veratrine quickly appears in the urine, being excreted by 
the kidneys unchanged. 

Colcllici Coi'liius.— COLCHICUM CoEM. The fresh 
corm of Colchicum autumnale, collected in early summer ; 
and the same stripped of its coats, sliced transversely, and 
dried at a temperature not exceeding 150° F. 

Characters. — Fresh corm about 1^ inch long, 1 inch 
broad, conical, hollowed on one side, rounded on the other. 
Outer coat thin, brown, membranous; inner reddish-yellow. 
Internally white, solid, yielding a milky juice of a bitter taste 
and disagreeable odour. Dried slices jL or ^ inch thick, yel- 
lowish at circumference, somewhat reniform in outline ; firm, 
whitish, amylaceous ; fracture short ; no odour ; taste bitter. 
Substances somewhat resembling Colchicum : Tragacanth and 
Squill, which have different textures, and are not kidney- 
shaped. Incompatibles. — Tincture of Iodine, Guaiacum, and 
all astringent preparations. Dose of the dried corm, 2 to 5 gr. 

Coichici Seniina. — Colchicum Seeds. The dried, 
ripe seeds of Colchicum autumnale. 

Characters. — About ^^^ inch in diameter, subglobular- 
pointed at the hilum ; reddish-brown ; rough, minutely pitted, 
very hard and tough. No odour ; taste bitter, acrid ; endo- 
sperm oily. Substance resembling Colchicum Seeds: Black 
Mustard, which is smaller. 

Composition. — Colchicum contains an amorphous, yellowish, 
bitter alkaloid, colchicine, CaaHgsNOj, readily soluble in water 
and spirit, decomposing into colchiceine ; tannic and gallic 
acids, starcii, sugar, gum, etc. 

A. Coichici Cormus : 

1. Extractum Coichici. — Made from the fresh 
corm. See p. 13 (d). Dose, J to 1 gr. 


2. Vinum Colchici — 1 of dried Corm in 5 of Sherry ; 

by maceration. Dose, 10 to 30 min. 

B. Of ColcTiici Semina : 

Tinctura Colchici Seminum. — 1 in 5 of alcohol 45 

per cent. ; by percolation. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 


The physiological actions of Colchicum are imperfectly 
understood, and afford but a partial explanation of its em- 
pirical use. 

Internally it is a gastro-intestinal irritant, acting as an 
emetic and purgative in full doses, the stools containing a 
decided increase of bile, partly referable to a direct cholagogue 
effect of the drug. Colchicine appears to enter the blood and 
tissues, and to act chiefly upon the central nervous system. 
The convolutions and spinal cord are depressed, large doses 
causing loss of sensibility and consciousness, and diminishing 
reflex excitability. The peripheral sensory nerves are also 
paralysed ; the motor nerves and muscles remain unaffected. 
The respiratory centre is lowered in activity, and death occurs 
by asphyxia. The heart is wreakened, the pulse even becoming 
intermittent ; but this effect is believed to be entirely secondai y 
to the disturbance of the respiration. The kidneys are hyper- 
aemic ; the amount of urine, uiic acid and urea are occasion- 
ally, but not certainly, increased in quantity. The skin 

Colchicum is chiefly used to relieve the pain and inflam- 
mation, and shorten the duration, of acute gout, for which 
purpose it is usually given in doses capable of producing some 
of the above physiological effects, including an increased ex- 
cretion of uric acid. It is most successful in first attacks in 
young robust subjects ; it is less useful, and to be used with 
caution, in the chronic gout of old or weakly individuals ; 
occasionally it completely fails to afford relief. It is generally 
prescribed as the Vinum with alkaline purgative salines. In 
some acute gouty affections of other parts than the joints, 
such as bronchitis, hepatic congestion, neuralgia and ure- 
thritis, Colchicum occasionally relieves. It is worse than 
useless in rheumatism. The Extract may be added to purgative 
pills as a cholagogue. 

Amylum. 421 


Aniyluni. — Starch. The starch procured from the 
grains of common Wheat, Triticum sativum; Maize, Zea 
Mays ; and Rice, Oryza sativa. 

Characters. — In fine powder or in irregular, angular or 
columnar masses, which are readily reduced to powder; 
white ; inodorous. Lightly rubbed in a mortar with a little 
cold water, the mixture is neither acid nor alkaline to test- 
papers. Boiled with water and cooled, it gives a deep blue 
colour with solution of iodine. Under the microscope the 
several varieties of starch present the following characters : — 
(1) Wheat Starch : A mixture of large and small granules, 
lenticular, marked with faint concentric striae surrounding a 
nearly central hilum. (2) Maize Starch : Granules more 
uniform in size, frequently polygonal, somewhat smaller than 
the large granules of wheat starch, having a very distinct 
hilum but no evident concentric striae. (3) Rice Starch : 
Granules extremely minute, nearly uniform in size, polygonal, 
without evident hilum or striae. Impurity. — Potato starch, 
distinguished microscopically. 


Glycerinum Amyli. — 2 ; Glycerin, 13 ; Water, 3 ; 
gently heated. A jelly-like preparation. 
Aviylum is also contained in Pulvis Tragacanthae Com- 


Starch, a nutritive material of the first order, is introduced 
into the Pharmacopoeia chiefly for pharmaceutical purposes. 
Externally it is protective and absorbent, in the form of 
" dusting powder " for delicate or diseased conditions of the 
skin. The Glycerinum is an excellent basis for some oint- 
ments, and a protective in chapped conditions of the skin. 
Internally a mucilage forms a convenient vehicle for enemata. 
It is also an antidote in poisoning by iodine, but must be 
followed by an emetic. 

nialt Extract.— ExTRACTUM Malti. Not official. 
A s>Tupy yellowish-brown fluid, with a sweet taste ; made by 
acting on malt, or a mixture of malt and flour, by water at a 
temperature not exceeding 124° F, 

42 2 Ergota. 

Composition. — Malt Extract consists chiefly of maltoie ; 
dextrin ; albumens, including an active ferment diastase ; and 
the soluble phosphates of the barley. Good specimens have 
active diastasic properties, i.e. will convert several times their 
bulk of starch into sugar. Dose, 1 to 4 dr. 


Malt Extract is both directly and indirectly nutritiye, 
containing, as it does, not only food elements, but also active 
diastase, which converts the starch of bread and other farinas 
into sugar. It is used in wasting diseases. As diastase is 
most active in alkaline fluids. Malt Extract should be given 
not less than two hours after a meal, when the acid of the 
stomach is exhausted ; or it may be mixed with warm food a 
short time before the latter is taken. Maltose is a form of 
sugar which does not readily give rise to acidity and 
dyspepsia. Malt Extract is a very good vehicle for various 
insoluble or nauseous drugs, such as Guaiacum, Liquid 
Extract of Cascara, Copaiba, Indian Hemp and Cod Liver Oil. 

Erg^ota. — Eegot. The sclerotium of Claviceps pur- 
purea, originating in the ovary of Secale cereale, the Rye. 

Characters. — Subcylindrical, tapering, curved ; ^ to IJ 
inch long ; longitudinally furrowed on each side, especially 
the concave ; cracked ; very dark violet-black without, 
pinkish-white within ; fracture short. Odour peculiar, dis- 
agreeable, especially if it be triturated with solution of 
potassium hydroxide ; taste of powder disagreeable. Jm- 
piirities. — Musty specimens. 

CompositioQi. — Ergot contains the following important 
bodies : (1) ergotoxinc, C35H41N5O,, an amorphous alkaloid, 
which causes gangrene and uterine contractions; (2) ergotinine, 
C35H39N5O5, an inert alkaloid ; (3) ergotanmie, p-o:x.y^^hQuy\- 
ethylamine, or " tyraraine," OH CeH^'CHjCHjNHj, related 
to and having an action like adrenalin ; (4) crgotidhie or 
)8-iminazolyl-ethylamine, CgHjOa, which possesses ecbolic 
effects ; (5) ergothioTieine, C9Hi6N802S,2H20. Besides these 
there is 30 per cent, of fixed oil and colouring matters. 
Sphacelinic acid, cornutine, ergotinic acid and others are 
impure substances. Dose, 20 to 60 gr. 

1. ExtractumErgotae.— Extract of Ergot. Ergotin. 
Made by exhausting by percolation with Alcohol 60 
per cent. ; evapoiating percolate ; adding water, and 

Ergota. 423 

filtering ; adding diluted hydrochlorio acid, and filter- 
ing ; adding sodium carbonate, and evaporating. Dose, 
2 to 8 gr. 

From Extractuvi Ih-gotce is prepared : 

Injectio Ergots Hypodermica. — Hypo- 
dermic Injection of Ergot. Hypodermic Injection 
of Ergotin. 10; Plienol, '3; Distilled Water to 
make 33 ; boil. 3 gr. of Extract in 10 minims. 
Should be recently prepared. Dose, hypodermic - 
ally, 3 to 10 min. 

2. Extractum Ergotae Liquidum.— 1 in 1. Aque- 
ous, with Alcohol 90 per cent, added. Dose, 10 to 
30 min. 

3. Infusum Ergota. — 1 in 20 of boiling Water 
Dose, 1 to 2 fl.oz. 

4. Tinctura Ergotse Ammoniata. — 5 ; Solution of 
Ammonia, 2; Alcohol GO per cent., to make 20; by 
percolation. Dose, ^ to 1 fl.dr. 


In large doses Ergot is a gastro-intestinal irritant, but 
moderate doses may be given almost indefinitely without dis- 
turbing the stomach or bowels. Ergotamine (tyraraine) 
stimulates the inhibitory fibres of the splanchnic nerves ; 
movements are diminished and tonus reduced. 


The active principles of Ergot which enter the blood pro- 
duce no appreciable change on it. Thence they pass into the 
tissues and organs, and set up well-marked symptoms, if 
given in full doses for a sufficient time. The parts chiefly 
affected are the circulation, central nervous system, respira- 
tion, intestines and uterus. The arteries become distinctly 
smaller under Ergot. Ergotamine (tyramine) causes powerful 
contraction of the walls of the arterioles, by stimulation of 
the constrictor endings. The blood-pressure rises. The 
heart is reduced in frequency by Ergot, sometimes twenty to 
thirty-six beats per minute, and becomes feeble and irregular 
at last, apparently through the vagus. With respect to the 
nervous system, the highest centres (cerebral) are not directly 
influenced by Ergot ; possibly the circulation may be dis- 
turbedin the brain. The nervous system is markedly affected, 

424 Ergota. 

a series of nervous phenomena being the result. The patient 
first complains of creeping sensations in the limbs, as if an 
insect were running along the skin ; sudden painful cramps 
or twitchings of the legs follow ; the gait becomes staggering 
(ataxic) ; and convulsions, with loss of sensibility and motion, 
may ensue. .v^These nervous effects are chiefly seen in cases of 
chronic " ergotism," where the drug has been consumed in 
large quantity in rye bread ; they may be met with clinically, 
and appear to be referable partly to vascular disturbance or 
disease, which has not so far been fully explained, although 
degenerative changes were found in the posterior (Burdach's) 
columns after death. Cramps and rigidity of the muscles 
are induced by the drug. Respiration becomes infrequent 
after large doses of Ergot ; death occurs by asphyxia. The 
intestine is peculiarly blanched under Ergot, from the stimu- 
lation of the vaso- constrictors. The uterus becomes similarly 
anfBmic and contracts actively, especially if pregnant, and 
still more if parturition have commenced, when long and 
powerful pains are developed. The effects of Ergot on the 
bowels and womb are due to a stimulation of the motor 
nerve-endings of the hypogastric nerves ; this is caused by 
ergotoxine, which does not, however, cause the ecbolic effects ; 
these seem to be due to ergotidine. The body temperature 
falls. Gangrene frequently results from the protracted use of 
ergotised meal as an article of diet ; and it can be readily 
induced by administering ergotoxine hypodermically. It is a 
dry gangrene due to constriction and closure of the vessels. 


Ergot is used chiefly to control haemorrhage, and to excite 
or increase uterine contractions. As a hsemostatic, acting 
apparently by slowing the heart, contracting or even closing 
the arterioles, and thus promoting coagulation within them, 
it is employed in haemoptysis, ha;tnatemesis and menorrhagin, 
and in shock, either as the Liquid Extract or Ammoniated 
Tincture given by the mouth, or as the Hypodermic Injection. 

The use of Ergot in the second stage of labour i^hould be 
confined to cases of uterine inertia where there is no obstacle 
in the passages : so frequently is this ecbolic abused, that it 
is calculated that more harm than good has resulted from 
the discovery of its action in pnrturition. After the com- 
pletion of the second stage, it is more safely given, when the 
uterus is empty, to expel clots and ensure contraction of 
the womb ; whilst in post-partuvi hiemorrhage it is an in- 
valuable adjuvant to more immediate remedies. In polypus 

Saccharum Purificatum. 425 

uteri, chronic metritis, subinvolution, etc.. Ergot is also used 
with success. 

The action of Ergot on the nervous system suggests its 
rational application in paraplegia of inflammatory origin, 
sclerosis, etc., and instances of recovery under its influence 
are recorded. It has also been used in chorea, general 
paralysis and recurrent mania referable to cerebral 


Ergot reduces the amount of the urine, sweat and milk, 
more probably by affecting the local blood-pressure and the 
gland centres in the brain and spinal cord, than by a direct 
action on the excreting cells. It is a valuable remedy in 
some cases of polyuria (diabetes insipidus), very rarely in 
saccharine (true) diabetes. The sweats of phthisis are said 
to be controlled by Ergot. As an antigalactagogue it is but 
seldom employed. 


These have been indicated in the preceding description. 
Srgotoxine causes uterine contractions ; ergotamine (tyra- 
mine) causes the prolonged rise of blood-pressure ; ergotidin 
is probably the cause of the ecbolic effects of Ergot. 

Saccharum Purificatum.— Refined Sugar. 
Sucrose. C12H23O11. 5i>wrce.— Obtained from the juice of 
the sugar cane. 

Cliaracters.—Y^mK&ax. Solubility.— 2 in 1 of water. 
It increases the solubility of lime in water; see Liquor 
Calcit Saccharatus, page 56. 

Syrupus. — 1 in 15 of boiling Water; with the aid 
of heat. Sp. gr. 1 -330. 

From Syrup is prepared : 

Syrupus Glucosi.— Syrup of Glucose. 2; 
Liquid glucose of commerce, 1. 
Refined Sugar or Syrup is also contained m all tlie official 
Syrups and in many other preparations. 


Sugar is nutritive and demulcent, but in medicine is 
chiefly used to cover the taste of other drugs. Syrup of 
Glucose forms an excellent neutral excipient for pUIs. 

426 FiLix Mas. 


Filix ]IIas.— Male Fern. The rhizome of Aspidium 
Filix mas. Collected late in the autumn, divested of its 
roots, leaves and dead portions, and carefully dried. 

Characters. — Three to 6 inches or more long, the rhizome 
itself from | to 1 inch in diameter. Entirely covered with 
the hard, persistent, curved, angular, dark-brown bases of 
the petioles, which bear numerous brown, membranous scales. 
Rhizome brown externally, green internally. Bases of the 
petioles also green internally. Odour feeble but disagreeable ; 
taste sweetish and astringent at first, subsequently bitter 
and nauseous. 

Composition. — Male Fern contains a yellow amorphous 
acid principle, fihnarone ; it decomposes into filicic acid, 
Ci^HjgOg, and aspidino^ ^^12^26^4- Albaapidin, C22H28O7. 
jilicitannic acid, a,n<ijixed oil are also present. 


Extractmn Filicis Liqnidum.— Liquid Extract of 
Male Fern. An oily extract made by percolating with 
Ether, and then evaporating or distilling off the 
Ether. Dose, 45 to 90 min. (in emulsion with mucilage 
or Tincture of Quillaia). 


Male Fern is an active anthelmintic, peculiarly destruc- 
tive to the tape-worm. It is less irritant to the stomach 
and bowels than Kousso, and should be administered 
fasting, preceded if necessary, and always followed, by 
a purgative, such as Castor Oil. On the whole, it is the 
most Baccessful of anthelmintics when properly employed. 




ITIoschus* — Musk. The dried secretion from the 
preputial follicles of Moschus moschiferus. 

Characters. — In irregular dark reddish-brown or reddish- 
black, rather unctuous grains ; odour characteristic, persistent, 
penetrating ; taste somewhat bitter. Contained in a roundish 
or oval sac about 1^ to 2 inches in diameter, nearly smooth 
on one side, covered on the other or outer side with appressed 
bristle-like brownish-yellow or greyish hairs concentrically 
arranged around a central orifice. 

Composition. — Musk contains an a/romatic principle, 
miisJione, an oily liquid, probably a ketone, and a quantity of 
inactive substances, such as salts, fixed oils. etc. Dose, 5 to 
10 gr. (in a pill or with Pulvis Tragacanthae ComposiLus). 


Musk is a powerful stinmlant of the circulatory and 
nervous systems, acting probably much like Turpentine and 
other volatile oils, i.e. chiefly reflexly from the nose, mouth 
and stomach. It appears to enter the blood and tissues, 
where it rapidly causes depression, so that in full doses its 
stimulant effect is extremely evanescent. The drug may be 
used as an antispasmodic, or as a stimulant in fevers and 

Sevum Prscparatiim..— Pbeparbd Suet. The 
internal fat of the abdomen of the sheep, Ovis Aries, purified 
by melting and straining. 

428 Sapo Animalis, 

Characters. — White, smooth, almost odourless ; fusible at 
112* to 120° F. Solubility.— Freely soluble in petroleum 
spirit, slowly in benzol ; slightly in ether or boiling alcohol 
90 per cent. ; insoluble in cold alcohol 90 per cent. 

Composition. — Suet is composed of olein and stearin. See 
Adeps, page 434. 

Sicet is contained in Unguentum Hydrargyri. 

Suet is emollient externally ; internally it is nutritive. 

Sapo Animalis.— CuBD Soap. Soap made with 
Sodium Hydroxide and a purified animal fat consisting 
principally of stearin. Contains about 30 per cent, of water. 

CJtaracters. — White or light-greyish ; nearly inodorous ; 
horny and pulverisable when dry, plastic when heated. Solu- 
bility. — Soluble in alcohol 90 per cent. ; sparingly in cold, 
but soluble in hot, water ; the solution being neutral or faintly 

Composition. — The chemical relations of soaps are described 
at pages 336 and 338. Impurities. — Excess of alkaline 
• hydroxide or carbonate ; free oil; free fat; potassium soap. 

Curd Soap is contained in Extractum CoFocynthidis Com- 
positum, Linimentum Potassii lodidi cum Sapone, and Pilula 
Scammoniae Composita. 


These are described in connection with Hard and Soft 
Soaps, at page 337. 

Adeps L.anaB.— Wool Fat. The purified cholesterin 
fat of sheep's wool. 

Characters. — Yellowish, tenacious, unctuous ; nearly in- 
odorous ; melting-point, 104° to 112° F. Solubility. — Readily 
i n ether or chloroform ; sparingly in alcohol 90 per cent. 


Adeps Lansa Hydrosns. — Hydrous Wool Fat, 7; 
Water, 3 ; intimately mixed. 

Saccharum Lactis. 429 

Hydrous Wool Fat is contained in Unguentum Conii and 
Unguentum Hamamelidis. 


Hydrous Wool Fat forms a valuable basis for certain 
ointments. It is non-irritant ; and being readily absorbed, may 
be used as a vehicle for iodine, Botassium iodide, morphine, 
quinine and other drugs, as is also Eucerin, a derivative. 

Saccharum Lactis. — Milk Sugar. Lactose. 
^13^22^11* HgO. Source. — Obtained from the whey of Milk. 

Characters. — In crystals or in crystalline masses, greyish- 
white, hard ; odourless, faintly sweet. Impurity. — Excess of 
lactic acid. Solubility. — 1 in 7 of cold, and 1 in about 1 of 
boiling, water. Substance resembling Milk Sugar : Acid 
Potassium Tartrate ; known by taste, and without central 

Saccharum Lactis is an ingredient of Pulvis Elaterini 
Compositus, Extractum Belladonnas Alcoholicnm, Extractum 
NucJs Vomicae, Extractum Opii, Extractum Physostigmatis, 
and Extractum Strophanthi. 


Milk Sugar is a suitable vehicle for powders. It is also 
used to sweeten preparations of milk for artificially-fed 
infants. In doses of 3 ounces per diem it is diuretic. 

Fel Boviniim PurificaUiin.— Pueified Ox Bile. 

Source. — Made by evaporating 1 pint of fresh Ox Bile to 
\ its volume ; shaking it with § pint of alcohol (90 per cent.) ; 
setting the mixture aside to subside ; decanting the clear 
solution, filtering the remainder, washing the filter and con- 
tents with a little more alcohol, distilling off most of the 
alcohol from the mixed liquids, and evaporating the residue 
until it acquires the consistence of a thick extract. 

Characters. — A yellowish-green hygroscopic substance; 
taste partly sweet, partly bitter. Soluble in water, and in 
alcohol 90 per cent. Gives the colour test for the bile 
acids. Impv/rity. — Mucus, giving a precipitate with alcohol 
in watery solution. 

43© Gelatinum. 

Composition. — Purified Ox Bile h;is the composition of 
fresh bile, less the mucus removed by the alcohol. Dose, 5 
to 15 gr. 


The action of Bile in the duodenum is familiar. When it 
is admitted into the stomach it is apt to cause vomiting, neu- 
tralising the gastric juice, precipitating the pepsin, and being 
itself rendered inactive. It is a bitter and cholagogue purga- 
tive, being probably the only cholagogue of value. 

Oelatiiiiiiii. — Gelatin. The air-dried product of the 
action of boiling water on such animal tissues as skin, ten- 
dons, ligaments and bones. 

Characters. — In translucent and almost colourless sheets 
or shreds. A solution in 50 parts of hot water is in- 
odorous, and solidifies to a jelly on cooling. Solubility. — 
Soluble in water and in acetic acid ; insoluble in alcohol 90 
per cent, and ether. Aqueous solution is precipitated by 
solution of tannic acid ; not by diluted acids, solutions of 
alum or of lead acetate, or solution of ferric chloride. 

Gelatin is an ingredient of Suppositoria Glycerini and all 
the Lamellae. 


Gelatin is used to stiffen preparations. A gelatin basis is 
useful in certain forms of eczema and other affections of the 
skin. A 2 per cent, solution in normal saline is injected 
interstitially in aneurysm. 


Pepsi 1111111. — Pepsin. An enzyme obtained from the 
mucous lining of the fresh and healthy stomach of the pig, 
sheep, or calf. 

Characters. — A light yellowish-brown or white powder, or 
pale-yellow translucent grains or scales ; odour faint ; taste 
slightly saline, free from any trace of putrescence ; liable to 
absorb moisture from the air. Solubility. — Moderately in 
water ; 1 in 100 of alcohol 90 per cent. Dissolves, with water 
acidulated with Hydrochloric Acid, 2500 times its weight 
of har/^ -boiled white of eggs. Dose, 5 to 10 gr. 

Liquor Pancreatis, 431 


Olycerinum Pepsini. — 80 ; Hydrochloric Acid, 10 ; 
Glycerin, 525 ; Distilled Water, to make 875. 5 gr. in 
1 fl.dr. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr. 


Pepsin is extensively used as an aid to digestion, whether 
given during or after meals, alone in the solid form or com- 
bined with Hydrochloric Acid ; or whether employed to 
peptonise food before it is taken. It is especially indicated 
and successful in morbid conditions of the stomach associated 
with deficiency of the gastric juice, from disease of the fol- 
licles, such as atrophy or dilatation ; from excess of mucus, as 
in the chronic catarrhal dyspepsia of alcoholism, etc. ; from 
deficient blood supply, as in anaemia and general debility ; or 
from irritable states of the stomach with pain and vomiting, 
such as ulcer and cancer, where the normal stimulation of 
the mucous membrane must be avoided and fluid food only 
given. Pepsin is also useful in the dyspepsia of the aged and 
of infants. It must not be ordered indiscriminately, lest the 
gastric functions become weaker instead of more active, from 
want of exercise. Its activity is destroyed by alkalis. 

Pepsin is a valuable addition to nutrient enemata, the 
natural digestive power of the secretion of the rectum being 
comparatively small. 

L<iquor Pancreatis. — Pancrbatic Solution. A 

liquid preparation containing the digestive principles of the 
fresh pancreas of the pig ; most active when the animal has 
been fed shortly before being killed. 

Source. — Prepared by digesting in a closed vessel, in 
4 parts by volume of Alcohol 20 per cent., for seven days, one 
part by weight of the pancreas, freed from fat and external 
membrane and finely divided by trituration with washed 
sand or powdered pumice stone ; and then filtering. 

Test. — If 2 cc. of the Solution, together with 0-2 gramme of 
sodium bicarbonate and 20 cc. of water, be added to 80 cc. ot 
milk, and the mixture be kept at a temperature of 113° F. for 
one hour, coagulation no longer occurs on the addition of 
nitric acid. 

432 Thyroideum Siccum, 

actions and uses. 
Preparations of the Pancreas are active digestants of 
proteids, fats, and amyloids, and are used with great success 
to peptonise milk, gruel and soups before administration in 
cases of digestive debility and in disease of the bowels. 

Suprarenal Body,— (iVoi official.) Prepared from 

the suprarenal gland of the sheep. DosCy 15 gr. 

Suprarenal Extract. — Prepared with glycerin, and 
sterilised. Dose, 5 to 15 min. 

Composition. — The active principle is Adrenalin {Epine- 
phHn, etc.), CeH3(OH)2-CHOH-CH2-NHCH,. 

Locally applied, Suprarenal Extract produces ischaemia, 
pallor, and dryness of mucous surfaces by vasor contraction ; 
and a 5 to 10 per cent, solution is used befoie operations on 
these parts, and in epistaxis, coryza and hay fever. Given, in 
animals, by intravenous or hypodermic injection, it causes 
rapid, great but brief rise of blood-pressure by stimulating 
vaso-constrictor endings ; acceleration of heart through tlie 
accelerator nerves ; later slowing from vagus stimulation. The 
vasor constriction arrests hsemorrhage ; and this substance is 
used in bleeding from different parts, in purpura, and in hasmo- 
philia. Of a 1 per cent, solution of Adrenalin 20 minims may 
be given hypodermically every three hours. Suprarenal Body 
has been used in Addison's disease, but with limited success. 

Ttiyroideum Siccum.— Dry Thyroid. 

So2irce. — The fresh and healthy thyroid gland of the sheep. 

Characters. — A light, dull-brown powder ; odour and taste 
very faint, meat-like ; free from flavour of putrescence ; liable 
to become damp on exposure to the air, and then deteriorates. 

Composition. — Thyroid material is of very complex com- 
position. The active principle is a substance in organic 
combination with iodine 9-3 per cent., along with 056 per cent. 
Df phosphorus, and known as iodothyrin. Dose, 3 to 10 gr. 

I^iquor Thyroidei.— Thyroid Solution. Prepared 
from the fresh and healthy thyroid gland of the sheep. 

Characters. — A pinkish turbid liquid, entirely free from 
odour of putrescence. It must be freshly prepared, and kept 
in well-stoppered bottles. 100 minims represent one entire 
thyroid glani Dost, 6 to 15 minims (twice a day). 

Antitoxins, 433 

a.otions and uses. 

The actions of Thyroid have been chiefly studied in 
myxcedema and sporadic cretinism, two diseases that are 
associated with disease or defect of the thyroid gland. Under 
the influence of the oflScial preparations, or of Thyroid in other 
forms (for example, when it is eaten as food, or an extract is 
injected under the skin), all the morbid characters of myx- 
cedema or of cretinism steadily disappear, and the subjective 
and mental condition of the patient improves correspondingly. 
It has been ascertained by careful observation that whilst 
Thyroid is being taken, the oxydation processes of metabo- 
lism are increased ; the body -weight falls at first in conse- 
quence of removal of water and fat, but rises afterwards 
as health is restored ; the elimination of urinary water and 
urea is largely augmented ; and nutrition as a whole, growth, 
and development are roused to fresh activity. Patients taking 
Thyroid have, therefore, to be freely supplied with nitro- 
genous food. Excessive doses of this powerful agent cause 
pyrexia, headache, pains in the limbs, palpitation of the heart, 
and the appearance (or aggravation) of glycosuria, as well as 
gastro-enteric irritation probably referable to putrescence of 
the preparation employed. 

Other diseases that are occasionally or temporarily bene- 
fited by the use of Thyroid are psoriasis, ichthyosis, lupus, 
obesity and the more acute forms of goitre. 

Antitoxins and Antibacterial Serums. {Not 
official.') (For Vaccines sec Appendix.) 

1. Diphtheria Antitoxin. — The serum of the blood 
of the horse, immunised by repeated injections of 
diphtheria toxin from cultures of the bacillus, 

2. Septicsemia Serum. — Anti-Streptococcus 
Serum. A serum similarly prepared from cultures of 
streptococcus injected into the horse. 

3. Rabies Antitoxin. — An emulsion prepared from 
the spinal cords of rabbits inoculated with the virus 
from a rabid animal. 

4. Tetanus Antitoxin. — An antitoxin serum pre- 
pared by injecting animals with tetanus toxin derived 
from the bacillus. 

5. Antivenomous Serum.— Antivenin. An anti- 
toxin prepared by immunising the horse with injections 
of snake poison. 

434 Antitoxins. 

6. Anti-Colon-Bacillus Serum. — A serum pre- 
pared from horses immunised against various types of 
Bacillus coli. 

7. Anti-meningitis Serum. — An antitoxin serum 
prepared by immunising a horse to Diplococcus intra- 
cellularis. Intraspinal injection is necessary. 

Characters. — The strength of antitoxins is esti- 
mated in units ascertained by experiments on animals 
with individual specimens. They are obtained and 
sta/ndardised by inoculating animals with gradually 
increasing doses of toxins, or of cultivations of 
bacteria, until a serum is reached which renders inert, 
say, ten times the fatal dose of toxin as tested on a 
guinea-pig of a given weight. Different standards are 
adopted by different makers ; and the strength and 
dose of a preparation must always be known before it 
is employed. 


Antitoxins are used : (1) as remedial agents, in persons 
suffering from the like diseases, respectively ; or (2) as 
preventive or protective agents, with persons exposed to the 
several infections but not yet invaded. Administration is 
by hypodermic injections with a special syringe, strict asepsis 
being observed. They are given freely and as soon as 
possible ; and are repeated at short intervals if necessary. 

Diphtheria antitoxin is extensively used, and most suc- 
cessfully. The results obtained with Anti-streptococotis serum 
are still uncertain, but vaccines made from cultivations 
are more promising. Rabies antitoxin has prevented 
hydrophobia in many persons bitten by rabid dogs. Tetanus 
antitoxin is prophylactic but seldom curative. Antivonin 
both protects and cures animals bitten by certain snakes. 
The value of Anti-Colon-Bacillus Serum and of Anti- 
meningitis Serum is still unsettled. Eruptions and arthritis, 
which may follow serum injections, appear to be caused by 
peculiar bodies in the serum of the horse. 

Adeps. — Lard. Purified fat of the Hog, Sus scrofa. 

Characters. — A soft white fatty substance, melting at 
about KX)*' F. Neutral. Has no rancid odour. Dissolves 
entirely in ether. Impvrities. — Common salt and starch. 

Composition. — Ijard consists of GO per cent, of olein and 

Cetaceum. 435 

itearin, with some palmitin. Olein, C3H5(Ci8H3302)3, isa 
fiuid oil, a compound of oleic acid, CigHsjOj, and glyceryl, 
CsHj. Palmitin and stearin are solid oils, compounds of 
glyceryl with palmitic acid, HCigHsiOa, and stearic acid, 
HCjaHajOj, respectively (see page 336). 


Adeps Benzoatus. — Lard, 50 ; Benzoin, 1'5. 

Lard is contained in Emplastrum Cantharidis and Pilula 
Phosphori ; Benzoated Lard in : Unguenta Belladonnas, Can- 
tharidis, Chrysarobini, Gallai, Hydrargyri lodidi Kubri, Hy- 
drargyri Oleatis, Hydrargyri Subchloridi, Potassii lodidi, 
Staphisagriae, Sulphuris, Sulphuris lodidi, Zinci. 


Lard is a simple emollient, forming the basis of many of 
the official ointments. Benzoated Lard does not become 
rancid like the other, which for the same reason is now in a 
measure replaced by Paraffin. 

Cetaceum. — Spermaceti, a concrete fatty sub- 
stance, obtained, mixed with oil, from the head of the Sperm 
Whale, Physeter macrocephalus. It is separated from the 
oil by filtration and pressure, and purified. 

Characters. — Crystalline, pearly white, glistening, translu- 
cent, slightly unctuous to the touch ; with little taste or 
odour ; powdered by addition of a little alcohol 90 per cent. ; 
melts at lU-S" to 122° F. Soluble in ether, chloroform, or 
boiling alcohol 90 per cent., and in fixed and volatile oils ; 
insoluble in water, and nearly so in cold alcohol 90 per cent. 
Substance resembling Spermaceti : White Beeswax, known by 
general appearance and hardness. 

Composition. — Spermaceti is a fat, cetin, C^gHsaCjeHaiOa, 
containing not glyceryl but cetylic alcohol, C15H33OH, in com- 
bination with palmitic acid, HCjgHaiOa. 


Ungnentum Cetacei.— 5 ; White Beeswax, 2 ; 
Benzoin, \ ; Almond Oil, 18. 

Cetaceum is used in preparing Unguentum Capsici and 
Unguentum Aquae Rosae. 

43^ Oleum Morrhvm 

actions and uses. 

Spermaceti is an emollient, and is also employed for 
pharmaceutical purposes. 

Oleum Moii'liiiae.— Cod-Liver Oil. The oil ex- 
tracted from the fresh liver of the cod, Gadus Morrhua, by 
the application of a temperature not exceeding 180° F., the 
solid fat having been separated by filtration at about 23° F. 

Characters. — Pale yellow ; odour slight, fishy, not rancid ; 
taste bland, fishy. Sp. gr. -920 to -930. ^o;«Ji^%.— Readily 
in ether and chloroform, slightly in alcohol 90 per cent. 
A drop of H2SO4 added to a few drops of the oil on porcelain, 
develops a violet colour. Impurities. — Inferior oils. 

Composition. — Cod-liver Oil consists chiefly of jecolein 
and therapin, glycerides of jecoleic acid. C19H38O2, and 
therapic acid, C17H26O2 ; palmitin and stearin; viorrlniic 
acid, C9H13NO3, and traces of bile acids ; alkaloids, vurr- 
rhnine, CigbJavNa, and aselline, C25H32X4 ; iodine ; cholesterol, 
C26H42OH; and a lipochrome. In inferior oils, acetic, 
butyric, valeric and capric acids, which are putrefaction 
products, may occur. Dose, 1 to 4 fl.dr. 


The actions and uses of oils externally have been dis- 
cussed under the head of Oleum Olivce, page 337. Cod-liver 
Oil is sometimes rubbed into the skin of wasting children as 
a nutritive, and with perfect success ; but it imparts an 
objectionable colour and odour to the body. 

Internally, with a little perseverance, it is as easily taken 
as other oils ; and it is more easily digested, from the amount 
of free acid contained in it, which greatly facilitates saponi- 
fication and emulsion as well as absorption. 


The fatty principles enter the circulation, carrying with 
them traces of the other constituents. Increasing the rich- 
ness of the chyle, the Oil improves the quality of the blood, 
especially as regards the corpuscles, aad is thus a hsematinia 

Mel Depuratum. 437 

8. specific actions and user. 

Passing into the cells, Cod-liver Oil is a nutritive of the 
first importance, whilst the traces of iodine, bromine, phos- 
phates and other salts doubtless produce a slight specific 
action when the oil is given continuously for months. The 
latter effects are, however, quite secondary to those of the 
oil proper, that is to its effects as a food. Fats and fatty 
acids appear not only to be oxydised in the tissues, but to 
spare the metabolism of the nitrogenous elements. Cod- 
liver Oil differs from other oils (Olive and Almond Oils, 
cream, butter, etc.), chiefly, but not solely, in respect of the 
ease with which it is digested and absorbed. 

Cod-liver Oil is very extensively used in almost all kinds 
of chronic disease attended with wasting. The chief of 
these diseases are scrofula in its various forms, phthisis, 
chronic bronchitis, rickets, tertiary syphilis, chronic rheu- 
matism, and general debility referable to misery, over-work 
and under-feeding. In convalescence from acute illness it is 
of much service. It is also one of the best restoratives of 
the nervous functions, and of great value as a nervine tonic 
in neuralgia, headache, mental irritability, despondency, 
and other less definite disorders, referable to exhaustion or 
inherent debility of the nervous centres. 

In every instance where Cod-liver Oil is indicated, the 
first point to be determined is whether it can be taken and 
digested. Besides the difficulty of taste, other conditions 
contra-indicate the exhibition of the Oil, particularly diarrhoea, 
haemoptysis, and considerable fever. Gastric dyspepsia also 
suggests hesitation in the use of Oil ; but if alkaline 
stomachics are given before meals, and the Oil after, it will 
be found to agree perfectly in most cases. If Oil be per- 
sistently rejected, it should be stopped for a time, and again 
cautiously tried, or given with Ether (10 minims of Purified 
Ether to 1 fl.dr. of Oil), with an aromatic oil, with Creosote, 
or as an emulsion. 

Iflel Depuratiiin. — Clarified Honey. Honey of 
commerce, melted in a water-bath and strained while hot 
through flannel previously moistened with warm water 

CJcaracters. — A viscid, translucent, light-yellowish or 
brownish liquid, gradually becoming partially crystalline and 
opaque. Odour characteristic; taste very sweet. Impurities. — 
Starch, etc. 

Composition. — Honey is a complex mixture of several 
kinds of stigar, namely, cane sugar, grape sugar, and levulose 

438 Cera Flava. 

or inverted sugar (derived by fermentation from the care 
sugar) ; vt^ax, pollen, colouring and odorous matters, etc. 


Oxymel. — 8 ; Acetic Acid, 1 ; Water, about 1. 
Sp, gr. 1-320. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr. 

Clarified Honey is also contained in Mel Boracis, Oxymel 
Scillae, and Confectio Piperis. 


Honey increases the secretions of the mouth and throat, 
and thus acts as a demulcent, relieving dryness, pain, cough 
and dysphagia. It is a popular ingredient of gargles, 
linctuses, and cough mixtures, but to be useful must be 
properly employed, as the Oxymel, or in combination with 
Lemon, which has a somewhat similar action on the mouth 
and pharynx. Honey is also laxative and nntritiye. 

Cera Flava,— Yellow Beeswax. S<mrc*.— Prepared 
from the honeycomb of the Hive Bee, Apis mellifica. 

Characters. — Firm ; yellowish ; fracture granular ; odour 
agreeable, honey-like. Not unctuous to the touch. Yields 
not more than 3 per cent, to cold alcohol 90 per cent., and 
not more than 50 per cent, to cold ether. Solubility. — 
Entirely soluble in hot oil of turpentine ; insoluble in water 
and boiling solution of sodium hydroxide. Sp. gr. -960 to 
•970. Melts at HIS" to 147° F. Irnpurities.— Starch; 
paraffins, melting under 146°F. ; Japan wax ; resin, soluble in 
cold alcohol ; fatty acids, etc. 

Composition. — Wax differs from ordinary fats in contain- 
ing, as its base, not glyceryl, but another alcohol, melimc 
alcohol, CsoHgjOH, united with cerotio acid, CagHjjCOOH. 

I'rom Cera Flava is made : 

Cera Alba. — White Beeswax. Yellow Bceswai 
which has been bleached by exposure to moisture, air 
and light. Hard, nearly white, translucent. Impurities. 
— As in Yellow Beeswax. 


Yellow or White Beesrvax w used in making many Plasters 
and Ointments and other preparations. 

Coccus. 439 


Wax is nsed only for pharmaceutical purposes. If given 
internally, it passes out in the faeces entirely unabsorbed. 

Coccus. — Cochineal. The dried fecundated female 
insect, Coccus Cacti, reared on Nopalea coccinellifera, and on 
other species of Nopalea. 

Cliaracters. — About \ inch long; somewhat oval in out- 
line, flat or concave beneath, convex above, transversely 
wrinkled ; purplish-black or purplish-grey ; easily reduced to 
powder, which is dark-red or puce-coloured. Impurities. — 
May be " faced " with various white or black powders to 
improve its appearance ; these are detected by separation on 
maceration in water, and by excess of ash on incineration. 
Resembles Kino, which is astringent. 

Composition. — Cochineal contains a red colouring principle, 
a glucoside, carmine or carminlc acid, C14HJ4O8, brownish- 
purple, amorphous, readily soluble in water and alcohol. 


Tinctura Cocci. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 45 per cent. ; 
by maceration. Do.^e, 5 to 15 min. 

Coccus is also an ingredient of Tinctura Cardamomi Com- 
posita and Tinctura Cinchona Composita. 

Cochineal is used as a colouring material only. 

Cantharis.— Cantharides. The dried Beetle, Can- 
Wiaris vesicatoria. 

Characters. — From ^ to 1 inch long, ^ inch broad ; with 
two long elytra or wing-sheaths of a shining coppery-green 
colour, under which are two thin brownish membranous trans- 
parent wings. Odour strong, disagreeable. Powder greyish- 
brown, containing shining green particles. 

440 Cant MARIS, 

Composition. — Cantharis contains '4 to 1 per cent, of 
aantharidin, a greenish volatile oil, and peculiar fatty bodie*. 
Cantharidin, C10H12O4, probably an acid, is obtained as shining 
colourless plates ; is volatile ; is soluble in ether, acetic ether, 
glacial acetic acid, chloroform, alcohol and oils ; and is the 
active principle, being a most powerful irritant Some of the 
other properties of Cantharides may be referable to the oil. 


1. Acetum Cantharidis. —Vinegar of Cantharides. 
1 ; Glacial Acetic Acid, 5 ; Water, 5. By maceration 
and percolation. 

2. Emplastrum Cantharidis. 7 ; Yellow Beeswax, 
4 ; Soap Plaster, 1 ; Resin, 4 ; Lard, 4. 

3. Emplastrum Calefaciens. — Warming Plaster. 
4 ; Yellow Beeswax, 4 ; Resin, 4 ; Soap Plaster, 32 ; 
Resin Plaster, 52 ; boiling Water, 20. 

4. Liquor Epispasticus. — Blistering Liquid. 10 ; 
Acetic Ether to make 20 ; by percolation. 

From Blistering Liquid is prepared : 

COLLODIUM Vesicans.— Blistering Collodion 
Pyroxylin, 1 ; dissolved in Blistering Liquid, 40. 

6. Tinctura Cantharidis.— 1 in 80 of Alcohol 90 
per cent. ; by maceration. Dose, 5 to 15 min. ; if 
frequently administered, 2 to 5 min. 

6. Unguentum Cantharidis. 1 ; Benzoated Lard, 10. 


Externally. — Cantharis is a rubefacient and vesicant when 
applied to the skin, acting upon the nerves and vessels of the 
part like Mustard and other measures of the same class, as 
described under Sinapis. to which the reader is referred 
(page 243). Its eflEects differ from those of Mustard, chiefly 
in being much less rapid, but of a more severe degree. The 
Emplastrum or the Charta has to be applied for a few hours 
before a sense of smarting, heat and burning is felt in the 
part ; small vesicles then form, and at the end of eight to 
twelve hours have united into a single large bulla. The 
removal of the Cantharides after six hours, and the application 
of a Boric Acid fomentation, will "raise the blister" mora 

CANTHARlii. 441 

effectually and pleasantly. Vesication is decidedly more 
rapid after the application of the Acetum, Liquor Epispasticus 
or CoUodium Vesicans. When the blister has been developed, 
it is carefully incised, and the raw surface is then encouraged 
either to heal by simple dressing, or to discharge by the 
application of an irritant ointment. Cantharides is the vesi- 
cant in ordinary use for purposes of counter-irritation. Blis- 
ters are chiefly employed to control hyperasmia and the 
inflammatory process ; to promote the absorption of morbid 
products ; to relieve pain ; and to arrest spasm and other 
reflex disturbances. The mode in which they are believed to 
act is discussed under Covnter-irritanis (page G08). Cantha- 
rides is most frequently used in cerebral hyperairaia, being 
applied to the nape ; in acute pleurisy, pericarditis, peritonitis 
and meningitis — sometimes in the first stage, especially if pain 
be severe, but more frequently in the third stage, to promote 
absorption of effusions and exudations ; in subacute or chronic 
inflammation of the viscera, such as pneumonia, when resolu- 
tion is slow or the disease threatens to become chronic ; and 
in subacute or chronic inflammation of peripheral parts, such 
as the conjunctiva, joints, bones, etc. Neuralgia, if distinctly 
local in origin and due to congestion or inflammation of the 
nerves, is sometimes completely relieved by Cantharides blis- 
ters ; and the pains of acute rheumatism are undoubtedly 
dispelled by the same means, which are further believed by 
some physicians to cut short the whole rheumatic process. A 
blister on the epigastrium is a highly successful mode of 
treatment in some forms of gastric pain and vomiting. 

In every instance Cantharides should be cautiously applied 
to children, to persons suffering from renal disease, and to 
the aged and infirm. The back must not be blistered in bed- 
ridden persons, lest bed-sores be produced. Blisters must 
never be forgotten nor left too long on the skin, otherwise 
ulceration may be set up, as well as the remote local effects 
of the drug to be presently described. 

Internally. — Cantharides is an irritant to the mouth, throat 
and stomach, and must be given well diluted and in small doses 
of the Tincture only. 


Cantharidin enters the blood both from blistered surfaces 
and from the stomach, and finds its way into all the organs, to 
which it clings rather tenaciously. In large doses it disturbs 
the heart, respiration and nervous system, producing a rapid 
pulse, headache, sensory disorders, mental confusion, and 
finally death by asphyxia. Repeated small doses may cause 

442 HiRUDO. 

disease of the capillaries, and set up changes in the solid viscera 
somewhat similar to those in chronic phosphorus poisoning. 


Cantharidin is slowly excreted by the kidneys, apjKjaring 
in the urine, which conveys it to the bladder and genital 
organs. Here it sets up a second set of local effects, similar 
to those of its immediate action. Small doses cause a sense of 
heat in the perinaeum, itching of the meatus, frequent desire to 
micturate, and some diuresis. Larger doses set up acute 
general parenchymatous nephritis, with all its characteristic 
symptoms, including scanty bloody urine, or even suppression ; 
the penis becomes swollen ; and painful erections occur, so 
that the drug has been described as an aphrodisiac. In 
women, the uterus may become congested and menstruation 
brought on. 

In certain cases of renal disease Cantharides proves a use- 
ful diuretic, and it is given in some genito-urinaiy disorders, 
including spermatorrhoea ; but it is too dangerous to be 
generally used internally. For this reason care must be taken 
to prevent the absoi-ption of cantharidin by the skin. 

Himdo. — Leeches. Sanguisuga medicinalis, the 
Speckled Leech ; and Sanguisuga officinalis, the Green Leech. 

Chwracten. — Body soft, smooth, 2 inches or more long, 
tapering to each end, plano-convex, marked with 90 to 100 
fine annulations, back olive-green ; both varieties have six 
rusty-red longitudinal stripes. (1) Belly greenish-yellow, 
spotted with black ; (2) belly olive-green, not spotted. The 
anterior end is terminated by a small sucker surrounding the 
fcri-radiate jaws ; and the posterior end by a large sucker. 


The Leech is employed to abstract blood, each Leech re- 
moving, directly and by subsequent htemorrhage, an average 
of half an ounce of blood. The effect of leeching is depletive ; 
to some extent counter-irritant. It is employed in congestive 
or inflammatory affections, superficial and visceral, as well as 
in cardiac distension and distress. {See p.ige 550.) 


part m, 


Acaciae Cortex.— Acacia Bark, Babul Bark. 
(India, Eastern and Australian Colonies.) The dried 
bark of Acacia arabica and Acacia decurrens. 
N.O. Leguminosse. Black Wattle Bark. 

Characters. — Hard, brown ; inner smface red ; taste as- 

Composition. — The bark is rich in tannic acid — 20 per 

Decoctum Acaciae Corticis. — 1| oz. in 20 fl. oz. Water ; 
boiled for 10 minutes. Dose, ^ to 2 fl. oz. 

Astringent as an injection ; used in diarrhoea. 

Acalyplia. — Acalypha. (India, and Eastern 
Colonies.) The fresh and dried herb of Acalypha 
indica. N.O. Euphorbiacese. 

Characters. — Stem erect, 1 to 2 feet high; leaves ovate- 
cordate, serrated; spikes, axillary; male flowers uppermost, 
enclosed in a funnel-shaped involucre ; stamens, 8 to 16 ; styles, 
3 ; capsules tricoccous, three-celled, one-seeded. Flowers small, 

Composition, — Contains a resin, tannin, and an alkaloid. 


1. Extractum AcalyphaB Liquidum. — Dried Herb, 1; Alcohol 

90 per cent., 1 ; by percolation. Dose, 5 to 30 min. 

2. Succua Acalyphae.— Expressed juice, 3; Alcohol 90 per 

cent., 1. Dose, 1 to 4 fl. dr. 

444 Indian and Colonial Addendum 

actions and uses. 

Resembles Ipecacuanhi as an emetic, sedative expectorant 
and laxative, see page 318. Introduced into the rectum as a 
thick paste, it unloads the bowel. 

Adhatoda.— Adhatoda. (India, and Eastern 
Colonies.) The fresh and dried leaves of Adhatoda 
Vasica. N.O. Acantliacese. 

Characters. — Fresh leaves 5 to 6 in. long, 1^ in. broad, 
lanceolate, entire, tips pointed, smooth. Dried leaves dark 
green; odour tea-like ; taste bitter. 

Composition. — Contains (1) vasicine, a bitter crystalline 
alkaloid ; (2) adhatodic acid ; and (3) an odorous volatile 


1. Extractmn Adhatodae Liquidum. — Equal parts of dried 

and powdered leaves ; Alcohol 60 per cent., to make 
20 oz. by percolation. Lose. 20 to 60 min. 

2. Succus Adhatodae. — Fresh juice, strained. Dose^ 1 to 

4 fl. dr. 

3. Tinctura Adhatodae. — Dried and powdered leaves, 125; 

Alcohol 60 per cent., 1,000. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 

A stimulant expectorant and antispasmodic, like Senega 
(page 245). It is also a valuable insecticide for blight on tea 
and other crops. 

Ag^ropyruni. — Triticum. " Coucii Grass. 
(India, Australasia and Eastern Colonies.) The dried 
rhizome of Agropyrum repens (Triticum rcpens). 
N.O. Graminacece. 

Characters,— V^^.G yellow, ^V f® To J°- ^^ diameter; usually 
in sections ^ to |^ in. long ; furrowed longitudinally ; no 
odour ; taste sweetish. 

Composition. — Contains triticin (7 to 8 per cent.), and 
saccharine and gummy substances. 


1. Decoctum Agropyri. — 1 in 20. Dose, ^ to 2 fl. oz. 

2. Extractum Agropyri Liquidum. — 20 oz. ; Alcohol 90 per 

cent., 5 oz. ; Water, q.s, by digestion and evaporation 
to 20 oz. .Oow, 1 to 2 fl. dr. 

Indian and Colonial Addendum. 445 

actions and uses. 

Tlie rhizome, fresh and dried, is used as a diuretic and 
sedative in cystitis and irritation of the urinary passages. 

Alstonia. — Alstonia. (India, Australasia and 
Eastern Colonies.) The dried bark from Alstonia 
scliolaris and Alstonia constricta. " Dita Bark '' of 
the Philippine Islands. N.O. Apocynaceae. 

Characters. — The bark of Alstonia scholaris. In frafrnaents 
i to ^ inch thick, spongy, brownish- grey outside, bright buff 
within; no odour; taste, bitter. — Thfy\idiX\oi AUtonia constricta. 
In curved pieces or quills 1\ in. wide, \ in. thick. Periderm 
thick, rusty-brown, rugose, reticulated. Internally, cinna- 
mon-brown, with longitudinal striae; odour faint, aromatic; 
taste very bitter. 

Composition. — Contains many alkaloids, especially ditaine 
(from A. scholaris) and alstonine (from A. constricta). 

1. Infusum Alstoniae.— 1 in 20. Lose, ^ to 1 fl. oz. 

2. Tinctura Alstoniae. — Powdered Bark, 125; Alcohol 60 per 

cent., 1,000. Dose, 1 to 1 fl. dr. 

Astringent, anti -periodic, tonic and anthelmintic. Very 
useful in chronic diarrhoea, dysentery and malarial fevers. 
Ditaine paralyses motor nerve-endings. 

Andi'ograpliis — Andrographis. Creyat, Kir- 
yat, or Kreat. (India and Eastern Colonies.) The 
dried plant of Andrographis paniculata. N.O. 
A canthacese. 

Chamcters. — Stem, 1 to 3 feet high, quadrangular, slightly 
winged, furrowed longitudinally ; colour, dark green. Leaves 
opposite, shortly petiolate, lanceolate, entire ; upper surface 
dark green, shining ; lower surface granular ; variable in size. 
Flowers : calyx small, hairy, five-cleft ; capsules cylindrical, 
two-valved. Root simple, fusiform, woody. No odour in 
di ied plant ; taste intensely bitter. 

Composition. — C!ontains a, non-basic bitter principle. 

1. Infusum Andrographidis. — 1 in 20. Pose, ^ to 1 fl. oz. 

2. Liquor Andrographidis Concentratus. — 10; Alcohol 20 

per cent., 25 ; percolate to 20. Pose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 

3. Tinctura Andrographidis.— 1 in 10 of Alcohol 60 per cent. ; 

by percolation. Pose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 

446 Indian and Colonial Addendum, 
actions and uses. 

A bitter stomachic, tonic and anthelmintic, resembling 
Quassia (page 264), 

Aristolochia. — A ristolochia. (India and 
Eastern Colonies.) The dried stem and root of 
Aristolochia indica. N.O. Aristolochiacese. 

Characters. — Stem in cylindrical pieces, f in. in diameter ; 
greyish-yellow, marked with scars and furrows. Root dark 
brown, transversely constricted ; bark separable fi-om wood. 
Odour spicy, camphoraceous ; taste bitter and camphoraceous. 

Composition. — Contains aristolochine, a bitter alkaloidal 
principle, and a volatile oil (which contains bomeol) to which is 
due the odour and taste of the drug. (6'^^ Serpen taria3 Rhizoma, 
page 379.) 


1. Liquor Aristolochiae Concentratus. — 500; Alcohol 20 per 

cent., 1,250. Dose, ^ to 2 fl. dr. 

2. Tinctura AristolochisB.— 1 ; Alcohol 70 per cent., 5; by 

percolation. Dose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 

A mild bitter tonic, resembling Serpentary (page 379). 

Arnicie Flores.— Arnica Flowers. (North 
American Colonies.) The dried flower-heads of 
Arnica montana. N.O. Compositse. 

Charactei's. — Consist of a scaly involucre in two rows, and 
a hairy receptacle bearing 16 to 20 yellow, three-toothed, ten- 
nerved ray-florets, and numerous yellow, five-toothed tubular 
disk-florets. Odour aromatic ; taste bitter and acrid. 

Co;nj5ost/to«.-— Contain a volatile oil, resin, and a crystaUine 
bitter, arniaterin (arnicin) ; see page 329. 

Tinctura Amicse Florum.— 1 in 10 of Alcohol 45 per cent. 
Dose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 

actions and uses. 

See Arnica, page 329. 

Aiirsiulii Coricx Indicus. — Indian Orange 

Peel. (India and the Colonies, in place of other 
Orange Peel.) The fresh and dried outer part of the 

Indian and Colonial Addendum. 447 

pericarp of varieties of Citrus Aurantium. N.O* 

Characters and Composition. — See page 253 

Used as a vehicle for lotions, as a bitter stomachic and 
tonic, and as a flavouring agent. {See Bitters, pages 220, 342, 

Azadirnchta Incliea. — Indian Azadirach. 
" Neem or Margosa Bark." (India, and Eastern 
Colonies.) The dried bark of the stem of Melia 
azadirach ta. N.O. Meliacese. 

Characters. — Externally rusty-grey; internally yellowish, 
fibrous ; taste bitter ; inodorous. 

Composition.— Cont&bxa a resin and a bitter crystalline 
alkaloid margosine. 


1. Infusum Azadirachtae Indicse. — 1 in 100. Dose, ^ to 1 fl. oz. 

2. Tinctura Azadirachtae Indicse. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 45 per 

cent. Lose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 


Allied to Calumba and similar bitters ; and used in scaly 
skin affections. The root-bark is anthelmintic. 

Bclai Fructus — Bael Fruit. (India, and 
Eastern Colonies.) The fresh half-ripe fruit of ^gle 
Marmelos. N.O. Butacese. 

Characters. — Three in. in diameter, ovoid or pyriform, 
smooth ; ten to fifteen cells, containing woolly seeds ; pulp, 
juicy, hard and brittle on drying; taste mucilaginous, acid, 

Composition. — Contains pectin, mucilaginous principles, and 
a small amount of tannin. 


Extractum Belse Liquidum.— 1 in 1 of Alcohol, 90 per cent, by 

maceration and evnporatiou. Dose, | to 2 fl. dr. 

The unripe fruit is astringent, and is iised in dysentery. 

448 Indian and Colonial Addendum. 

Bcrberis. — Berberis. " Darlaiiad." (India, and 
Eastern Colonies.) The dried stem of Berberis aris- 
tata. N.O. Berberidacese. 

Characters. — Undulating pieces, 1 to 2 in. thick, covered 
witli orange-brown periderm, bright yellow ; odour faint ; 
taste bitter. 

Composition. — Contains two alkaloids, oxycanthine and 
berherine (page 217). 


1. Liquor Berberidis Concentratus. — 1 in 2^ of Alcohol 20 

per cent. Dose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 

2. Tinctura Berberidis. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 60 per cent. 

Dose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 


A mild astringent, bitter tonic and stomachic ; diaphoretic, 
antipyretic and antiperiodic, allied but inferior to Quinine. 

Betel. — Betel. (India, and Eastern Colonies.) 
The leaves of Piper Betle. "Pan." N.O. Piperacea?. 

Characters. — Broadly ovate, acuminate, obliquely cordate 
at base, glossy upper surface ; taste, warm, aromatic, bitter. 

Composition. — Contain (1) two aromatic oils, light and 
heavy, which yield chavibctol — an isomer of eugenol (a 
powerful antiseptic) — when treated with caustic potash. (2) An 
alkaloid, arakene., allied to cocaine in action. The characteristic 
odour of oil and leaves is due to " betel-phenol,*^ 

A mild, aromatic sialogogue, allaying thirst, stomachic 
and carminative. The alkaloid arakene probably is the active 
agent in allaying hunger when pan is chewed. Betel is a good 
vehitle for counteracting the after-taste of nauseous and bitter 

Biitese Ouniiiii. — Butea Gum. Bengal 
Kino. (India, and Eastern Colonies.) The inspis- 
sated juice obtained from incisions in the stem of 
Butea frondosa. N.O. Leguminosae. 

Characters. — Small, irregular, sliining fragments, dark 
ruby colour ; inodorous ; taste astringent. Sohibility : Par- 
tially in water. Impurities : Woody and corky particles. 

Comjwsition. — See Kino, page 271. 

Indian and Colonial Addendum. 449 

actions and uses. 
Bengal Kino is used for the same purposes as the more 
familiar drug. See Kino, page 271. 

ButeaB Seniiiia. — Butea Seeds. (India, and 
Eastern Colonies.) The seeds of Butea frondosa. 
N.O. Leguminosse. 

Characters. — Flat, reniform, 1 to I5 in. long, | to 1 in. 
wide, iV in. thick ; testa, thin, glossy, wrinkled, reddish-brown ; 
hilum, large, prominent. Odour faint ; taste slightly acrid. 

Composition. — Contain fat, albuminoids, and metaralie 
acid. No alkaloid has been found in the seeds. 

Pulvis Butese Seminum. — Dose, 10 to 20 gr. 

Used as a rubefacient externally in ringworm. Internally, 
the seeds are a powerful anthelmintic for round-worm. {See 
Santonin, page 326.) 

€aloti-opis. — Calotropis. Mudar. (India, 
and Eastern Colonies.) Tlie dried root bark of 
Calotropis procera and of Calotropis gigantea, freed 
from outer corky layer. Gathered in April and 
May. N.O. Asclepiadacese. 

Characters.— In short quilled pieces ^\ to ^ in. thick, l|in. 
wide, with soft, greyish, strongly furrowed periderm. This 
layer should be removed before powdering ; odour faint ; taste 
mucilaginous, bitter, acrid. 

Composition. — Contains madaralban and tnadarjluavil 
(analogous to the resinous constituents of Guttapercha) and 
Caoutchouc. Dose, 3 to 10 gr. as a tonic; 30 to 60 gr. as an 

Tinctura Calotropis.— 1 in 10 of Alcohol 60 per cent. Dose, 
i to 1 11. dr. 

Calotropis is anodyne, rubefacient, expectorant, and 
emetic; allied to Ipecacuanha (page 319). It is used in 


45© Indian and Colonial Addendum. 

€anibog:ia ludica. — Indian Gamboge. (India, 
and Eastern Colonies.) The gum- resin obtained from 
Garcinia Morella. N.O. Guttiferse. 

Characters. — Must have all the important characters and 
respond to the tests of the B.P. Gamboge (page 261). Im- 
purities : Leaves and similar extraneous matters and particles 
of wood. 

Composition. — See Carabogia, page 261. Dose, ^ to 2 gr. 

The same as ordinary Siam Gamboge (page 261) 

Catechu Nig^^um. — Black Catechu. (India, 

Eastern Colonies, and North American Colonies.) 
An extract prepared from the wood of Acacia 
Catechu. N.O. Leguminosse. 

Characters. — Irregular masses of a dark-brown colour; 
inodorous ; taste sweet, astringent. Solubility : Partially in 
cold, freely in boiling, water. 

Composition. — Contains catechu-iannic acid. It does not 
contain a fluorescent constituent as found in Pale Catechu {see 
page 321). Dose, 5 to 15 gr. 

A non-irritating astringent, like Tannic Acid (page 393). 
{See also Catechu, p:ige 321.) Used in dentifrices, gargles and 
lozenges for spongincss of the gums. Is a constituent of pre- 
pared Pan, which is freely chewed by the natives of India. 

Cissampelos.— CissAMPELOs. False Pareira 
Brava. (India, and Eastern Colonies.) The dried 
root bark of Cissampelos Pareira. N.O. Meni- 

Characters. — Compressed, undulating pieces, ^ in. in 
diameter, covered with dark brown bark, with longitudinal 
furrows and transverse cracks ; no odour; taste very bitter. 

Compositioti. — Contains an alkiiloid, pclosiue. {See page 222.) 

1. Decoctum Cissampeli.— 2^ oz. ; Water, q.s. to make 20 o«. 

Dose, }j to 2 fl. oz. 

2. Extractum Cissampeli Liquidum.— 1 in 4, Dose, J to 2 

fl. dr. 

Indian and Colonial Addendum. 451 

Similar to those of true Pareira Root (page 221). See 
Agropyrum (page 444). 

Cosciiiiiini. — CosciNiUM. "False Calumba." 
(India, and Eastern Colonies.) The dried stem of 
Coscinium fenestratum. N.O. Menispermacese. 

Characters. — In woody cylindrical, straight or twisted 
pieces, about 4 in. in diameter; furrowed longitudinally ; with 
a pale yellowish-grey cork ; no odour; taste bitter. 

Composition. — Contains berberine {see page 217) and 


1. Infusum Coscinii. — 1 in 20. Lose^ | to I fl. oz. 

2. Liquor Coscinii Concentratus. — 1 in 2 of Alcohol 90 per 

cent. ; Water q.s. Dose, | to 1 fl. dr. 

3. Tinctura Coscinii. — 1 in 10 of Alcohol 60 per cent. Lose. 

i to 1 fl. dr. 

Exactly like those of Calumba (page 219). 

Cuciii'bita; Seiiiina PraBparata. — Melon 
Pumpkin Seeds. Redgourd Seeds. (Mediterranean 
Colonies.) The prepared fresh ripe seeds of culti- 
vated plants of Ciicurbita maxima (Cucurbita Pepo). 
jN.O. Cueurbitacese. 

Characters.— Ylai, ovate, white, exalbuminous, consisting 
of two cotyledons deprived of testa and tegmen ; odour faint ; 
taste veiy slight. Seeds must not be more than one month old. 

Composition. — Contains an acrid resin and a Jixed oil. 
Lose, 3 to 4 oz. 


An efficient anthelmintic for tapeworm. Bruised with a 
little water or milk to a creamy consistence, it is given, fast- 
ing, early in the morning, followed by a purgative. 

Datui'se Folia Datura Leaves. (India, 

and Eastern and West Indian Colonies.) The dried 
leaves of Datura tastuosa and of Datura Metel. 
N.O. Solanacejse. 

Characters. — Ovate, acuminate, with long petioles and 

452 Indian and Colonial Addendum. 

Binuate-dcntate margins, 7 to 8 in. long, 4 to 5 in. broad , 
odour characteristic ; taste bitter. 

Composition. — See Stramonii Folia (page 360). 

Tbe same as those of Stramonium Leaves (page 360). 

DatiirsB Seiiiiiia. — Datura Seeds. (India, and 
Eastern Colonies.) The dried seeds of Datura fastu- 
osa. N.O. Solanaceae. 

Characters. — Wedge-shaped; rounded, furrowed, thickened, 
wavy margins, compressed laterally; ^ to ^ in, broad; gV ^"• 
thick. Hilum on one edge. Testa finely pitted, reticulated. 
Taste bitter. 

Composition. — Sec Stramonii Semina (page 360). 
Tinctura Datiirse Seminum. — 1 in 4 of Alcohol 70 per cent. 
Dose, 5 to 15 min. 

The same as those of Stramonium Seeds (page 360). 

Eiiibelin. — Embelia. (India, and Eastern 
Colonies.) The fruit of Embelia Ribes and of Embelia 
robusta. N.O. Myrsinacese. 

Characters. — Globulai', i in. in diameter, dull red with dark 
spots to nearly black, containing a horny reddish seed. Taste 
slightly astringent, aromatic. 

Composition. — Contains emhelic acid. Dose, I to 4 dr. 

A valuable anthelmintic for tapeworm, used like Melon 
Pumpkin seeds (page 451) or Gusso (page 288). The ammonium 
salt of embelic acid is tasteless, and is a useful and effective 
anthelmintic for children. 

Olycyriiiizsc Extractiiiii $pJriliio««iiiii. — 

(India, and Eastern Colonies.) Extract of Liquorice, 
2 ; Alcohol 90 i)er cent., 1 ; Water, to 4. Dosp, .^ to 
1 dr. 

An excellent demulcent and flavouring agent (page 269). 

Indiat^ and Colonial Addendum. 453 

Oo<^syi>ii Radicis Cortex. — Cotton Root 
Bark. (India, Eastern, North American and 
West Indian Colonies.) The dried root bark of 
Gossypiiim herbaceum. N.O. Malvaceae. 

Characters. — In thin flexible bands or quilled pieces, 
covered witli a thin brownish-yellow periderm ; inodorous ; 
taste, slightly acrid, astringent. 

Composition. — Contains a lemon-yellow or colourless 
chromogen, an acid resin, a fxed oil, starch, and traces of 


1. Decoctum Gossypii Radicis Corticis. — 1 in 5 in Water. 

Dose, ^ to 2 H. o'A. 

2. Extractum Gossypii Radicis Corticis Liquidum. — 1 in 1. 

Bark, 20 oz. ; Glycerin, 5 oz. ; Alcohol 90 per cent. q.s. 
to percolate 20 oz. Dose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 

Employed as a substitute for Ergot (page 422). 

Orindclia, — Grindelia. (Australasian and 
North American Colonies.) The dried leaves and 
flowering tops of Grindelia squarrosa and of Grindelia 
robusta. N.O. Compositae. 

Charactei-s. — Leaves of Grindelia squarrosa alternate, pale 
green, smooth, coriaceous, brittle, oblanceolate ; and at the 
sessile base the involucral bracts long, with roflexed subulate 
points. Leaves of Grindelia robusta almost similar, but shorter, 
with a cordate amplexicaul base and a serrated margin. 
Odour balsamic ; taste pungent, bitter, aromatic. 

Composition.— Q,OTil?i\n a resin, Itantriacontane, glycerides, 
tannin, and volatile oil. 

Extractu"ai Grindeliae Liquidum. — 1 in 1, by percolation with 
Alcohol 90 per cent., Water and Sodium Bicarbonate. 
Dose, 10 to 20 min. (Spiritus Chloroformi conceals its 
bitter taste.) 


Grindelia is a mild stomachic, an expectorant and 

bronchial antispasmodic. It is much used in asthma and 

other spasmodic respiratory affections. The dermatitis caused 

by Rhus toxicodendron (" Poisonous Ivv ") is rtlicvod by the 

454 Indian and Colonial Addendum, 

application of the diluted extract (1 to 10). It also makes a 
useful dressing for ulcers and burns. 

Oiimmi fndiciiin.— Indian Gum. Ghati or 
Ghatti Gum. (India, and Eastern Colonies.) A 
gummy exudation from the wood of Anogeissus 
latifolia. N.O. Combretacese. 

Characters. — Amber-coloured, translucent, vermiform or 
rounded tears, with a dull surface and glassy fracture ; odour 
faint ; taste mucilaginous. Forms a mucilage with water. 

Composition. — Contains arable acid; its calcium salt is 

Mucilago Gmnmi Indici.— 1 in 3 of Water. 

The same as those of Gum Acacia (page 283) 

Ilirudo Australia. — A ustralian Leech. 
(Australasian Colonies.) Hirudo quinquestriata. 
Order Hirudinea. See Hirudo, page 442. 

Characters. — Dorsal surface greenish-yellow-brown, with 
five longitudinal stripes ; ventral surface greenish-yellow, not 


See page 442. 

1Iyg:ropliila. — Hygrophila. Asteracantha. 

(India, and Eastern Colonies.) The dried lierb, in- 
cluding the root, of Hygrophila spinosa. N.O. 

Characters. — Roots with numerous rootlets, tapering ; stem 
2 to 4 feet high, quadrangular ; branches and leaves opposite, 
leaves entire, 6 at each node ; outer 2, about 4 to 5 in. long and 
i in. broad ; 4 inner, about 1^ in. long. In axil of each loaf is 
a yellowish spine about 1 in. long. Leaves and stem furnished 
with hispid, spreading, scattered white hairs. Flowers bright 
purplish-blue, 4 pairs at each node. Calyx, 4 sepals, one 
broader than the others. CoroUa glabrous, two-lipped, with 
didynamous stamens. Ripened ovary with 4 — 8 seeds. 

Composition. — Contains an alkaloidal matter, a fixed oil, 
inorganic salts and mucilage, and phytosterin. 

Indian and Colonial Addendum. 455 

Decoctum Hygrophilse.— 1 in 10. Z>os^, ^ to 2 fl. oz. 


A diuretic, and sedative to the genito- urinary tract. Sec 
Agropyrum (page 444). 

Ispaghula.-SpoNGEL Seeds. (India, and East- 
ern Colonies.) The dried seeds of Plantago ovata 
N.O. Plantaginacese. 

Characters. — About ^^ in. long and -gV in. wide ; ovate, 
elliptical, boat-shaped, pinkish ; convex side bearing a dark 
spot ; inodorous and tasteless. 

Composition. — Contains mucilage, fixed oil, and albuminous 
matter. Dose, 60 to 150 gr. 

Decoctum Ispaghulse.— 13-7 ; Water, 1,000. Dose, ^ to 2 fl. oz. 

Allied to Linum (page 251), it is used in dysentery and 
diarrhoea, and as a demulcent in cough and pharyngeal dis- 
orders, particularly for children. 

Kaladana. — Kaladana. Pharbitis Nil. 
(India, and Eastern Colonies.) The dried seeds of 
Ipomoea hederacea. N.O. Convolvulacese. 

Characters. — y\ in. long and wide, in segments of spheres ; 
black throughout, brown and hairy only at the hilum ; odour 
earthy ; taste acrid. 

Composition. — Contains about 8 per cent, of a resin con- 
sisting entirely of pharbitisin — a glucoside resembling jalapin 
in its chemical properties. Dose, 30 to 50 gr. in powder. 


1. Pulvis Kaladanse Compositus.— 5 ; Acid Potassium Tar- 

trate, 9 ; Ginger, 1. Dose, 20 to 60 gr. 

2. Tinctura Kaladanse.— 1 in 5 of Alcohol 70 per cent. Dose, 

i to 1 fl. dr. 

actions and uses. 
The same as those of the principles of Jalap (page 350). 

45^ Indian and Colonial Addendum, 

KaladanaB Resiiia. — Kaladana Resin. 
Pharbitisin. (India, and Eastern Colonies.) A 
resin obtained from Kaladana Seeds. 

Characters. — In brownish opaque fragments, translucent 
at the edges ; brittle, breaking with a resinous fracture ; odour 
disagreeable, especially when warmed ; taste sweetish, acrid 
to the th; oat. Readily soluble in Alcohol 90 per cent. Bose^ 
2 to 8 gr. 


These are the same as those of Jalap Resin (page 350). 

KavaB Rhizoma.—KAVA Rhizome. Kava- 
Kava. (Australasian Colonies.) The dried decorti- 
cated rhizome, without roots, of Piper methysticum. 
N.O. Piperacese. 

Characters.— IxxQ^vXdcs fragments ^ to 2 in. thick, of a pale 
greyish colour ; odour somewhat pleasant ; taste piperaceous, 
slightly bitter, and saponaceous. 

Composition. — Contains a-liava and ^-hara resins ; an alka- 
loid, liojoaiihe ; and starch. Dose (not otficiat), 5 to 10 gr. 

Extractum Kavse Liquidum. — 1 in 1 of Alcohol 90 per cent, 
and 45 per cent. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 

A bitter tonic. Karvin produces local anaesthesia, like 
Cocaine, but the pain produced forbids its use as such {see 
Cocaine, page 248). It is also used as a diuretic, and in gonor- 
rhoea and other affections of the genito-urinary tract. 

Kino Eucalypti. — Eucalyptus Kino. Botany 

Bay Kino. (Australasian Colonies.) An exudation 
from the stems of various species of Eucalyptus, N.O. 
Myrtaceae, having the diarcLcters and answering to 
the tests for Kino. 

Characters. — Similar to East India Kino (page 271), to the 
tests for which it responds. 

Composition. — Contains kino-tannic acid, catechin, pyro- 
catechin, resin and gum. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. in powder. 

A powerful intestinal a.stringent, allied to Krameria, 
Catechu, and Tannin (pages 246, 321, 393). 

Indian and Colonial Addendum. 457 

Mylabris. — Mylabris. The Telini Fly. 
(India, Eastern and African Colonies.) The dried 
beetle Mylabris phalerata. Order Coleoptera. 

Characters. — About 1 in. long, f in. wide. Two elytra 
long, black, with two broad wavy, orange-coloured transverse 
bands, and a large orange-coloured spot at the base. A pair of 
brown membranous wings. Odour disagreeable. 

Composition. -^QQiVi\s,m% 1 to 2 per cent, of c««<Aflri^i«(page 


1. Acetum Mylabridis. — 1, Glacial Acetic Acid, 5; Water, 5. 

2. Emplastrum Mylabridis.— 35 ; Yellow Bees-wax, 20 ; 

Lard, 20 ; Kesin, 20 ; Soap Plaster, 5. 

3. Emplastrum Califaciens Mylabridis. — 1 ; Yellow Bees- 

wax, 1 ; Resin, 1 ; Resin Plaster, 13 ; Soap Plaster, 8 : 
Boiling Water, 5. 

4. Liquor Epispasticus Mylabridis.— 1 in 2 of Acetic Ether. 

5. Unguentum Mylabridis. — 1 in 10 of Benzoated Lard. 

Similar to those of Cantharides (page 440). 

inyrobalaniini. — Myrobalans. Black or 
Chebulic Myrobalans. (India, and Eastern Colonies.) 
The dried immature fruits of Terminalia Chebula. 
N.O. Combretaceae. 

Characters. — About ^ to | in. long, | in. wide, ovoid or 
fusiform like an olive, but shrivelled "longitudinally ; black, 
solid and brittle ; fracture shining ; taste very astringent. 

Composition. — Contains about 25 per cent, of gallo'tannic 
acid, a resin, and a bitter principle. Dose In powder, ^ to 1 dr. 

1. Unguentum Myrobalani. — 1 in 4 of Benzoated Lard. 

2. Unguentum Myrobalani cum Opio.— Myrobalan Ointment, 

925 ; Powdered Opium, 75. 

Astringent and tonic, allied to Acidum Tannicum (page 

Oleum Ajowau.— Ajowan Oil. Ptychotis 
Oil. (India, and Eastern Colonies.) The oil distilled 

45 8 Indian and Colonial Addendum. 

from the fruit of Carum copticum. N.O. Umbelli- 

Characters. — Colourless, with the odour and taste of thjine. 
Sp. gr. -917 to -930. 

Composition. — Yields 30 to 36 per cent, of crystalline 
thymol if cooled to 32° F. ; also contains thymene, a mixture of 
a terpene and cymene. Dose, ^ to 3 min. 

Allied to Thymol (page 371). It is an excellent carmina- 
tive and antispasmodic. 

Oleum Aracliis.— Arachis Oil. Earth-nut, 
Ground-nut, or Pea-nut Oil. (Africa, and Eastern 
Colonies.) Expressed without heat from the seeds of 
Arachis hypogcea. N.O. Leguminosse. 

Characters. — Pale yellow or greenish- yellow ; odour faint, 
nutlike ; taste, bland nutty ; slowly becomes rancid and thick. 
Sp. gr. -916 to -918. 

Composition. — QoniaiXn& oleic, palmitic, arachic, and hypogoeie 


A very good substitute for almond and olive oils (pages 
285 and 336). 

Oleum Oaulilieriae. — Oil of Gaultheria. 
Oil of Wintergreen. (North American Colonies.) 
The oil distilled from the leaves of Gaultheria pro- 
en mbens, N.O. Ericaceae, or from the bark of the 
sweet birch, Betula lenta, N.O. Betulaceae. 

Characters. — Colourless or slightly yellowish ; odour 
strong, characteristic ; taste warm, sweetish, aromatic ; sp. 
gr. 1-176 to M87. 

Composition.— QonisHns 90 per cent, of natural salicylate oj 
methyl and small quantities of a paraffin — triacontane. Lose, 
3 to 10 min. 


Closely allied in action to Salicylates (pages 387-391); and 
in America is frequently used in acute rheumatism. 

Oleuui Oramiiiis 4'ilrati. — Oil of Lemon 
Grass. Indian Oil of Verbena. (India, Eastern 

Indian and Colonial Addendum. 459 

and West Indian Colonies.) The oil distilled from 
Andropogon citratus (Andropogon schoenanthus). 
N.O. Graminacese. 

Characters.— K dark yellow oil, resembling Oil of Verbena 
in odour. Sp. gr. 0-895 to 0-905. 

Composition. — Contains an aldehyde, citral, and citronellal. 
Lose, ^ to 3 min. 


Oil of Lemon Grass resembles Oil of Cajuput (page 294), 
and is used as a carminative, rubefacient, and stimulant. 

Oleum GynocardisB. — Gynocardia Oil. 
Chaulmoogra Oil. (India, and Eastern Colonies.) 
The fatty oil expressed from the seeds of N.O. Bixacese, 
Gynocardia odorata or of Gynocardia Prainii. 

Characters. — Brownish-yellow, of varying consistence ; 
odour characteristic; taste acrid. Liquefies fully at 107 "6° F. 
resolidifying at different temperatures below 60^ F. Solubility : 
Partly in Alcohol 90 per cent. ; freely in ether, chloroform, and 
carbon bisulphide. The oil expressed from the seeds of 
Hydrocarpus wightiana is sometimes substituted for Oleum 

Cowposition. — Contains chanlmoogi'iG acid (12 to 20 per 
cent.). This acid can be obtained in crystals, and possesses a 
burning, acrid taste. Done, 5 to 10, 30 or 60 min. in capsules, 
after food. Administration should be suspended if the stomach 
become irritant. 

Unguentum Gynocardise. — 1; Hard ParaflSn, 4; Soft Paraffin, 
White, 6. 


A powerful rubefacient. It is extensively used in leprosy, 
lupus, eczema, and psoriasis. (See also page 297.) 

Oleuin Scsaiiil. — Sesame Oil. (India and 
African, Eastern and Noith American Colonies.) 
The oil expressed from the seeds of Sesamum indicum. 
N.O. Pedaliaceae. 

Characters. — Pale yellow, limpid ; odour faint ; taste 
bland. Sp. gr. 921 to -924. 

460 Indian and Colonial Addendum. 

Composition. — 70 per cent, of liquid fatty acids ; a crystal- 
line substance, sesamin ; and a phenol compound, sesaviol. 

Used as a substitute for Olive Oil to make ointments, 
plasters and liniments. 

Oliver! Cortex — Oliver Bark. Oliver or 
Black Sassafras Bark. (Australasian Colonies.) 
The dried bark of Cinnamomum Oliveri. N.O. 

CharacUrs. — About 8 in. long, IJ in. wide, flat, covered 
with granular periderm of a deep orange-brown colour ; the 
tissue beneath and the bark inside umber-brown ; odour 
aromatic, spicy ; taste agreeable, spicy, camphoraceous. 

Composition. — Contains a golden-yellow volatile oil (1 per 
cent.) and tannin. 

Tinctura Oliveri Corticis.— 1 in 10 of Alcohol 60 per cent. 
Dose, .1 to 1 fl. dr. 


The same as Cinnamon and Sassafras (pages 375, 379). 

Picrorliiza. — Picrorhiza. Kutki, Katki. 
(India, and Eastern Colonies.) The dried rhizome of 
Picrorhiza Kurroa. N.O. Scrophulariacese. 

Characters.— ^hort pieces about ^ in. diameter, as thick as 
a goose quill, tapering downwards, beset with prominent scars 
and remains of the rootlets ; the large upper part beset wiih 
dark greyish-brown scales ; inodorous ; taste very bitter. 

Composition. — Contains a bitter glucoside, picrorhizin, gum, 
and cat/iartic acid. Dose, 10 to 20 gr. as a tonic; 40 to 50 gr. 
as an antiperiodic. 


1. Extractum Picrorhizse Liquidum. — 1 in 1 of Alcohol 60 

per cent. Dose, 20 to 60 min. 

2. Tinctura Picrorhizse. — 1 in 8 (by maceration) of Alcohol 

45 per cent. Dose, ^ to 1 fl. dr, 

A bitter acid stomachic and mild cathartic. Used in 
dyspepsia and gastric neuroses. 

Podopliylli Iiidi<;i Kliizoiiia. — Indian Podo- 
phyllum RnizoME. (India, and Eastern Colonies.) 

Indian and Colonial Addendum. 461 

The dried rhizome and roots of Podophyllum Emodu 
N.O. Berberadacese. 

Characteis. — Horizontal, more or less cylindrical and con- 
torted, \ in. to J in. thick, crowded above with tuberosities, 
marked by depressed scars ; giving off numerous simple 
rootlets from under surface ; earthy brown ; odour faint ; 
taste bitter, acrid. 

Composition. — Contains double the amount of resin yielded 
by Podophylli Rhizoma (page 218) ; but the resin contains 
only half the quantity of crystalline picropodojjhi/lline. 

1. Tinctura Podophylli Indici. — 1; Alcohol &0 per cent., 30. 

Dose, 5 to 15 min. 

2. Resina Podophylli Indici. — A powdered resin obtained from 

Indian Todophyllum, and resembling Podophyllum 
Eesin (page 218). Dose, ^ to 1 gr. 

Similar to those of Podophyllum (page 218). It is incom- 
patible with ammonium preparations. 

Sappaii. — Sappan. (India, and Eastern 
Colonies.) The heart wood of Caesalpinia Sappan. 
N.O Leguminosse. 

Characters. — Hard, heavy sections or oi*ange-red chips, 
showing well-marked concentric rings and rays; inodorous; 
taste astringent. 

Composition. — Contains sappanin — a crystalline colouring 
matter resembling haematoxylin, and similar to or identical 
with brazilin, the colouring matter of brazil wood — and tannin. 

Decoctuin Sappan.— 50; Cinnamon Bark, 8; Water, 1,000; 
1 in 20. Dose, J to 2 fl. oz. 

Sappan was used as a dye before the introduction of 
aniline dyes. It contains Tannic Acid; and when an astringent 
effect is desired, it is used to colour mixtures red. 

Tinospora. — Tinospora (India, and Eastern 
Colonies.) The dried stem of Tinospora cordifolia. 
N.O. Menispermaceae. Collected during the hot 

462 Indian and Colonial Addendum. 

Characters. — Cylindrical, straight or twisted pieces, or in 
transverse sections ; bark shrunken, longitudinally furrowed, 
and covered with round elevated scars ; coloiu' greenish-brown ; 
not rough ; odour not marked ; taste bitter. 

Composition. — Contains berberine, an alkaloid, a starch 
known as gila k& sat, and a non-crystallisable bitter glucoside. 

1. Infusum Tinosporse. — 1 in 10. Dose, ^ to 1 fl. oz. 

2. Liquor Tinosporse Concentratus. — 10; Alcohol 90 per 

cent., 41 ; Distilled Water, 20. Dose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 

3. Tinctura Tinosporse. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 60 per cent. Dose, 

i to 1 ii. dr. 

A simple bitter employed in malarial fevers {see Bitters, 
pages 220, 342, 473). 

Toddalia. — Toddalia. (India, and Eastern 
Colonies.) The dried root bark of Toddalia aculeata. 
N.O. Rutacese. 

Characters. — Quilled pieces, covered with soft yellowish 
periderm, fissured longitudinally, and exhibiting a bright 
yellow layer and a deeper brown layer ; faint aromatic odour, 
and an aromatic, pungent, bitter taste. 

Composition. — Contains a resin, an essential oil having the 
odour of cinnamon, and an antipyretic alkaloid. 


1. Infusum Toddaliae.— 1 in 10. Dose, 1 to 2 fl. oz. 

2. Liquor Toddaliae Concentratus — 1 in 2-5 of Alcohol 20 per 

cent. Dose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 

A carminative allied to Cusparia (page 257). It is used 
as a stomachic and febrifuge in dyspepsia and dysentery, and 
as a stimulant in rheumatism. 

Turpetliiiin Turpeth or Turbith Root. 

White Nisot. (India, Eastern and North American 
Colonies.) The dried root and stem of Ipomcea Tur- 
peth um. N.O. Convolvulaceae. 

Characters. — In short pieces ^ to 2 in. in diameter, from 
which the central woody portion is usually removed. Kxtern- 
ally dull grey, twisted rib-liko or columnar ; odour faint; tasto 

Indian and Colonial Addendum. 463 

Composition. — Contains 10 per cent, of a resin turpethin, 
a glucoside, allied to convolvuline (pages 349, 350). The 
resin is only found in the stem. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. in powder. 

Tinctura Jalapse Composita. — Jalap, 8 ; Scammony, 2 ; Tur- 
peth, 1 ; Alcohol 60 per cent., 100. Dose, ^ to 1 dr. 


The same as those of Jalap {see page 349). 

TyloplioreB Folia. — Tylophora Leaves. 
(India, and Eastern Colonies.) The dried leaves of 
Tylophora asthmatica. N. O. Asclepiadaceae. 

Characters. — Petiolate, entire, 2 to 5 in. long, | to 1\ in. 
wide ; broad, ovate, abruptly acuminate, leathery ; upper 
surface glabrous, lower downy ; colour brownish-green ; odour 
aromatic ; tasteless. 

Composition. — Contains tylophorine, a crystalline alkaloid. 
Lose, ;| to 2 gr. as an expectorant ; 15 to 30 gr. as an emetic. 

Precisely the same as those of Ipecacuanha (page 318), 
Used with success in the treatment of dysentery. 

Urginea. — Indian Squill. (India, and Eastern 
Colonies.) The younger bulbs of Urginea indica and 
of Scilla indica, N.O. Liliacese, taken soon after the 
plant has flowered 

Characters. — Bulbs of Urginea indica are tunicated, con- 
sisting of fleshy coats, varying greatly in size ; colour whitish ; 
taste bitter and acrid. The bulbs of Scilla indica are not 
tunicated like an onion, but made up of thick, fleshy imbri- 
cated scales. 

Composition. — See Scilla (page 411). 


1. Acetum Urginese.— 2^ ; Diluted Acetic Acid, 20. Dose, 10 

to 30 min. 

2. Oxymel Urginese. — 2|; Acetic Acid, 2^ ; Water, 8; and 

Liquid Clarified Honey, 27. Dose, | to 1 fl. dr. 

3. Pilula Ipecacuanhse cum Urginea. — 1 ; Pulvis Ipecacuanha? 

Compositus, 3 ; Ammoniacum, 1 ; Syrup of Glucose q.s, 
(1 of Opium in 20). Dose, 4 to 8 gr. 

4. Pilula Urginese Composita. — It ; Ginger, 1 ; Ammoniacum, 

1 ; Hard Soap, 1 ; Syrup of Glucose, 1. Dose^ 4 to 8 gr. 

464 Indian and Colonial Addendum, 

5. Syrupus Urgineae.— Acetum Urginere, 20 oz. ; Refined 

Sugar, 38 oz. Base, ^ to 1 fl, dr. 

6. Tinctura Urgineae. — 1 in 5 of Alcohol 60 per cent. Bose^ 5 

to 15 niin. 

Precisely the same as those of Squill (page 412). 

Valeriaiise Iiidicae Rtiizoma. — Indian 
Valerian. Tagar. (India, and Eastern Colonies.) 
The dried rhizome and rootlets of Valeriana Walli- 
chii. N.O. Valerianacese. 

- Characters. — A dull brown crooked rhizome about 2 in. 
long and ^ to | in. diameter, with transverse ridges and 
circular prominent tubercles to which a few thick rootlets are 
attached. The crown has a number of bracts ; lower end is 
blunt ; odour characteristic. 

Composition. —QiQini?i\\\& a volatile oil consisting of valerianic 
and other organic acids {see page 324). 
Tinctura Valerianse Indicse Ammoniata. — 1 in 5. 4 oz. ; 
Oil of Nutmeg, 30 min. ; Oil of Lemon, 20 min. ; 
Solution of Ammonia, 2 oz, ; Alcohol 60 percent., 18 oz. 
Bose, ^ to 1 fl. dr. 

Precisely the same as those of Valerian (page 324). 

Viburnum. — Black Haw. (India, Eastern 
and North American Colonies.) The dried bark of 
Viburnum prunifolium. N.O. Caprifoliacese. 

Characters. — Thin pieces or narrow quills, glossy purplish- 
brown, with a few scattered warts and minute black dots ; when 
collected from old wood, covered with a greyish-brown periderm 
which is easily removed ; inner surface smooth, pale reddish 
yellow ; fracture short ; faint odour ; taste somewhat bitter. 

Composition. — Contains a glucoside vibnrnin, and valeriauie, 
tannic, oxalic, citric and gallic acids. A definite active prin- 
ciple has not as yet been isolated. 

Extractmn Vibumi Prunifolii Liquidum.— 1 in I of Alcohol 
70 per cent. Bose, 1 to 2 ft. dr. 


Black Haw is used as an astringent and a nervine tonic. 
It is most useful in dysmenorrhoea, monorrhagia, and uterine 


part 50. 



The terms Therapeutics and Treatment, although they 
may appear at first "sight too simple to call for analysis, in- 
clude four different notions. These we must study individually. 

1. Health. — The first notion involved in Treatment is 
a purely physiological one, the notion of health or the normal 
state, from which the organ has departed, and to which it 
has to be restored. Health is the result of a number of 
natural influences acting on the individual, namely, the in- 
trinsic conditions which he brought into the world with 
him, and the extrinsic circumstances around him. It is 
important for the therapeutist to appreciate that these cir- 
cumstances are continually varying, the temperature and 
other characters of the atmosphere, our food, in short our 
whole environment, being inconstant ; and that in correspon- 
dence with and in obedience to these, the physiological state 
of the body is not a constant quantity. We speak of a 
" normal " state, and call it " health," but the first essential 
of life and health is a capacity of accommodation or adjust- 
ment to varying circumstances. When a definite change is 
thus produced on an organ by a natural force or substance — 
mechanical strain, electricity, nervous influence, food, drugs 
— it is called the "physiological action" of the influence. 

2. Phaxmacodjrnamics : Physiological action. — The second 
elementary notion in the expression " treatment " is, that 
man possesses a power of interference with nature or natural 
Forces, that is with the conditions and circumstances of life ; 
md in this way is in a position to exercise a certain control 
Dver the health or physiological state of the individual. He 
;an alter the food we eat, the air we breathe, our clothing, 

466 What is Disease t 

our sources of heat. He may admit into our bodies sub- 
stances which he iinds in nature — mineral, vegetable, animal, 
or others that are altogether artificial. On the other hand, 
we may voluntarily shun or reject such substances, and avoid 
many influences, whether good or bad, around us. To express 
this control which we have over our organs in health, through 
the influences to which we subject them, we say we act upon 
them by such and such means, or that such and such a sub- 
stance has such and such physiological actions. This is the 
subject of Pharmacodynamics, or Pharm,acology in the modern 
acceptation of the term. 

3. Disease. — The conception of disease is also included 
in "treatment." When the influences round us become un- 
usual or extraordinary, they cause disturbance of the vital 
processes. If this be moderate, it is still included under 
the name of '• health ; " but if it be considerable, it is called 
disorder, disease, or a pathological process or state ; and the 
influences are said to be morbid, Tnorhific, or pathogenetic. 
Pathological action is but a modification of physiological 
action in response to new, extraordinary, or morbific influences 
around or within the patient. It is impossible to draw a line 
between health and disease, just as it is impossible to divide 
influences strictly into salutary or physiological, and morbific 
or pathogenetic. The pulse is accelerated by joy, by wine, by 
fever ; which of these conditions is health, which disease 7 
All that can be said is, that the change from the normal 
state is frequently so definite that we cannot reasonably call 
it " health ; " that we must find another name for it, and call 
it " disorder ; " and if it be more marked and attended by 
suffering we call it " disease." 

4. Recovery. — Successful treatment necessarily involves a 
power of recovery. The body possesses abundant provisions 
for preventing disease spontaneously, and for recovering from 
it without our assistance. This power of resisting, over- 
coming, and surviving morbific influences may be illustrated 
by a few instances. 

(1.) The provisions which the physiologist calls regulating 
mechanisms are regarded by the pathologist and therapeutist 
as natural methods of removing or counteracting the causes of 
disease, or of affording relief from it. The stomach rejects 
a meal if it be too large or unwholesome. The heart un- 
burthens itself of excessive peripheral resistance through the 
depressor mechanism. The body-heat is elaborately regulated 
by various nervous arrangements which prevent chill on the 
one hand and heat-stroke on the other band, and are con- 
cerned in fever. 

The Power of Recovery. 467 

(2.) The normal blood contains chemical and biological 
elements which maintain health, prevent disease, and provide 
ior vecovery hj protecti7tfji the body against micro-organisms 
and their products (immunity), or by actually destroying 
them (phagocytosis). 

(3.) When taxed by more than ordinary mechanical influ- 
ences like weight or increased resistance a/ronte, the volun- 
tary and involuntary muscles (such as the biceps and the 
\ieart) display more than ordinary activity by virtue of the 
reserve force which they possess, and so prevent injury or 
disease and counteract damage. Secreting organs and tha 
brain behave similarly. But for this provision of adaptation, 
every organ would break down as often as an extra demand 
was made upon it. 

(4.) Further, if this reserve force be constantly called 
into play by persistence or repetition of the increased 
stimulus, the increased activity gives rise to hypertrojphy of 
the organ, and what is known as compensation is the result. 
This great natural method of prevention or recovery is well 
seen in disease of the heart, and in enlargement of the one 
kidney when the other is disabled. 

(5.) In certain instances part of the work of a disabled 
organ is undertaken by another organ, which thus relieves it 
and the body as a whole. This is called vicarious action ; it 
is seen at work between the kidneys and the skin, and between 
the lungs and the heart. 

(6.) Nature has also various ways of relieving pain and 
other forms of distress spontaneously by means of automatic 
rest, cubitus, muscular rigidity, etc. 

(7.) Even when disease has led to anatomical change, the 
body possesses means of arresting haemorrhage, and of repair, 
of spontaTieous limitation of the affected area, and of revioval 
of tlie products and other effects. These provisions are 
associated with increased nutritive activity and frequently 
with the process of inflammation. 

Another important element of spontaneous recovery is the 
natural cessation if ma/ny morhid processes after either a 
definite or an indefinite course. This element is familiar in 
the eruptive fevers. 

These considerations teach us that just as our organs con- 
tinue normal in obedience to the laws under which they have 
reached their present form — health, so, if they have become 
disordered by morbific causes, they may return to the normal 
when the abnormal influences are removed, overcome or 
exhausted— recovery. 

Therapeutics. — We now can appreciate the four founda- 
tions of rational therapeutics : (I.) The organs act in 

468 Preventive and Remedial Treatment. 

obedience to natural influences in and around us ; (II.) 
disorder and disease are but piiysiological phenomena or 
anatomical results of the disturbing actions of the ordinary 
or extraordinary natural influences ; (III.) we possess a cer- 
tain control of these influences ; and (IV.) the functions of 
the organs, and it may be even their anatomical state, will 
return to the normal if the influences become normal. It 
follows (V.) that the art of therapeutics consists in con- 
trolling the natural forces which aflPect the human body 
injuriously or in counteracting or neutralising their actions 
and effects by other natural forces, until in either case nature 
returns to the normal. To effect this change is to treat dis- 
ease. It is with this meaning that we shall speak of rational 

1. Preventive treatment. — The science and art of pre- 
serving health are known as Hygiene, Sanitation, or Public 
Health. Manifestly this is founded on physiology. If we 
thoroughly understood physiology, and had unlimited power 
over the forces of nature, we might so preserve health that 
disease would be unknown. Unfortunately, we possess this 
knowledge and this power only in small measure, and hygiene 
is correspondingly imperfect ; but as far as it goes, hygiene 
renders therapeutics unnecessary. 

A second form of preventive treatment is prophylaxis. 
This is something more than simple hygiene, the preservation 
of health as it is : it recognises the causes of disease at work, 
and anticipates them. Prophylaxis is practised by avoiding 
pathogenetic influences or media, such as water poisoned 
by cholera or typhoid excreta, or by protecting ourselves 
actively, say by vaccination against small-pox, by taking 
quinine in a malarious country, or by drinking lemon-juice 
to prevent scurvy. 

2. Remedial treatment. — When hygiene and prophylaxis 
are powerless or cannot be employed, the case comes into 
tlie hands of the practitioner. The body is disordered or 
diseased ; now there is occasion for therapeutics, with a view 
to remedy or relief. This introduces us to our proper subject. 

{a) Attention to the cause. — When we meet with a case of 
disease which we have failed to prevent, we still try to deal 
with th^ cause, and thus restore the normal stat«. We 
remove a foreign body from the finger, or a poison or in- 
digestible meal from the stomach ; we neutralise an acid by 
an alkali ; we kill parasites. In doing so, we simply follow 
one of nature's methods. 

(h) Recuperative treatment. — Our next concern is to pro- 
mote recovery by controlling the patliological processes which 
have originated in the cause. These include the destructive 

Palliative Treatment, 469 

processes of degeneration, necrosis, ulceration, malignant 
growth, etc. ; the reconstructive processes of repair, hyper- 
trophy, etc. ; and the many associated elements of disease — 
some morbid, some regenerative, others partly both, such as 
inflammation. This is the most extensive and important 
province of therapeutics, and affords opportunities of employ- 
ing remedies of every kind. We order food ; and then we 
say tfae treatment is dietetic. We change the atmosphere ; 
and then we say the treatment is climatic. We may employ 
the chemical and other substances contained in the Pharma- 
copoeia ; then our treatment becomes medicinal. Or we may 
confine ourselves to surgical measures, or to electrical, 
balneological, or general treatment. 

(c) Falliatlve treatment. — There are few diseases in 
which we have not to attempt to neutralise or counteract 
their painful, debilitating, or otherwise distressing effects on 
the body. Knowing the physiological action of many 
different measures, we select such as act in an opposite 
direction to the morbid cause, and employ them to counteract 
it ; anaasthetics or analgesics to prevent or relieve pain, 
hypnotics to produce sleep, stomachics to restore digestion, 
and so on. Palliative treatment is manifestly much inferior 
to recuperative. We strike not at the cause of disease, nor 
at pathological processes, but only at their effects. Still, even 
this limited power may be of great value ; and it is often 
urgently demanded in order to relieve distress and depression 
or avert danger. Sometimes it is all that is required — we 
may have to treat only the effect that persists after the 
morbid process has ceased. This kind of treatment some- 
times is called sj mptomatic, and in certain circumstances 
expectant {cxpectare, to wMit), the principle of which is to 
wait, and attend to the general physiological needs of the 
patient, whilst the disease runs a limited course, as in 
typhoid fever. 

It is evident that we have in these different orders of 
treatment an enormous field for observation and application. 
If we could but find means, whether medicinal or not, to 
control each abnormal agent and condition to which the 
body is subject, we might defy disease. But here we are met 
by certain difficulties. Before we can hope to combat disease in 
this way, we must know : (1) all about disease and its causes, 
that is, we must have a perfect ajtiology and pathology ; and 
(2) all about the actions of therapeutical agents upon the 
body, that is, have a complete pharmacology. Unfortunately, 
all three are far from being complete sciences. And there 
are other limits to treatment — in structural chancres of the 

470 Rational and Empirical Treatment. 

body. If a lim"b be lost, we cannot restore it ; if the mitral 
valve be